DIESEL GENERATOR DETAILS

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DIESEL GENERATOR DETAILS

  1. 1. NTPCNTPC-- RamagundamRamagundam ByBy M.M. MuraliMurali MohanMohan DyDy.. SuptdSuptd (O)(O)
  2. 2. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator What is it ?What is it ? Why ?Why ? How ?How ? O & MO & M PartsParts FunctionsFunctions RSTPSRSTPS
  3. 3. Diesel's story actually begins with the invention ofDiesel's story actually begins with the invention of thethe Gasoline EngineGasoline Engine.. ““NikolausNikolaus August OttoAugust Otto”” had invented and patentedhad invented and patented thethe GGasolineasoline engine by 1876.engine by 1876. This invention used the fourThis invention used the four--stroke combustion principle,stroke combustion principle, also known as thealso known as the "Otto Cycle"Otto Cycle““.. In 1878,In 1878, ““Rudolf DieselRudolf Diesel”” learned about the low efficiency oflearned about the low efficiency of gasoline and steam engines.gasoline and steam engines. This disturbing information inspired him to create an engineThis disturbing information inspired him to create an engine with awith a higher efficiency, and he devoted much of his time tohigher efficiency, and he devoted much of his time to developing adeveloping a "Combustion Power Engine."Combustion Power Engine.““ By 1892By 1892 ““DieselDiesel”” had obtained ahad obtained a patentpatent for what we now callfor what we now call the diesel engine.the diesel engine. Conti….
  4. 4. 1892,1892, Rudolf DieselRudolf Diesel obtained a patent.obtained a patent. 1893,1893, ““DieselDiesel”” built his first workingbuilt his first working prototype.prototype. 1897,1897, ““AdolphusAdolphus BuschBusch”” licenses rights tolicenses rights to the Diesel Engine for the USA and Canada.the Diesel Engine for the USA and Canada. 1899, Diesel licensed his engine to1899, Diesel licensed his engine to buildersbuilders KruppKrupp andand SulzerSulzer, who quickly, who quickly became major manufacturers.became major manufacturers. Until 1910,Until 1910, MANMAN produced 82 copies of theproduced 82 copies of the stationary diesel engine.stationary diesel engine. 1919, First diesel engine from1919, First diesel engine from CumminsCummins.. The world's largest diesel engine is currentlyThe world's largest diesel engine is currently aa WWäärtsilrtsilää -- SulzerSulzer RTA96RTA96 -- CC of aboutof about 84,42084,420 kW.kW. Rudolf DieselRudolf Diesel A Diesel Engine builtA Diesel Engine built By MANBy MAN –– AG in 1906AG in 1906
  5. 5. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– What is it ?What is it ? AA Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator is the combination of ais the combination of a dieseldiesel engineengine with anwith an electric generatorelectric generator (often called as(often called as alternatoralternator) to generate Electrical energy.) to generate Electrical energy.
  6. 6. Diesel generator sets are used in places without connectionDiesel generator sets are used in places without connection to theto the power gridpower grid, as, as emergency power supplyemergency power supply if the gridif the grid fails, as well as forfails, as well as for more complex applications such asmore complex applications such as peakpeak--lopping, grid support and export to the power grid.lopping, grid support and export to the power grid. Specific Requirements:Specific Requirements: Lighting:Lighting: Egress lighting for evacuation, illuminated exitEgress lighting for evacuation, illuminated exit signs, security lighting, warning lights, operating roomsigns, security lighting, warning lights, operating room lighting, elevator car lighting etc.lighting, elevator car lighting etc. Control Power:Control Power: Critical drives like oil pumps forCritical drives like oil pumps for Generators, Turbines. Boiler and air compressors etc.Generators, Turbines. Boiler and air compressors etc. Transportation:Transportation: Marine & Elevators for fire Dept use.Marine & Elevators for fire Dept use. Mechanical Systems:Mechanical Systems: Smoke control and pressurizationSmoke control and pressurization fans, waste water treatment, etc.fans, waste water treatment, etc. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Why ?Why ? Conti….
  7. 7. Heating:Heating: Critical process heat.Critical process heat. Refrigeration:Refrigeration: Blood banks, Food storage, etc.Blood banks, Food storage, etc. Production:Production: Critical process power for Laboratories,Critical process power for Laboratories, Pharmaceutical production processes, etc.Pharmaceutical production processes, etc. Space Conditioning:Space Conditioning: Cooling for computer equipment rooms,Cooling for computer equipment rooms, cooling and heating for vulnerable people, ventilation ofcooling and heating for vulnerable people, ventilation of hazardous atmospheres, ventilation of pollutants or biologicalhazardous atmospheres, ventilation of pollutants or biological contamination, etc.contamination, etc. Fire Protection:Fire Protection: Fire pumps and jockey pumps etc.Fire pumps and jockey pumps etc. Data Processing:Data Processing: UPS and cooling to prevent data loss, memoryUPS and cooling to prevent data loss, memory loss, Program corruption.loss, Program corruption. Life Support:Life Support: Hospitals, Nursing homes, and other Health careHospitals, Nursing homes, and other Health care facilities.facilities. Communications Systems:Communications Systems: Police and Fire stations, HiPolice and Fire stations, Hi--riserise building PA systems, etc.building PA systems, etc. Signal Systems:Signal Systems: Rail, Road, Ship and Air traffic control.Rail, Road, Ship and Air traffic control.
  8. 8. The Diesel Engine works onThe Diesel Engine works on ““CompressionCompression IgnitionIgnition””.. More specifically, the combustionMore specifically, the combustion process in the diesel engine is initiated byprocess in the diesel engine is initiated by spontaneous ignition of the fuel when it is injectedspontaneous ignition of the fuel when it is injected into a highly compressed charge of air, which hasinto a highly compressed charge of air, which has reached approximatelyreached approximately 750750 00CC.. Heat engine:Heat engine: An engine that converts the potentialAn engine that converts the potential heat energy of a combustibleheat energy of a combustible fuel into mechanicalfuel into mechanical workwork. The diesel engine is a heat engine that. The diesel engine is a heat engine that functions by converting the heat energy of dieselfunctions by converting the heat energy of diesel fuel into mechanical work.fuel into mechanical work. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– How it works ?How it works ? Conti….
  9. 9. Internal Combustion Engine:Internal Combustion Engine: A Heat engine in which theA Heat engine in which the combustion of fuel is contained within a cylinder.combustion of fuel is contained within a cylinder. Diesel Engine:Diesel Engine: An internal combustion engine in which theAn internal combustion engine in which the cylinder fuel air charge is ignited by the heat ofcylinder fuel air charge is ignited by the heat of compression.compression. Piston:Piston: The piston of anThe piston of an IInnternal Combustion Engineternal Combustion Engine isis acted upon by the pressure of the expanding combustionacted upon by the pressure of the expanding combustion gases in thegases in the combustion chambercombustion chamber space at the top of thespace at the top of the cylinder. This force then acts downwards throughcylinder. This force then acts downwards through thethe connecting rodconnecting rod and onto theand onto the crankshaftcrankshaft.. Conti….
  10. 10. Top dead center (TDC):Top dead center (TDC): The uppermost point of theThe uppermost point of the piston travel in an engine cylinder.piston travel in an engine cylinder. Bottom dead center (BDC):Bottom dead center (BDC): The lowest point ofThe lowest point of piston travel in the engine cylinder.piston travel in the engine cylinder. Bore:Bore: The diameter of a cylinder. Bore is expressedThe diameter of a cylinder. Bore is expressed as the piston sectional area over which cylinderas the piston sectional area over which cylinder pressures act.pressures act. Compression ratio:Compression ratio: A measure of the cylinderA measure of the cylinder volume when the piston is atvolume when the piston is at BDCBDC versus theversus the cylinder volume when the piston is atcylinder volume when the piston is at TDCTDC.. Compression ratios in diesel engines fall betweenCompression ratios in diesel engines fall between 14:1 and 24:1.14:1 and 24:1. Conti….
  11. 11. Bore & StrokeBore & Stroke Compression RatioCompression Ratio –– 17:117:1 Conti….
  12. 12. Stroke:Stroke: The distance through which a piston travels fromThe distance through which a piston travels from BDC to TDC.BDC to TDC. Swept volume:Swept volume: The volume displaced by the piston in theThe volume displaced by the piston in the cylinder as it moves from BDC to TDC. It can be calculatedcylinder as it moves from BDC to TDC. It can be calculated if both stroke and bore are known.if both stroke and bore are known. Engine displacement:Engine displacement: The swept volumeThe swept volume of all the engineof all the engine cylinders expressed in Cubic inches or Cubic cm or Liters.cylinders expressed in Cubic inches or Cubic cm or Liters. Displacement:Displacement: Bore X Bore X Stroke X 0.7854 X NumberBore X Bore X Stroke X 0.7854 X Number of cylinders.of cylinders. Engine displacement calculation dataEngine displacement calculation data For 6For 6 -- cylinder engine, bore 126 mm, stroke 166 mm.cylinder engine, bore 126 mm, stroke 166 mm. Engine displacementEngine displacement isis 126 X 126 X 166 X 0.7854 X 6 =126 X 126 X 166 X 0.7854 X 6 = 12,419,134 cubic mm12,419,134 cubic mm OROR 12.4 liters.12.4 liters. 1 Liter = 60.010 Cubic inches1 Liter = 60.010 Cubic inches
  13. 13. Diesel Engine is mainly works onDiesel Engine is mainly works on below strokesbelow strokes.. 1) Suction Stroke:1) Suction Stroke:-- In this stroke, the pistonIn this stroke, the piston moves downmoves down from thefrom the top dead centre. As a result, inlet valve opens andtop dead centre. As a result, inlet valve opens and air is drawnair is drawn into the cylinder.into the cylinder. Conti…. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– How it works ?How it works ? After sufficient quantity of airAfter sufficient quantity of air with pressure is drawn, suctionwith pressure is drawn, suction valve closes at the end of thevalve closes at the end of the stroke. The exhaust valvestroke. The exhaust valve remains closed during thisremains closed during this stroke.stroke.
  14. 14. 2) Compression Stroke:2) Compression Stroke:-- In this stroke, pistonIn this stroke, piston moves upmoves up from the bottom deadfrom the bottom dead centre. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valvecentre. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valve are closed.are closed. The air drawn into the cylinder during suction stroke, isThe air drawn into the cylinder during suction stroke, is entrapped inside the cylinder and compressed due toentrapped inside the cylinder and compressed due to upward movement of the piston.upward movement of the piston. Conti…. In diesel engine, the compressionIn diesel engine, the compression ratio used is very high as a result, theratio used is very high as a result, the air is finally compressed to a veryair is finally compressed to a very high pressure up tohigh pressure up to 40 kg/cm40 kg/cm22 ,, at thisat this pressure, the temp of the air ispressure, the temp of the air is reached to very high which is enoughreached to very high which is enough to ignite the fuel.to ignite the fuel.
  15. 15. 3) Constant Pressure Stroke:3) Constant Pressure Stroke:-- In this stroke, the fuel is injected into the hotIn this stroke, the fuel is injected into the hot compressed air where it starts burning, maintainingcompressed air where it starts burning, maintaining the pressure constant.the pressure constant. Conti…. When the pistonWhen the piston moves to its topmoves to its top dead centre, the supply of fuel is cutdead centre, the supply of fuel is cut-- off. It is to be said that the fuel isoff. It is to be said that the fuel is injected at the end of compressioninjected at the end of compression stroke and injection continues till thestroke and injection continues till the point of cutpoint of cut--off, but in actualoff, but in actual practice, the ignition starts before thepractice, the ignition starts before the end of compression stroke to takeend of compression stroke to take care of ignition tag.care of ignition tag.
  16. 16. Working or Power Stroke:Working or Power Stroke:-- In this stroke, both inlet and exhaust valve remainIn this stroke, both inlet and exhaust valve remain closed. The hot gases (which are produced due toclosed. The hot gases (which are produced due to ignition of fuel during compression stroke) andignition of fuel during compression stroke) and compressed air now expand adiabatically, in thecompressed air now expand adiabatically, in the cylinder pushing the piston down and hence work iscylinder pushing the piston down and hence work is done.done. At the end of stroke, the piston finally reaches theAt the end of stroke, the piston finally reaches the bottom dead centre.bottom dead centre. Conti…. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Working PrincipleWorking Principle
  17. 17. 4) Exhaust Stroke:4) Exhaust Stroke:-- In this stroke, theIn this stroke, the piston again moves upwardpiston again moves upward. The. The exhaust valve opens, while inlet and fuel valve areexhaust valve opens, while inlet and fuel valve are closed.closed. A greater part of the burnt fuel gases escape due toA greater part of the burnt fuel gases escape due to their own expansion. The upward movement of thetheir own expansion. The upward movement of the piston pushes the remaining gases out through thepiston pushes the remaining gases out through the open exhaust valve.open exhaust valve. Conti…. Only a small quantity of exhaust gasesOnly a small quantity of exhaust gases stay in the combustion chamber. Atstay in the combustion chamber. At the end of exhaust stroke, the exhaustthe end of exhaust stroke, the exhaust valve closes and the cycle is thusvalve closes and the cycle is thus completed.completed.
  18. 18. Diesel Generator working principleDiesel Generator working principle Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– 44 -- StrokesStrokes IntakeIntake CompressionCompression PowerPower ExhaustExhaust Conti…. Connecting rodConnecting rod PistonPiston CrankshaftCrankshaft
  19. 19. Parts of EngineParts of Engine -- DetailedDetailed Conti….
  20. 20. Diesel engines require theDiesel engines require the fourfour things to run;things to run; fuel,fuel, air, ignition, and compression.air, ignition, and compression. Diesel engines use high cylinder compression toDiesel engines use high cylinder compression to press the mixture of fuel and air into as small of anpress the mixture of fuel and air into as small of an area as possible.area as possible. This compression causes heat in the cylinder, whichThis compression causes heat in the cylinder, which causes thecauses the fuel to ignitefuel to ignite and push the piston backand push the piston back down, causing the crankshaft, facilitating the easydown, causing the crankshaft, facilitating the easy transfer of the motion produced by the diesel enginetransfer of the motion produced by the diesel engine to the magnets of the generator assembly.to the magnets of the generator assembly. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Overall functionOverall function
  21. 21. The main components of an Diesel Generator canThe main components of an Diesel Generator can be broadly classified as:be broadly classified as: (1)(1) Engine.Engine. (2)(2) Alternator.Alternator. (3)(3) Fuel System.Fuel System. (4)(4) Governor.Governor. (5)(5) Voltage Regulator.Voltage Regulator. (6)(6) Cooling and Exhaust Systems.Cooling and Exhaust Systems. (7)(7) Lubrication System.Lubrication System. (8)(8) Battery and Battery Charger.Battery and Battery Charger. (9)(9) Control Panel (Automatic Mains Failure panel).Control Panel (Automatic Mains Failure panel). (10)(10) Fly wheel.Fly wheel. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Its partsIts parts
  22. 22. Starter Motor
  23. 23. NTPCNTPC--RamagundamRamagundam DG Set detailsDG Set details SpecificationSpecification StageStage -- II StageStage -- IIII StageStage -- IIIIII Engine makeEngine make KirloskarKirloskar Cummins Ltd.Cummins Ltd. KirloskarKirloskar Cummins Ltd.Cummins Ltd. Cummins IndiaCummins India Ltd.Ltd. TypeType KTAKTA –– 2300 G2300 G KTAKTA –– 2300 G2300 G KTAKTA--5050--G8G8--II KK –– Engine SeriesEngine Series TT –– Turbo ChargedTurbo Charged AA –– After CooledAfter Cooled 23002300 –– Displacement in Cubic Inch.Displacement in Cubic Inch. GG ––Engine for Generator ApplicationEngine for Generator Application KTAKTA -- 5050 -- G8G8 -- II 5050 –– Displacement in litersDisplacement in liters 1 Liter = 60.010 Cubic inches1 Liter = 60.010 Cubic inches Engine ratingEngine rating 890 BHP890 BHP 890 BHP890 BHP 1735 BHP1735 BHP RPMRPM 1500 RPM1500 RPM 1500 RPM1500 RPM 1500 RPM1500 RPM No. of CylindersNo. of Cylinders 12, 6012, 6000 VeeVee 12, 6012, 6000 VeeVee 16, 6016, 6000 VeeVee Conti….12, 6012, 6000 VeeVee
  24. 24. SpecificationSpecification StageStage -- II StageStage -- IIII StageStage -- IIIIII Method ofMethod of startingstarting 24 V DC24 V DC 24 V DC24 V DC 24 V DC24 V DC Time requiredTime required for starting fromfor starting from coldcold 30 sec30 sec 30 sec30 sec 30 sec30 sec Interval betweenInterval between starting impulsestarting impulse 10 sec10 sec 10 sec10 sec 10 sec10 sec No. of startingNo. of starting impulsesimpulses 33 33 Type ofType of GovernorGovernor Woodward hydraulic PSG withWoodward hydraulic PSG with motorized headmotorized head (EFC) Electronic(EFC) Electronic fuel control / A1fuel control / A1 GuaranteedGuaranteed limits oflimits of GoverningGoverning As per classAs per class ––A1 Governing limitsA1 Governing limits of BS 649/1958of BS 649/1958 (+/(+/-- 4.5%)4.5%) As per classAs per class ––A1A1 of BS 5514of BS 5514 Engine SpeedEngine Speed withinwithin ±±1% for1% for any steady stateany steady state load from noload from no load to full loadload to full load Full load thrownFull load thrown offoff -- DoDo -- Full load put onFull load put on -- DoDo --
  25. 25. SpecificationSpecification StageStage -- II StageStage -- IIII StageStage -- IIIIII Guaranteed fuelGuaranteed fuel consumptionconsumption At full loadAt full load 158 lit / hr158 lit / hr (150(150 grgr /BHP/hr)/BHP/hr) (150 * 890 / 1000 * 0.84 = 158 lit/hr)(150 * 890 / 1000 * 0.84 = 158 lit/hr) (0.84 = Sp. Gravity of diesel)(0.84 = Sp. Gravity of diesel) 310 lit / hr310 lit / hr Lubrication oilLubrication oil consumptionconsumption 0.534 lit / hr0.534 lit / hr 0.35 lit / hr0.35 lit / hr Method ofMethod of aspirationaspiration Turbo charged after cooledTurbo charged after cooled Method ofMethod of cooling of enginecooling of engine Radiator cooled EngineRadiator cooled Engine Method ofMethod of cooling ofcooling of lubricating oillubricating oil Water cooledWater cooled Air filter cumAir filter cum silencersilencer Dry type with replaceable paper elementDry type with replaceable paper element Diesel storageDiesel storage tank capacitytank capacity 990 liters990 liters Turbo charged after cooledTurbo charged after cooled
  26. 26. 606000 -- ‘‘VeeVee’’ EngineEngine AA ’’VV’’ oror ’’VeeVee’’ engineengine is a commonis a common configurationconfiguration forfor anan internal combustion engineinternal combustion engine.. TheThe cylinderscylinders andand pistonspistons are aligned, in twoare aligned, in two separate planes or 'banks', so that they appear to beseparate planes or 'banks', so that they appear to be in ain a "V""V" when viewed along the axis ofwhen viewed along the axis of thethe crankshaftcrankshaft.. TheThe ‘‘VeeVee’’ configuration generally reduces theconfiguration generally reduces the overall engine length, height and weight comparedoverall engine length, height and weight compared to an equivalentto an equivalent inlineinline configuration.configuration. The most efficient cylinder bank angle for aThe most efficient cylinder bank angle for a ‘‘VV’’ engine is 60engine is 6000, for minimizing size and vibration., for minimizing size and vibration.
  27. 27. What is Turbo Charged after cooledWhat is Turbo Charged after cooled The purpose of a turbochargerThe purpose of a turbocharger is to compress the airis to compress the air flowing into the diesel engine,flowing into the diesel engine, this lets the engine squeezethis lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder and more air means that more fuelmore air into a cylinder and more air means that more fuel can be added.can be added. The engine burns air and fuel to create mechanical power,The engine burns air and fuel to create mechanical power, the more air and fuel it can burn the more powerful it is.the more air and fuel it can burn the more powerful it is. In simple terms, a turbocharger comprises of a turbine andIn simple terms, a turbocharger comprises of a turbine and a compressor connected by a common shaft supported on aa compressor connected by a common shaft supported on a bearing system.bearing system. The turbocharger convertsThe turbocharger converts waste energywaste energy from an engine'sfrom an engine's exhaust gases into compressed air, which it pushes into theexhaust gases into compressed air, which it pushes into the engine.engine. Conti….
  28. 28. This allows the engine to burn more fuel producingThis allows the engine to burn more fuel producing more power and improve themore power and improve the overall efficiencyoverall efficiency of theof the combustion process.combustion process. AnAn IntercoolerIntercooler removes the heat of compressionremoves the heat of compression between the stages of a compressor whereas anbetween the stages of a compressor whereas an afterafter coolercooler reduces the temperature of the air leaving thereduces the temperature of the air leaving the compressor.compressor. Delivering cold air means that there isDelivering cold air means that there is more oxygenmore oxygen per cylinder thus more engine power.per cylinder thus more engine power.
  29. 29. 1)1) Engine:Engine: The engine is the source of theThe engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to theinput mechanical energy to the generator.generator. The size of the engine isThe size of the engine is directly proportional to thedirectly proportional to the maximum power output of themaximum power output of the generator can supply.generator can supply. There are several factors thatThere are several factors that you need to keep in mindyou need to keep in mind while assessing the engine ofwhile assessing the engine of your generator.your generator. DG SetDG Set –– Function of partsFunction of parts Conti….
  30. 30. The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keepThe fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational forthe generator operational for 6 to 8 hours6 to 8 hours.. Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine:Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine:–– The supplyThe supply line directs fuel from the tank to the engine and theline directs fuel from the tank to the engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank.return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank. Ventilation pipe for fuel tank:Ventilation pipe for fuel tank:–– The fuel tank has aThe fuel tank has a ventilation pipe to prevent the buildventilation pipe to prevent the build--up of pressure orup of pressure or vacuum during refilling and drainage of the tank.vacuum during refilling and drainage of the tank. Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter:Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter:–– This separatesThis separates water and foreign matter from the liquid fuel towater and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the engine from corrosionprotect other components of the engine from corrosion and contamination.and contamination. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Fuel systemFuel system Conti….
  31. 31. Fuel Injector:Fuel Injector:–– This atomizes the liquid fuel andThis atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required amount of fuel into thesprays the required amount of fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine.combustion chamber of the engine. Fuel return lines take the hot excess fuel not usedFuel return lines take the hot excess fuel not used in the engine cycle a way from the injectors andin the engine cycle a way from the injectors and back to fuel storage tank. The heat from the excessback to fuel storage tank. The heat from the excess fuel is dissipated in the tank.fuel is dissipated in the tank. Caution:Caution: Never run a fuel return line directly backNever run a fuel return line directly back to the engine fuel supply lines. The fuel willto the engine fuel supply lines. The fuel will overheat and break down.overheat and break down. The fuel return lines should always enter theThe fuel return lines should always enter the storage tank above the highest fuel level.storage tank above the highest fuel level.
  32. 32. DIESEL TANK (StageDIESEL TANK (Stage –– I)I) DIESEL FILTERSDIESEL FILTERS
  33. 33. PT (PressurePT (Pressure –– Time), self adjusting direct injectionTime), self adjusting direct injection type fuel pump is provided for fuel supply.type fuel pump is provided for fuel supply. Clean fuel filterClean fuel filter –– 100 mmHg, Choked fuel filter100 mmHg, Choked fuel filter –– 203 mmHg203 mmHg.. Oil InjectorOil Injector PT Fuel pumpPT Fuel pump BowlBowl Drain valveDrain valve FloatFloat Ball checkBall check Oil InjectionOil Injection
  34. 34. Combustion Air Intake systemCombustion Air Intake system Air for engine combustion must be clean.Air for engine combustion must be clean. Normally this air can be drawn from the area surroundingNormally this air can be drawn from the area surrounding the generating set via the engine mounted air filter.the generating set via the engine mounted air filter. Clean filter = 250Clean filter = 250 mmwclmmwcl,, Choked filter = 500Choked filter = 500 mmwclmmwcl Dry type replaceable paper element air cleaner withDry type replaceable paper element air cleaner with Restriction IndicatorRestriction Indicator
  35. 35. Mechanical Governors:Mechanical Governors:–– AAs the name suggests,s the name suggests, controls engine fueling based on mechanicalcontrols engine fueling based on mechanical sensing of engine RPM through flyweights orsensing of engine RPM through flyweights or similar mechanisms.similar mechanisms. These systems exhibit aboutThese systems exhibit about 33--5% speed droop5% speed droop from no load to full load inherent in the design.from no load to full load inherent in the design. This type of system is generally the leastThis type of system is generally the least expensive and is suitable for applications whereexpensive and is suitable for applications where the frequency droop is not a problem for the loadsthe frequency droop is not a problem for the loads being served.being served. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– GovernorGovernor Conti….
  36. 36. The Woodward PSG governor is aThe Woodward PSG governor is a speed droop governor for controllingspeed droop governor for controlling speed of small diesel, gas, andspeed of small diesel, gas, and gasoline engines, or small steam orgasoline engines, or small steam or industrial gas turbines.industrial gas turbines. The governor is used to controlThe governor is used to control engines or turbines drivingengines or turbines driving alternators, DC generators, pumps, oralternators, DC generators, pumps, or compressors.compressors. Pressure compensation provides thePressure compensation provides the PSG governor with the necessaryPSG governor with the necessary stability to control isochronously.stability to control isochronously. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Woodward PSG GovernorWoodward PSG Governor Conti….
  37. 37. Electronic Governors :Electronic Governors :–– Electronic governors are used forElectronic governors are used for applications where isochronous (zero droop) governing isapplications where isochronous (zero droop) governing is required or where active synchronizing and parallelingrequired or where active synchronizing and paralleling equipment is specified.equipment is specified. EFC Governor is used on PT fuel system. The governorEFC Governor is used on PT fuel system. The governor contains a magnetic pick up, actuator mounted in housing.contains a magnetic pick up, actuator mounted in housing. The magnetic pick up senses the engine speed at theThe magnetic pick up senses the engine speed at the flywheel ring gear and generates an AC voltage with itsflywheel ring gear and generates an AC voltage with its frequency proportional to the engine speed.frequency proportional to the engine speed. Signal from magnetic pick up is sensed by a governorSignal from magnetic pick up is sensed by a governor controller and is used as a speed feed back.controller and is used as a speed feed back. The actuator mounted in the housing is used to control theThe actuator mounted in the housing is used to control the fuel flow from the fuel pump to the injectors.fuel flow from the fuel pump to the injectors. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– GovernorGovernor Conti….
  38. 38. Actuator valve is normally closed. It opens depending onActuator valve is normally closed. It opens depending on the amount of current through the actuator.the amount of current through the actuator. The governor controller compares the electrical signal fromThe governor controller compares the electrical signal from the magnetic pickup with a preset speed reference point.the magnetic pickup with a preset speed reference point. If there is a difference in the two signals, the controllerIf there is a difference in the two signals, the controller will change the current to the actuator.will change the current to the actuator. This advanced governing system can be retrofitted enginesThis advanced governing system can be retrofitted engines with hydraulic governors.with hydraulic governors. A change in current in the actuator coil will make theA change in current in the actuator coil will make the actuator shaft rotate. The fuel flow and the engine speed oractuator shaft rotate. The fuel flow and the engine speed or power will change, when the actuator shaft rotates.power will change, when the actuator shaft rotates. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– EFC GovernorEFC Governor
  39. 39. Features:Features:-- Accurate speed sensing & PID control achieves steady stateAccurate speed sensing & PID control achieves steady state speed stability of +/speed stability of +/--0.25 % at any constant load.0.25 % at any constant load. A1 class governing with transient response of 15A1 class governing with transient response of 15 msecmsec.. Both isochronous & droop governing are possible.Both isochronous & droop governing are possible. Solid state potentiometer is available for faster synchronizingSolid state potentiometer is available for faster synchronizing & load sharing functions.& load sharing functions.
  40. 40. Governing oilGoverning oil Dip stickDip stick Cable fromCable from Over speed pickupOver speed pickup Over speedOver speed solenoidsolenoid Fuel lineFuel line Fuel Return lineFuel Return line Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– GovernorGovernor PT type fuelPT type fuel pumppump Woodward PSGWoodward PSG GovernorGovernor
  41. 41. Continuous usage of the generator causes itsContinuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. It isvarious components to get heated up. It is essential to have a cooling and ventilation systemessential to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat produced in the process.to withdraw heat produced in the process. LiquidLiquid--cooled engines are cooled by pumping acooled engines are cooled by pumping a coolant mixture through passages in the enginecoolant mixture through passages in the engine cylinder block and head(s) by means of an enginecylinder block and head(s) by means of an engine-- driven pump.driven pump. The Generator set configuration has a mountedThe Generator set configuration has a mounted radiator and an engineradiator and an engine--driven fandriven fan to cool theto cool the coolant and ventilate the generator room.coolant and ventilate the generator room. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Cooling systemCooling system Conti….
  42. 42. Water for coolant should be clean and free fromWater for coolant should be clean and free from any corrosive chemicals such as chlorides,any corrosive chemicals such as chlorides, sulphates and acids. It should be kept slightlysulphates and acids. It should be kept slightly alkaline with a pH value in the rangealkaline with a pH value in the range 8.5 to 10.5.8.5 to 10.5. Mixtures of eitherMixtures of either ethyleneethylene -- or propyleneor propylene--glycolglycol and highand high--quality water shall be used for properquality water shall be used for proper cooling and freeze / boil protection.cooling and freeze / boil protection. Coolant should be replaced after 6000 hrs ofCoolant should be replaced after 6000 hrs of operation or after Two years.operation or after Two years. Conti…. CoolantCoolant Level InspectionLevel Inspection CapCap
  43. 43. Stand by Generator sets may be required to startStand by Generator sets may be required to start and come in service in 10 sec or lessand come in service in 10 sec or less.. These engines are equipped with engine coolantThese engines are equipped with engine coolant heaters capable of maintaining coolantheaters capable of maintaining coolant temperature at atemperature at a minimum of 38minimum of 3800C.C. Grill type of ventilationGrill type of ventilation is provided for properis provided for proper exhaustexhaust
  44. 44. Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just likeExhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like exhaust from any other diesel or gasoline engineexhaust from any other diesel or gasoline engine and contain highly toxic chemicals that need to beand contain highly toxic chemicals that need to be properly managed.properly managed. Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engineExhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine usingusing flexible connectors to minimize vibrationsflexible connectors to minimize vibrations and prevent damage to the generatorand prevent damage to the generator’’s exhausts exhaust system.system. An outdoor weather protective housing suppliedAn outdoor weather protective housing supplied by a generator set manufacturer usually will haveby a generator set manufacturer usually will have variousvarious ““mufflermuffler”” options and usually with theoptions and usually with the muffler mounted on the roof.muffler mounted on the roof. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Exhaust systemExhaust system
  45. 45. Typical exhaust systemTypical exhaust system
  46. 46. The lubricating oil used in a engine must beThe lubricating oil used in a engine must be multifunctional. It will perform the following.multifunctional. It will perform the following. Lubrication by providing a film between theLubrication by providing a film between the moving parts to reduce wear and friction.moving parts to reduce wear and friction. Cooling by serving as a heat transfer media toCooling by serving as a heat transfer media to carry heat away from critical areas.carry heat away from critical areas. Sealing by filling in the uneven surfaces in theSealing by filling in the uneven surfaces in the cylinder wall, valve stems and turbo charger oilcylinder wall, valve stems and turbo charger oil seals.seals. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Lubrication systemLubrication system Conti….
  47. 47. Cleaning by holding contaminants in suspension toCleaning by holding contaminants in suspension to prevent a build up of deposits on the engine surfaces.prevent a build up of deposits on the engine surfaces. Dampening and cushioning of components thatDampening and cushioning of components that operate under high stress, such as gears and pushoperate under high stress, such as gears and push tubestubes Protection from oxidation and corrosion.Protection from oxidation and corrosion. Lube Oil FiltersLube Oil Filters Lube Oil By pass FiltersLube Oil By pass Filters
  48. 48. Large capacity gear pump provides pressureLarge capacity gear pump provides pressure lubrication to all bearing and oil supply for pistonlubrication to all bearing and oil supply for piston cooling.cooling. All pressure lines are internal drilled passages inAll pressure lines are internal drilled passages in cylinder block and heads.cylinder block and heads. Oil cooler, full flow filters and by pass filtersOil cooler, full flow filters and by pass filters maintain oil quality.maintain oil quality.
  49. 49. Priming PumpPriming Pump Lube oil SumpLube oil Sump Lube oil levelLube oil level Checking dip stickChecking dip stick Priming PumpPriming Pump DischargeDischarge Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Lubrication systemLubrication system
  50. 50. Starter Motor:Starter Motor:-- The starter motor is a necessity for internalThe starter motor is a necessity for internal--combustioncombustion engines, because theengines, because the Otto cycle requiresOtto cycle requires the pistons alreadythe pistons already to be in motion before the ignition phase of the cycle.to be in motion before the ignition phase of the cycle. This means that the engine must be started in motion by anThis means that the engine must be started in motion by an outside force, before it can power itself.outside force, before it can power itself. TheThe batterybattery is used for the starter motor.is used for the starter motor. If you remove the battery while the engine is running, theIf you remove the battery while the engine is running, the engine continues to run.engine continues to run. Once the diesel engine is started it will run until you stopOnce the diesel engine is started it will run until you stop the fuel flow or block off the air intake.the fuel flow or block off the air intake. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Battery and ChargerBattery and Charger
  51. 51. Battery starting systems for generator sets areBattery starting systems for generator sets are usuallyusually 24 volts24 volts.. Batteries must have enough capacityBatteries must have enough capacity (CCA, Cold(CCA, Cold Cranking Amps)Cranking Amps) to provide the cranking motorto provide the cranking motor current.current. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Battery and ChargerBattery and Charger 24V Battery
  52. 52. The starter motor converts electrical energy to mechanicalThe starter motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.energy. It is mounted on the cylinder block in a position to engage aIt is mounted on the cylinder block in a position to engage a ring gear on the engine flywheel.ring gear on the engine flywheel. The starter motor is powered by the battery. It is designed toThe starter motor is powered by the battery. It is designed to have high turning effort at low speeds.have high turning effort at low speeds. During engine cranking excessive current draw will lead toDuring engine cranking excessive current draw will lead to the cables becoming hot and a drop in battery voltage.the cables becoming hot and a drop in battery voltage. Staring Motor (24V, 11 KW)Staring Motor (24V, 11 KW)
  53. 53. Battery sizing requirementsBattery sizing requirements Engine Manufacturer &Engine Manufacturer & Model.Model. Cubic Inch displacementCubic Inch displacement of Engine.of Engine. Battery System Voltage.Battery System Voltage. Min Battery electrolyteMin Battery electrolyte temperature.temperature. Number of 10 secondNumber of 10 second cranking cycles.cranking cycles. The following information is required for sizing of the batteryThe following information is required for sizing of the battery
  54. 54. Fly wheelFly wheel TheThe flywheelflywheel is located on one end of the crankshaftis located on one end of the crankshaft and servesand serves threethree purposes.purposes. First,First, through its inertia, it reduces vibrations bythrough its inertia, it reduces vibrations by smoothing out the power stroke as each cylindersmoothing out the power stroke as each cylinder fires.fires. •• Second,Second, it is the mounting surfaceit is the mounting surface used to bolt the engine up to itsused to bolt the engine up to its load.load. •• Third,Third, on some diesels, the flyon some diesels, the fly wheel has gear teeth around itswheel has gear teeth around its perimeter that allow the startingperimeter that allow the starting motors to engage and crank themotors to engage and crank the diesel.diesel.
  55. 55. A turbocharger makes use ofA turbocharger makes use of rejected heat by compressingrejected heat by compressing the intake air forced into thethe intake air forced into the engine cylinders, therebyengine cylinders, thereby increasing the thermalincreasing the thermal efficiency of the engine.efficiency of the engine. The potential energy of theThe potential energy of the fuel (100%) is released in afuel (100%) is released in a typical diesel engine:typical diesel engine: 33%33% is converted into usefulis converted into useful mechanical energy deliveredmechanical energy delivered to the fly wheel.to the fly wheel. The rejected heat isThe rejected heat is dispersed as radiated heatdispersed as radiated heat (7%) to engine coolant (30%),(7%) to engine coolant (30%), and into the exhaust (30%).and into the exhaust (30%). How the potential energy of dieselHow the potential energy of diesel fuel is released in a diesel engine.fuel is released in a diesel engine.
  56. 56. ALTERNATORALTERNATOR MakeMake JyothiJyothi LtdLtd NGEF LtdNGEF Ltd StomfordStomford. UK. UK ModelModel ---- ------ PI734C2PI734C2 Rated KVARated KVA 625 KVA625 KVA 750 KVA750 KVA 1500 KVA1500 KVA Rated TerminalRated Terminal voltagevoltage 415 V415 V Rated over loadRated over load capacitycapacity 110% for 1 Hr. in every 12 Hrs110% for 1 Hr. in every 12 Hrs Excitation PowerExcitation Power ratingrating 38V, 169A38V, 169A 2.6A, 57VDC2.6A, 57VDC 10.3 KVA10.3 KVA Type of exciterType of exciter With brushesWith brushes and slip ringsand slip rings BrushlessBrushless BrushlessBrushless Type of voltageType of voltage regulatorregulator Manual voltageManual voltage regulatorregulator AutomaticAutomatic AutomaticAutomatic Conti…. P=Power Generation,P=Power Generation, I= Industrial,I= Industrial, 7= Frame size,7= Frame size, 3= Excitation system3= Excitation system (series(series--3),3), 4 = No. of poles,4 = No. of poles, C= Core length,C= Core length, 2 = No. of Bearings2 = No. of Bearings
  57. 57. Alternator isAlternator is salient pole typesalient pole type, self excited and self, self excited and self regulated by an excitation unit.regulated by an excitation unit. The excitation unit consists of choke, CT, DiodesThe excitation unit consists of choke, CT, Diodes and Condenser.and Condenser. Voltage is adjustable to within +/Voltage is adjustable to within +/--2.5% of the2.5% of the nominal voltage from no load to full load at ratednominal voltage from no load to full load at rated PF.PF. The choke is meant for adjusting theThe choke is meant for adjusting the teriminalteriminal voltage at no load.voltage at no load. The CT is meant for adjusting the terminal voltageThe CT is meant for adjusting the terminal voltage at load conditions.at load conditions. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– AlternatorAlternator (Stage(Stage ––I)I) Conti….
  58. 58. The Alternator is self excited due to residual flux.The Alternator is self excited due to residual flux. Once the alternator is run to rated speed at no loadOnce the alternator is run to rated speed at no load the residual voltage appearing the terminals, isthe residual voltage appearing the terminals, is getting rectified by a 3getting rectified by a 3-- FW bridge rectifier and isFW bridge rectifier and is fed to the field winding through brushes and slipfed to the field winding through brushes and slip rings.rings. Thus the alternator builds up voltage by itself andThus the alternator builds up voltage by itself and reaches a steady value depending on the choke airreaches a steady value depending on the choke air gap.gap. With the help of MVR, the voltage can be adjustedWith the help of MVR, the voltage can be adjusted when the machine is running with or withoutwhen the machine is running with or without load.load. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– AlternatorAlternator Conti….
  59. 59. The advantage of a selfThe advantage of a self--excited system:excited system: SelfSelf--excited system is inherently self protecting underexcited system is inherently self protecting under symmetrical short circuit conditions because the fieldsymmetrical short circuit conditions because the field ““collapses".collapses". Because of this, a main line circuit breaker for protectingBecause of this, a main line circuit breaker for protecting the generator and the conductors to the first level ofthe generator and the conductors to the first level of distribution may not be considered necessary, furtherdistribution may not be considered necessary, further reducing the installed cost of the system.reducing the installed cost of the system. The disadvantages of a self excited system are:The disadvantages of a self excited system are: •• It might be necessary to select a larger generator in orderIt might be necessary to select a larger generator in order to provide acceptable motor starting performance.to provide acceptable motor starting performance. •• SelfSelf--excited machines rely on residual magnetism toexcited machines rely on residual magnetism to energize the field. If residual magnetism is not sufficient,energize the field. If residual magnetism is not sufficient, it will be necessary toit will be necessary to ““flash" the field with a DC powerflash" the field with a DC power source.source.
  60. 60. Self Excited GeneratorSelf Excited Generator Conti….
  61. 61. Alternator (StageAlternator (Stage –– II & III)II & III) •• They areThey are ““Separately excitedSeparately excited”” by the Permanentby the Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG).Magnet Generator (PMG). •• This is a shaft mounted, high frequency, pilot exciterThis is a shaft mounted, high frequency, pilot exciter which provides a constant supply of clean power viawhich provides a constant supply of clean power via the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) to the mainthe Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) to the main exciter.exciter. •• The main exciter output is fed to the main rotor,The main exciter output is fed to the main rotor, through a full wave bridge rectifier, protected bythrough a full wave bridge rectifier, protected by surge suppression.surge suppression. Conti….
  62. 62. The excitation system of a separatelyThe excitation system of a separately -- excitedexcited generator is similar to that of a selfgenerator is similar to that of a self -- excitedexcited generator except that a separate permanent magnetgenerator except that a separate permanent magnet generator (PMG) located.generator (PMG) located. Is a separate source of power, the excitation circuitIs a separate source of power, the excitation circuit is not affected by the loads on the generator. Theis not affected by the loads on the generator. The generator is capable of sustaininggenerator is capable of sustaining two to three timestwo to three times rated current for approximately ten seconds.rated current for approximately ten seconds. For these reasons, separatelyFor these reasons, separately -- excited generatorexcited generator excitation systemsexcitation systems are recommendedare recommended forfor applications where enhanced motor startingapplications where enhanced motor starting capability, good performance with noncapability, good performance with non--linear loadslinear loads or extended duration short circuit performance areor extended duration short circuit performance are necessary.necessary.
  63. 63. Separately Excited GeneratorsSeparately Excited Generators Conti….
  64. 64. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– AMF (Automatic MainsAMF (Automatic Mains Fail) panelFail) panel This is the user interface of theThis is the user interface of the generator and contains provisionsgenerator and contains provisions forfor a)a) Electric start and shutElectric start and shut--down.down. b)b) Engine gauges.Engine gauges. c)c) Generator gauges.Generator gauges. d)d) Other controlsOther controls––Phase selectorPhase selector switch, frequency switch, andswitch, frequency switch, and engine control switch (manualengine control switch (manual mode, auto mode) among others.mode, auto mode) among others.
  65. 65. Ensure Engine oil, Governing oil and Coolant levels are normal.Ensure Engine oil, Governing oil and Coolant levels are normal. Check for fuel oil, engine oil, coolant and exhaust for anyCheck for fuel oil, engine oil, coolant and exhaust for any leakages.leakages. Lube oil priming to be done if engine is idle for long time or aLube oil priming to be done if engine is idle for long time or afterfter filter or oil replacement.filter or oil replacement. After DG set is started, check for exhaust. A smoky exhaust mayAfter DG set is started, check for exhaust. A smoky exhaust may be due to poor grade of oil, dirty air cleaner, over fueling orbe due to poor grade of oil, dirty air cleaner, over fueling or poorpoor mechanical conditions.mechanical conditions. Visually check for belts looseness.Visually check for belts looseness. Check for battery and battery charger for any abnormality.Check for battery and battery charger for any abnormality. Check the air filter gauge for proper air intake.Check the air filter gauge for proper air intake. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Routine checksRoutine checks Conti….
  66. 66. No Electrical fault is persisting.No Electrical fault is persisting. Engine oil Temperature is not high.Engine oil Temperature is not high. No over speed relay is dropped.No over speed relay is dropped. Lube oil pressure is adequate.Lube oil pressure is adequate. EPB is in released condition.EPB is in released condition. Fail to start is not persisting.Fail to start is not persisting. Alternator breaker is in OFF condition.Alternator breaker is in OFF condition. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Start PermissivesStart Permissives
  67. 67. Lube oil pressure lowLube oil pressure low ((< 1Ksc)< 1Ksc).. Engine over speedEngine over speed (1650 rpm for 10 sec).(1650 rpm for 10 sec). Coolant temperature is highCoolant temperature is high ((> 95> 9500 C)C).. Low coolant levelLow coolant level (Level below sensor).(Level below sensor). Electrical fault.Electrical fault. Lack of fuel.Lack of fuel. From Emergency Push button.From Emergency Push button. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Causes for TripCauses for Trip
  68. 68. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– DoDo’’s &s & DonDon’’tsts It is important to idle the engineIt is important to idle the engine ““33--5 minutes5 minutes”” before shutting it down to allow the lubricatingbefore shutting it down to allow the lubricating oil and water to carry heat away from theoil and water to carry heat away from the combustion chamber, bearings, shaft etc., This iscombustion chamber, bearings, shaft etc., This is especially important forespecially important for Turbo charger enginesTurbo charger engines.. Long periods ofLong periods of idling are not goodidling are not good for an enginefor an engine because the combustion chamber temperaturesbecause the combustion chamber temperatures drops to low and fuel will not burn completely.drops to low and fuel will not burn completely. This willThis will cause carbon to clogcause carbon to clog the injector spraythe injector spray holes and piston rings and can result in stuckholes and piston rings and can result in stuck valves.valves.
  69. 69. All diesel engines have a priming pump, to allowAll diesel engines have a priming pump, to allow for removing air from the fuel system. This isfor removing air from the fuel system. This is called bleeding, or priming.called bleeding, or priming. Air can enter the system during filter replacement,Air can enter the system during filter replacement, or when a fuel line is disconnected.or when a fuel line is disconnected. Without a priming facility, the start motor wouldWithout a priming facility, the start motor would have to crank the engine over, to bleed and primehave to crank the engine over, to bleed and prime the system.the system. Excessive use of the starter motorExcessive use of the starter motor forfor this purpose would damage it, and it would soonthis purpose would damage it, and it would soon discharge the battery.discharge the battery. Diesel GeneratorDiesel Generator –– Priming PumpPriming Pump Conti….
  70. 70. CrankingCranking To prevent permanent cranking motor damage, doTo prevent permanent cranking motor damage, do not crank engine for more thannot crank engine for more than 10 sec10 sec continuously.continuously. If the engine does not start after aboutIf the engine does not start after about threethree repeated attempts,repeated attempts, then the starter should not bethen the starter should not be operated and the fuel system has to be checkedoperated and the fuel system has to be checked for any faults.for any faults. Engine oil pressure must be indicated on theEngine oil pressure must be indicated on the gaugegauge within 15 sec after starting.within 15 sec after starting. If oil pressureIf oil pressure is not registered within 15 sec, shut off the engineis not registered within 15 sec, shut off the engine immediately to avoidimmediately to avoid engine damage.engine damage.
  71. 71. Oil / Coolant TemperaturesOil / Coolant Temperatures The oil Temperature should be maintainedThe oil Temperature should be maintained betweenbetween 7575 –– 10510500CC under loading conditions.under loading conditions. Any sudden increase in oil temperature, is aAny sudden increase in oil temperature, is a warning of mechanical failure. Immediatelywarning of mechanical failure. Immediately ShutShut off the engineoff the engine to avoid engine damage.to avoid engine damage. The coolant temperature ofThe coolant temperature of 75 to 9575 to 9500CC is the bestis the best assurance that working parts of the engine theassurance that working parts of the engine the expanded evenly to the most favorable oilexpanded evenly to the most favorable oil clearances.clearances. Note:Note:-- Continuous operation with low coolant temperature belowContinuous operation with low coolant temperature below 6060 00 C,C, or high coolant Temperature aboveor high coolant Temperature above 10010000 CC, can damage the engine., can damage the engine.
  72. 72. Normal engine oil pressure atNormal engine oil pressure at (105(10500C) should be betweenC) should be between 33--77 Kg/cmKg/cm22 at rated speed andat rated speed and 11--22 Kg/cmKg/cm22 at low idle speed.at low idle speed. A dipstick oil gauge is locatedA dipstick oil gauge is located on the side of the engine. Theon the side of the engine. The dip stick has andip stick has an ““HH”” (High)(High) andand ‘‘LL’’ (Low)(Low) level mark tolevel mark to indicate lubricating oil supply.indicate lubricating oil supply. The dip stick must be keptThe dip stick must be kept with the oil pan or engine.with the oil pan or engine.
  73. 73. •• After DG starts, ensure the following parameters are withinAfter DG starts, ensure the following parameters are within the limitthe limit CoolantCoolant TemperatureTemperature BetweenBetween 70 to 9570 to 9500CC Engine oilEngine oil pressurepressure BetweenBetween 3 to 73 to 7 KscKsc Engine oilEngine oil TemperatureTemperature BetweenBetween 75 to 10575 to 10500CC Engine RPMEngine RPM Should beShould be At 1500At 1500 StageStage --IIIIII
  74. 74. The generatorThe generator’’s engine is lubricated by oil storeds engine is lubricated by oil stored in a sump (Approx. 200 liters).in a sump (Approx. 200 liters). Ensure the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours ofEnsure the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation.generator operation. Also check for any leakages of lubricant andAlso check for any leakages of lubricant and change the lubricating oil every 500 hours ofchange the lubricating oil every 500 hours of generator operation.generator operation. Oil change periods, filter change periods, payingOil change periods, filter change periods, paying attention about selecting the true type of oilattention about selecting the true type of oil prolongs theprolongs the life cost of the engine.life cost of the engine. Diesel EngineDiesel Engine –– Lubrication systemLubrication system
  75. 75. Probable reasons for Generators Fail to StartProbable reasons for Generators Fail to Start Battery failure.Battery failure. Battery charger failure.Battery charger failure. Low coolant levels.Low coolant levels. Oil, fuel or coolant leaks.Oil, fuel or coolant leaks. Controls not in auto.Controls not in auto. Air in the fuel system.Air in the fuel system. Run out of fuel.Run out of fuel. Restriction in air supply.Restriction in air supply. Restriction in fuel supply.Restriction in fuel supply. Starter motor failure.Starter motor failure.
  76. 76. The starter motor turns the engine too slowly:The starter motor turns the engine too slowly: Battery capacity to low.Battery capacity to low. Bad electrical connection.Bad electrical connection. Faulty in starter motor.Faulty in starter motor. Wrong grade of lubricating oil.Wrong grade of lubricating oil. The engine does not start or difficult to start:The engine does not start or difficult to start: Starter motor turns engine too slowly.Starter motor turns engine too slowly. Fuel tank empty.Fuel tank empty. Faulty in fuel control solenoid.Faulty in fuel control solenoid. Restriction in a fuel pipe.Restriction in a fuel pipe. Faulty in fuel lift pump.Faulty in fuel lift pump. Dirty fuel filter element.Dirty fuel filter element. Air in fuel system.Air in fuel system. Faulty in atomizers.Faulty in atomizers. Cold start systems used incorrectly.Cold start systems used incorrectly. Fault in cold start systemFault in cold start system Restriction in fuel tank vent.Restriction in fuel tank vent. Restriction inRestriction in exhexh. pipe.. pipe. Wrong type or grade of fuel used.Wrong type or grade of fuel used. Engine Trouble shootingEngine Trouble shooting Conti….
  77. 77. The engine temperature is too high:The engine temperature is too high: Restriction air filter/cleaner or induction system.Restriction air filter/cleaner or induction system. Fault in atomizers or atomizers of an incorrect type.Fault in atomizers or atomizers of an incorrect type. Fault in cold start system.Fault in cold start system. Restriction in exhaust pipe.Restriction in exhaust pipe. Fan damaged.Fan damaged. Restriction in air or water passage of radiator.Restriction in air or water passage of radiator. Insufficient coolant system.Insufficient coolant system. The pressure of the lubrication oil is too low:The pressure of the lubrication oil is too low: Wrong grade of lubrication.Wrong grade of lubrication. Not enough lubrication oil in sump.Not enough lubrication oil in sump. Defective gauge.Defective gauge. Dirty lubrication oil filter element.Dirty lubrication oil filter element.
  78. 78. Starter Contactor Impulse Timer Impulse Timer Summation Timer Lubeoil Pr.Low BKRContacts Multiplication Fuelsolenoid Energisation -24VDC Control supply +24VDC Control supply To fuel solenoid
  79. 79. Electrical fault Lowlevel Ofoilintank HighWater Temperature Overspeed Lackoffuel DGsetfailed Tostart Resetcircuit Stopcircuit Enginestop Onfault To Engine Starter
  80. 80. I/C fromI/C from Unit Aux SWGRUnit Aux SWGR -- 1A1A I/C fromI/C from 415V DG Switchgear415V DG Switchgear UnitUnit –– 11 -- 415V Emergency MCC415V Emergency MCC I/C fromI/C from Unit Aux SWGRUnit Aux SWGR -- 2A2A I/C fromI/C from 415V DG Switchgear415V DG Switchgear UnitUnit –– 22 -- 415V Emergency MCC415V Emergency MCC I/C fromI/C from Unit Aux SWGRUnit Aux SWGR -- 3A3A I/C fromI/C from 415V DG Switchgear415V DG Switchgear UnitUnit –– 33 -- 415V Emergency MCC415V Emergency MCC I/C fromI/C from 415V DG Switchgear415V DG Switchgear 415 V SWYD SER SWGR415 V SWYD SER SWGR SWYDSWYD SERSER TxfmrTxfmr--11 SWYDSWYD SERSER TxfmrTxfmr--22 SECSEC -- AA SECSEC -- BBB/CB/C DGDG-- 11 DGDG-- 22 625 KVA625 KVA 415V DG Bus415V DG Bus StageStage –– I UnitsI Units –– Diesel Generator supplyDiesel Generator supply
  81. 81. StageStage –– II -- AMF PanelAMF Panel GovernorGovernor –– Local / Off / RemoteLocal / Off / Remote Gov speedGov speed –– Lower / Off / RiseLower / Off / Rise EngineEngine –– Local / Off / RemoteLocal / Off / Remote EngineEngine –– Out / Off / InOut / Off / In 24VDC24VDC –– ON / OffON / Off AC I/P Change over SwitchAC I/P Change over Switch Battery ChargerBattery Charger -- DCDC Engine Emergency OffEngine Emergency Off Eng three attempts circuit resetEng three attempts circuit reset DG ACB Emergency offDG ACB Emergency off ManMan VolVol RegulatorRegulator Over current, EarthOver current, Earth Fault, over load,Fault, over load, Restriction E/F,Restriction E/F, Over voltage, andOver voltage, and Reverse power relaysReverse power relays DG ACB ClosedDG ACB Closed Engine out off serviceEngine out off service Mechanical faultMechanical fault Electrical faultElectrical fault Window AnnunciationsWindow Annunciations 1)1) Low oil pressureLow oil pressure 2)2) Gen set fail to startGen set fail to start 3)3) Engine over speedEngine over speed 4)4) Oil level lowOil level low 5)5) Over loadOver load 6)6) Over voltageOver voltage Battery charger AC ONBattery charger AC ON Engine manual start PBEngine manual start PB Fault circuit reset PBFault circuit reset PB Lamp test PBLamp test PB
  82. 82. UST # AUST # A UST # BUST # B TOTO TVDCTVDC UNIT DIESELUNIT DIESEL GENERATORGENERATOR 750 KVA750 KVA From UAT # AFrom UAT # A From UAT # BFrom UAT # B StageStage –– II UnitsII Units –– Diesel Generator SupplyDiesel Generator Supply EMCCEMCC I/C FROMI/C FROM STAND BYSTAND BY DG MCCDG MCC USS SEC # AUSS SEC # A USS SEC # BUSS SEC # B 6.6KV/415V6.6KV/415V 1750KVA1750KVA B / CB / C STAND BY DGSTAND BY DG 1500 KVA1500 KVA ODGODG U # 5U # 5 U # 6U # 6 U # 7U # 7 U # 4U # 4 TOTO BVDCBVDC
  83. 83. UST # AUST # A UST # BUST # B TOTO TVDDCTVDDC UNIT DIESELUNIT DIESEL GENERATORGENERATOR 1500 KVA1500 KVA From Unit BusFrom Unit Bus –– 7CA7CA From Unit BusFrom Unit Bus –– 7CB7CB StageStage –– III UnitIII Unit –– Diesel Generator SupplyDiesel Generator Supply EMCCEMCC I/C FROMI/C FROM STAND BY DGSTAND BY DG MCCMCC UNIT SERVICE SWITCHGEAR # 7DAUNIT SERVICE SWITCHGEAR # 7DA 6.6KV/415V6.6KV/415V 2MVA2MVA B / CB / C STAND BY DGSTAND BY DG 1500 KVA1500 KVA ODGODG U # 5U # 5 U # 6U # 6 U # 7U # 7 U # 4U # 4 TOTO BVDDCBVDDC
  84. 84. Recommendations of 11th Operation MeetRecommendations of 11th Operation Meet (Held at PMI from 21st to 23(Held at PMI from 21st to 23rdrd Nov 2012)Nov 2012) 4.3.1 DG Set was not available during grid failure:4.3.1 DG Set was not available during grid failure: •• Availability of DG set to be ensured.Availability of DG set to be ensured. 4.3.2 DG Set tripped on temperature high due to cooling system p4.3.2 DG Set tripped on temperature high due to cooling system problem.roblem. •• DG sets to be run for a minimum of 15DG sets to be run for a minimum of 15--20 minutes during daily trial runs.20 minutes during daily trial runs. •• Capability of DG Set to run continuously on load to be demonstraCapability of DG Set to run continuously on load to be demonstrated andted and recorded once in a year.recorded once in a year. 4.3.4 Ventilation of DG set room4.3.4 Ventilation of DG set room •• DG Set tripped on temperature high as ventilation was poor.DG Set tripped on temperature high as ventilation was poor. •• Shutter of the DG set room shall be changed to grill type.Shutter of the DG set room shall be changed to grill type. •• All ventilation fans are to be maintained in healthy condition.All ventilation fans are to be maintained in healthy condition. •• Power supply source for ventilation fans are to be reviewed. PowPower supply source for ventilation fans are to be reviewed. Power supply is toer supply is to be taken from reliable source to take care of total black out cobe taken from reliable source to take care of total black out condition.ndition.
  85. 85. 4.3.5 DG Set did not start on auto4.3.5 DG Set did not start on auto •• DG sets are to be started without chargers (only on battery) apaDG sets are to be started without chargers (only on battery) apart fromrt from routine testing in the presence of Operation and Electrical mainroutine testing in the presence of Operation and Electrical maintenancetenance representatives.representatives. •• Protocol is to be maintained for all such trials.Protocol is to be maintained for all such trials. •• An alarm for "DG chargers failure" to be provided in UCB to avoiAn alarm for "DG chargers failure" to be provided in UCB to avoidd chance of charger remaining switched off.chance of charger remaining switched off. 4.3.6 Access to DG sets in the case of emergency:4.3.6 Access to DG sets in the case of emergency: •• Easy access to DG set room shall be ensured to curtail time takeEasy access to DG set room shall be ensured to curtail time taken ton to restore emergency power in case of any station blackout.restore emergency power in case of any station blackout. •• Practice of locking DG set rooms to be reviewed.Practice of locking DG set rooms to be reviewed. 4.3.7 DG Set Diesel tank level:4.3.7 DG Set Diesel tank level: •• Adequate diesel level is to be ensured in DG Set fuel tank to meAdequate diesel level is to be ensured in DG Set fuel tank to meet anyet any emergency situation.emergency situation.
  86. 86. 4.3.8 USS I/C to EMCC breaker status indication was not availabl4.3.8 USS I/C to EMCC breaker status indication was not availablee •• Healthiness of all indications of breaker (On/Off) is to be ensuHealthiness of all indications of breaker (On/Off) is to be ensured (Walkred (Walk down checklist to be prepared).down checklist to be prepared). 4.3.9 Automatic charging of EMCC4.3.9 Automatic charging of EMCC •• In the event of total power failure, EMCC should get energizedIn the event of total power failure, EMCC should get energized automatically. Auto changeover of DG breaker to EMCC is to be exautomatically. Auto changeover of DG breaker to EMCC is to be exploredplored wherever it is not available.wherever it is not available. 4.3.10 DG Set load tests:4.3.10 DG Set load tests: •• DG Set Load tests to be carried out during overhauls. Such testsDG Set Load tests to be carried out during overhauls. Such tests are to beare to be well documented and circulated as a controlled document.well documented and circulated as a controlled document. 4.7.3 Diesel fire water pump auto start facility4.7.3 Diesel fire water pump auto start facility •• Auto start (on header pressure low) facility is to be provided fAuto start (on header pressure low) facility is to be provided for dieselor diesel fire water pumps.fire water pumps. 4.3.3 Auto staring of DG sets:4.3.3 Auto staring of DG sets: •• As a part of regular testing, under voltage to be simulated to sAs a part of regular testing, under voltage to be simulated to start DG setstart DG sets
  87. 87. Overall EngineOverall Engine

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