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The potential of 3D printing

A desk-research presentation showing the capacity, trends and foresights of 3D printing, especially related to the manufacturing industry and the emergence of the ´prosumer´ within the DYI community.

Accompanying article can be found here:

Additive manufacturing, 3D Printing, laminated object manufacturing, layered manufacturing, rapid prototyping (industrial), stereolithography, CAD/CAM, Fused deposition modelling, Laser sintering.

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The potential of 3D printing

  1. 1. The Potential of 3D printing an overview of the current state of rapid prototyping the manufacturing revolution July 2014 (updated September 2014) Lija Groenwoud van Vliet
  2. 2. Up to $550M per year by 2025 Source: McKinsey Global Institute report
  3. 3. Definition 3D printing • a process of making a physical object from a three-dimensional (3D) digital model; • building products through successive thin layering of a material without the intervention of cutting, drilling,…; • type of industrial robot using a 3-D computer-aided design (CAD) program to create a digital model. Tags: 3D printing, rapid prototyping, additive manufacturing (AM) , cloud, manufacturing revolution, advanced materials, replication efforts, laser
  4. 4. Work in progress Youtube 3D printing time-lapse
  5. 5. The benefits Source: Anubis3D
  6. 6. 2D printing versus 3D printing Source: 3D printing
  7. 7. 3D developments through time Source: Which-50 Source: Whiteclouds
  8. 8. How does it works? Source: UXTrendspotting
  9. 9. 3D printing is a tool and part of a process One of the seven printer technologies
  10. 10. Production characteristics (1): differentiators Materials: Plastic Glass Metal (titanium) Food (chocolate Tissue (stem cell) Earthenware (ceramics) Paper / wood Biocompatible materials Sand Differentiators:  Form: solid versus flexible  Price  Detail level  Strength  Smoothness  Color Elasto Plastic
  11. 11. Production characteristics (2) : Methods SLS, DMLS, FDM, SLA, LOM, Ink-Jet-Style Source: 24x7mag Mostly used in consumer market
  12. 12. Differences among 3D printing techniques; various ranges and material application
  13. 13. Production characteristics (3): new techniques
  14. 14. Characteristics Implications  Produce molds, enable rapid modeling and prototyping (tooling)  Digitally manufacture (parts of) final products, meaning digital product storage (digital warehouse)  High level of customization leading to 35%- 60% cost savings (McKinsey Global Institute report)  Enhancing local production leading to less transport and packaging  Less material waste due to fabrication process and fewer unsold products due to manufacture upon request.  Possible to recycle or increase life span of products by replacing malfunctioning parts  Reducing time in product development Characteristics  Making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital model  Possibility to manufacture (small) fully functional tools (such as batteries, transistors, and LEDs  Precision and resolution  Manufacturing tool  3 axles (x,y,z)  Making use of software (.stl) Making it especially interesting for industries with:  high labor-cost industry (such as time-consuming assembly and secondary machining processes)  complex tooling requirements  relatively low volumes (or niche market)  high obsolescence or scrap rates When selecting a printer, look at: 1. Flexibility & simplicity (open source / ready-to- print) 2. Type of material (PLA / ABS) (effect on temperature) 3. Software of the printer 4. Precision, detail, resolution and calibration 5. Speed and ´noice´ level
  15. 15. 3D Printing impact on core costs of products & services • Raw material prize • Quality • Customization Creation • Social networks • Blogging • Reviews  easy access to near-perfect market information Information • Environments optimized for collaboration • Design • “Cost of Combine” Experiment
  16. 16. Types of Use & Applications 1. Test of ideas and concept Prototyping in research and development (Prototypes / Models difficult) 2. Internal manufacturing Manufacturing of parts/ office tools. Custom tooling: manufacture fully functional tools (sensors for monitoring/ filters, etc) 3. External Manufacturing Manufacturing of production goods for sale to consumers and manufacturing of supplies to be used by customers 4. Mass customization Print customized pieces at industrial quantities and rates. Hence, products can be redesigned for both one-off and mass customization. 5. Use of multifunctional materials Future new materials : self-reconfiguring, self-healing, programmable, multifunctional (conduting), changing shape and behaviour over time (smart materials/ 4D printing) 6. Manufacture at point of use Manufacturing will no longer be centralized. Any piece will be printable anywhere around. 7. Reinvent warehouse/ reduce inventory (from products to raw materials) The promise of immediate ‘on-the-spot’ production signals the end of keeping large inventories in warehouses. It facilitates supplementary or “insurance” capability. 8. Complex design Complexity free production method due to zero cost of increased complexity. No molds and high degree of structure flexibility. This will lead to a shift from restrictive design for manufacturing to manufacturing of the ideal design.
  17. 17. Benefits
  18. 18. Things to improve & hurdles on the way  Surface finish & resolution  Speed of printing  Costs of raw material  Ink inefficiencies  Machine range  Potential risk from hackers and software bugs  Misuse of technology (danger of self producing unwanted objects like guns)  Legal restrictions & ethics  The cost of producing large volumes of some products can be high using 3D printers Image credit
  19. 19. Sectors where applied: what can be printed? Just anything Toys 3D Fashion Automotive Art Military Manufactu Retail ring Architect Food Medical 3D print Blood Vessels
  20. 20. Replacing current objects Source: Leapfrog
  21. 21. Medical applications beyond imagination Source: Gizmodo Source: CSC
  22. 22. 3D printing of a house (with waste materials for >$5.000) Source:Dialymail
  23. 23. Using waste material Source: Dezeen
  24. 24. The Wide Range of Commercial Possibilities Applications
  25. 25. Modeling Source: Deltares
  26. 26. Looking back and forth
  27. 27. Trends
  28. 28. Manufacturing Source: 3D printing Source: DHL Implications of 3D material supply
  29. 29. Disruptive potential From Gadgets & Design to Disrupting sectors Source: 2020magzine  having impact on manufacturing processes and jobs  democratization of manufacturing customizable products
  30. 30. Expanding accesibility through hubs, crowdsourcing and crowdfunding
  31. 31. Changing Street view Image credit Image credit Image credit
  32. 32. The DIY community & cloud enabled services & personalization The first steps towards home based 3D printing
  33. 33. Market potential Source: UXTrendspotting Expected that most of the revenue generated by the 3D printing sector will come from commercial users (Deloite) Source: Grandview Research
  34. 34. Market Drivers for Growth of 3D potential • Increased awareness of viability of 3D printing technologies for prototyping and manufacturing  implications for laboratory, product development and manufacturing operations • Decreasing costs of 3D printers and materials • Improved quality • Wider range of materials • Use case examples as reference and inspiration point • Supporting ecosystem
  35. 35. Source: 3D printing Source: UXTrendspotting
  36. 36. Example Supporting Ecosystem Gravity Movie; showing how to make design for 3D printing even easier
  37. 37. Examples Supporting Ecosystem Hundreds of offerings on Kickstarter
  38. 38. Source: Forst&Sullivan
  39. 39. Source: CSC
  40. 40. Big Companies investing in 3D printing Source: seekingalpha For case examples, click here
  41. 41. What are the Big Companies doing? NASA: printing in space
  42. 42. The big players in the 3D market
  43. 43. Next step: 4D : responsive, transformable objects & self-assembling programable objects Claudia Source: Smithsonian Smart materials
  44. 44. 4D printing is the Future of design Youtube movie
  45. 45. Barcelona Example: Natural Machines Input: -Chocolate -Sugar -Vanilla - Dough - Fruits Promise to meet dietary needs
  46. 46. Barcelona example: HP world centre for 3D printing HP estimates that worldwide sales of 3D printers and software and related services will grow almost to the $ 11 billion for 2021. Source: 3dprintingevent
  47. 47. Background material (1) Sources and interesting articles to read: Canada/Local%20Assets/Documents/Insights/Innovative_Thinking/2013/ca_en_insights_disruptive_manuf acturing_102813.pdf TrendRadar_2014.pdf gclid=CJ6moo2npL8CFa7HtAodRSQAhg
  48. 48. Background material (2) Successful_business_models_for_3d_printing_preview (Berenschot) YouTube/ Vimeo movies: 4D printing: 3D printing time-lapse: 3D printing in space: 3D printing back and forward in time: Gravity example: