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Problem based learning


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Problem based learning

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: O “Emphasis on meaning, not facts” O Memorization- Traditional method. O Problem based learning – engages students in structuring real life problems. O Discovery method of teaching by John Dewey 1930 O Refined by Jerome Burner and Jean Piaget 1960.
  3. 3. History on PBL O 1916--John Dewey’s progressive movement belief that teachers should teach by appealing to students natural instincts to investigate and create. O 1980--Howard Burrows, a physician and medical educator, started using this approach to help medical students better diagnose new illnesses O 1985-High schools and Colleges start using this approach O 1990-1991, Schools began developing PBL movements to improve student performance in science and other disciplines 4
  4. 4. DEFINITION: OBarrows defined problem based learning as the individualized learning that results from process involved in working towards the solution of the problem. OThe problem serves as the stimulus, as well as search for information.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES: OUnderstanding comes from our interaction with the environment. OCognitive conflicts stimulate learning. OKnowledge evolves through social negotiation and evaluation of the viability of individual understanding. 6
  6. 6. PURPOSES: OTo gain an understanding of principles that underline phenomenon. OAims at training problem analyzing skills in particular professional situation. OTo exercise that students learn to take decisions independently. OTo activate prior knowledge and integrate that knowledge.
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS: O Learning is student centered. O Learning occurs in small student groups. O Teachers are facilitators or guides. O Problems form the organizing focus and stimulus for learning. O Problems are a vehicle for the development of clinical problem-solving skills. O New information is acquired through self- directed learning. 8
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS: O Shifts away from short, isolated teacher centered lessons O Integrates real world issues and practices O Teaches students to apply what they have learned in university to life-long endeavors 9
  9. 9. Principles Behind PBL OUnderstanding is built through what we experience OMeaning is created from efforts to answer our own questions and solve our own problems OWe should appeal to students’ natural instincts to investigate and create OStudent-centered strategies build critical thinking and reasoning skills and further their creativity and independence 10
  10. 10. Role Changes O In problem-based learning, the traditional teacher and student roles change. O The students assume increasing responsibility for their learning, giving them more motivation and more feelings of accomplishment, setting the pattern for them to become successful life-long learners. O The faculty in turn become resources, tutors, and evaluators, guiding the students in their problem solving efforts.11
  11. 11. MEMBERS: O The group leader O The scribe O The group members O The tutor
  12. 12. Process of PBL O Students confront a problem. O In groups, students organize prior knowledge and attempt to identify the nature of the problem. O Students pose questions about what they do not understand. O Students design a plan to solve the problem and identify the resources they need. O Arrange possible explanations and working hypotheses O Students begin to gather information as they work to solve the problem. O Report back, synthesize explanations, and apply newly acquired information to the problem 14
  13. 13. Characteristics of the PBL process 15 Usually based on clinical cases.  Cases are characterized by “progressive disclosure”  Students come in “cold” to the first tutorial  Students determine the learning issues  Sessions are open-ended to allow learning.  The tutor is a facilitator and not necessarily an “expert”.
  14. 14. Problem-solving vs. problem-based learning - different but inter-related - Problem-solving: arriving at decisions based on prior knowledge and reasoning. Problem-based learning: the process of acquiring new knowledge based on recognition of a need to learn.
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  17. 17. Evaluation 20  Of the group Of the student  Of the tutor  Of the Content
  18. 18. RECENT RESEARCH STUDIES 1. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AMONG NURSING STUDENTS O International Education Studies; Vol. 7 O ISSN 1913-9020 O Online Published: June 26, 2014 21
  19. 19. 22 The purpose of this study is to examine the implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) among nursing students. More specifically, it compares pretest and post test scores of the implementation of PBL among third year students. Convenient sample methods were chosen and ninety four third year students participated from a private nursing college, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Data of this study was analyzed using t-test. Findings indicated significant differences in overall scores of pretest and posttest among third year students. The result also demonstrated that the students’ level of satisfaction towards PBL correlated with the effectiveness of PBL. From the finding, it has been concluded that implementation of PBL can be further developed through creative and innovative approach in the students’learning process.
  20. 20. 23 2. Motivations for the Use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)for Preparation of Undergraduate Nursing Students for Professional Competences: A Literature Review International Journal of Nursing Science 2012, ISSN NO : 20120205.02
  21. 21. 24 The goal of this study was to examine the meaning and application of problem-based learning Asystematic investigation of available literature was conducted in regard to the meaning and advantages of problem-based learning as well as the role of both the facilitator and the students regarding problem-based learning processinG health education . The target population for the concept “problem-based learning” was the qualitative and quantitative studies on problem-based learning in the field of education, health (medicine and nursing) and psychology. In the absence of local data on problem-based learning, a series of searches of the EBSCO Host, and Medline data bases were conducted. In addition, selected textbooks with definitions and the uses for problem-based learning approached were consulted. A purposeful sampling method was used.
  22. 22. 25 Problem-Based Learning approach is worthy implementing in undergraduate nursing education.Problem-Based Learning approach has proven to be an effective way of delivering nursing education in a coherent, integrated way and therefore offers more advantages over traditional teaching methods
  23. 23. 26 3.The problem-based learning integrated with simulation to improve nursing students’ self- efficacy Open Journal of Nursing, 2013, 3, 95-100 Published Online March 2013
  24. 24. 27 The purposes of this study were to describe the simulation integrated with problem-based learning (SIM-PBL) module to educate the nursing process for clients with hypertension and to evaluate its effectiveness on nursing students’ self-efficacy (SE). Methods: This study was a one group pre- and post- test design. Twenty five students received a 5-hour SIM-PBL program focused on nursing care of clients with hypertension. A newly developed self-report questionnaire was used to assess SE in four areas of the nursing process with a scale of 0 (not at all confi- dent) to 10 (totally confident) The SIM-PBL module was effective in improv- ing the students’ self-efficacy in the nursing process for patients with hypertension. Further studies are recommended in developing SIM-PBL modules for diverse nursing topics and evaluating their effective- ness in various aspects of students’ competence
  25. 25. ANY QUESTIONS???? 28
  26. 26. BIBLIOGRAPHY: O Devi Sanatombi Elsa, Manipal Manual of nursing Education, 1st edition, CBS publishers and distributers, New Delhi, 2012, chapter 6,pg no— 181 – 188. O Baswanthappa B.T., Nursing Education, 2nd edition, Jaypee medical publishers, New Delhi, 2009, chapter 2, pg no-310-317. O Internet Source- 33001/32941. O lem_based_learning. 29
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