Correlation of Theory and PracticeThe practical syllogism is the specific featureof practical wisdom which directly links theoryand practice in a way which maintains theunity of the clinical experience. -Lauder William -2004
MEANING OF THEORY AND PRACTICETheories are setup inter- related concept that givethe systematic view of phenomena that isexplanatory-predictive in nature.Practice is a form of doing action in which practicalwisdom and a morally enlightened disposition arethe bases of professional actions.
Reflective Practice• Integration refers to continuous, Intelligent and interactive adjusting - Hopkins The un-reflected life is not worth living - Plato• Reflective practice is the cornerstone of uniting theory and practice in health promotion because the building together of the past and the present determines future health promotion actions. -(Naidoo and wills-1998)
Domains Involved in Integrating Nursing Service and Nursing EducationLearning is a process of discovery and mastery ofskills. Performance based learning to functioncompetently in an environment takes place at threelevels. Cognitive domain – knowledge Affective domains – attitude Psychomotor domains – practice
• (Reflective practice requires the teacher to facilitate the reasoning process to help students to recognize ambiguity and clarify in clinical settings.• Integration is a state of wholeness, harmony and relatedness. It also a means to blend things together into a harmonious whole and opportunities should be provided.
Why is reflective thinking / practice important?• Modern society is becoming more complex information is becoming available and changing more rapidly prompting users to constantly rething, switch directions, and change problem solving strategies.• To promote clinical reasoning and analytical evaluation abilities in students.
• To apply new knowledge to the complex situations in their day to day activities.• To develop higher order thinking skills by prompting learners to A. relate new knowledge to prior understanding B. think in both abstract and conceptual terms. C. apply specific strategies in novel tasks. D. Understand their own thinking and learning strategies.
USES OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICEReflective practice can facilitate and enhance• Acceptance of, and increased confidence with, the essential complexity and uncertainty of professional life.• Reflexive critical awareness of personal values, ethics, prejudices, assumptions of professional identity, decision-making processes
CONTD…• Reflexive critical awareness of the professional milieu: its values, ethics, assumptions about roles and identity• Acceptance of and willingness to explore, the interrelatedness of the professional and the personal• Sensitive, fruitful review of forgotten areas of practice
• Analysis of hesitations, skill and knowledge gaps• Constructive awareness of collegial relationships• Relief of stress by facing problematic or painful episodes• Identification of learning needs• Dissemination of experience and expertise to and from colleagues• Increased confidence in professional practice
How can I introduce reflective practice in to my teaching? Self and peer assessment Problem based learning Personal development planning
Self And Peer Assessment• It’s the involvement of student in identifying standards or criteria to apply to their work and making judgment about the extent to which they have met this criteria and standards.• Self assessment involves two clear stages. 1. Learner understands standards of criteria. 2 . The making of own judgment against those criteria
Contd….• Peer assessment describes about making judgment about the quality of each other work in relation to agreed criteria.• Peer assessment describes about making judgment about the quality of each other work in relation to agreed criteria.Uses• helps the learners to encourage to make qualitative commands about the work of peers
Problem based learning• Problem based learning starts with problems and require the students to research, select, analyse and apply information and theories to solve it.Uses• Problem based learning helps to students to think on their feet and draw on previous experience to transfer in to new settings.
Personal development planning• It’s a structured and supported process under taken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and achievement to plan for their personal educational and career development. - Quality assurance agency 2001
Uses of personal development planning• Help students become more effective, independent and confident self directed learners.• Understand how they are learning and relate their learning to a wider context.• Improve their general skills for study and career management.
• Articulate their personal goals and evaluate progress towards their achievement.• Encourage a positive attitude to learning throughout life.• Improving and encouraging dialogue between learners and teachers
Reflective practice modelSchon identifies two kinds of reflection• Reflection in action The person will reflect action during an event?(what can I do now to improve?)• Reflection on action This is retrospection reflect on actions that have already occurred. (what can I do next time to improve things?)
Reflective teacher model• This model based upon a philosophy of active and experiential learning and critical inquiry in to underlying issues in education and society from multiple perspectives.
Academic Programs• The reflective Teacher Model is an undergraduate teacher education program based upon philosophy of active and experiential learning and critical inquiry into underlying issues in education and society from multiple perspectives .
This philosophy emphasizes the development ofthe pre-service teacher as a reflectivepractitioner who exhibits the followingcharacteristics• Reflective teacher are purposeful and active• Reflective initiate instruction cognizant of the needs of the student as expressed through their experience• Reflective teachers aim instruction towards actions or convictions that resolve the questions, tensions, and perplexities that imitated the student’s process of inquiry.
• Reflective teachers are open to the individuality of students• Reflective teachers recognize that the social process of education is also personal, and that it cannot be coerced from others, but must be chosen by them.
• Reflective teachers are sympathetic to the interests, needs and insights of the students capacity as reflective thinkers• Reflective teachers take seriously student’s problem. Hypotheses , and conclusions.• Reflective teachers are patient• Reflective teachers know that it takes time for ideas to be developed, delineated, and evaluated
• Reflective teachers are flexible.• Reflective teachers allow for divergence and technological change. They seek to expand option rather than limit them. They consider alternative methods and points of view ,and they are willing to change their mind.• Reflective teachers explore, investigate ,and grow. They are suspicious of their own conclusions because they know that they are learners.
• Reflective teachers are self –regarding• Reflective teachers take their own reasoning processes as part of their field of inquiry. They are conscious of their assumptions, logic, choices, priorities, and conclusions
Conclusions• Both theory and practice must supplement and support each other rather than come as two distinct and separate experiences. Nursing skill requires 3H.• Head now needs to hold more, Hands must be ever sever and more skillful and Heart must open ever widest as the head and hands become busier.• Integration of nursing education with nursing service is important to give a quality nursing care.