Technical seminar on 3d Printing
→ Overview of 3D printing
→ 3D Printing v/s 2D Printing
→ General Principles
→ Methods of 3D Printing
→3D Printing Materials
An Overview of 3D Printing
The 3D printing technology made its way into the technological
world in the year 1986 but did not gain importance until 1990.
3D printing is also known as desktop manufacturing or additive
A real object is created from a 3D design. The printer prints 3D
models by adding materials like metals, plastics or polymers layer by
layer over each other until the required 3 dimensional shape is
Fig. 3D printed shoes
3D PRINTING V/S 2D PRINTING
3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing whereas 2D
printing involves materials cartridges, flexibility of output, and
translation of code into a visible pattern.
The things that come out of ink-jet/ home printers are images that
have been printed on a flat surface. On the other hand, 3D printer
prints shaped layers.
3D printing has more applications compared to 2D printing.
Though 2D printers are cheaper (100$) ,3D printer has its own
advantage. Developers are constantly creating new 3D printers
that are affordable and user-friendly.
Additive manufacturing takes virtual blueprints from computer aided
design (CAD) or animation modeling software and "slices" them into
digital cross-sections for the machine to successively use as a guideline for
To perform a print, the machine reads the design from an .stl file and lays
down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to build
the model from a series of cross sections
METHODS OF 3D PRINTING
The main difference between the different methods of 3D printing is
how layers are built to create parts
Most widely used technologies are :
– SLS (selective laser sintering)
– FDM (fused deposition modeling)
– SLA (stereolithograhpy)
Other methods include PolyJet photopolymer, Syringe Extrusion,
Selective laser melting , Electron Beam Melting
1. Lasers are devices that produce intense
beams of light which are monochromatic,
coherent, and highly collimated.
2. Laser diodes normally based on gallium nitride
(GaN), emit in the near-ultraviolet region are used
for 3D printing.
3. The short wavelength allows precise focusing
and the generation of very fine structures
(provided that a light source with high
spatial coherence is used).
4. UV light cures and hardens these polymers with each
pass over the object.
Stereolithography (SL or SLA from Stereolithography Apparatus) is an additive
manufacturing process using a vat of liquid UV-curable photopolymer "resin" and a UV
laser to build parts one layer at a time.
SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING(SLS)
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is
an additive manufacturing
It uses a high power laser (for
example, a carbon dioxide laser)
This fuses small particles of
plastic, metal (direct metal laser
sintering),ceramic or glass
powders into a mass that has a
desired 3-dimensional shape.
• A jetting head slides back and forth along an X-axis, like a line printer,
depositing a single-layer of photopolymer onto the build tray.
Immediately following each layer built, ultraviolet (UV) light is applied
to cure resin material used.
• The technology allows for various materials and colors to be
incorporated into single prints, and at high resolutions.
• Almost any material that has a
creamy viscosity can be used
in 3D printers equipped with
3D PRINTING MATERIALS
Many different materials can be used for 3D printing, such as ABS
plastic, PLA, polyamide (nylon), glass filled polyamide,
stereo lithography materials(epoxy resins), silver, titanium, steel, wax,
photopolymers and polycarbonate.
The other materials used are
a. Strong and Flexible plastic b. Alumide
c. Steel and sterling steel d. Brass
e. Bronze f. Ceramics
INDUSTRIAL 3D PRINTING
– Stratasys, Ltd. is a manufacturer of 3D printers and 3D production
systems for office-based rapid prototyping and direct digital manufacturing
– Assisted NASA engineers while developing Curiosity Mars Rover.
CLOTHING AND ACCESSORIES
– Companies such as Hip Hop Factory are printing jewellery.
– Retailers such as New Balance are printing shoes.
– Designers such as Ron Arab are printing sun
– For highly accurate surgical guides and prototypes that mimic the look and feel of
the finished medical device, including clear and rubberlike materials.
– Poly Jet 3D printers produce astonishingly smooth and detailed architectural models
in an array of materials which can be painted readily
3Doodler The world's first 3D Printing
Developed by Peter Dilworth and
Maxwell Bogue of WobbleWorks LLC.
It utilizes plastic thread made of either
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (”ABS”) or
polylactic acid (”PLA”) that is melted and then cooled through a
patented process while moving through the pen, which can then be
used to make 3D objects by hand.
FUTURE OF 3D PRINTING
3D Printed Organs
Scientists at Organovo in San Diego have, for the very first time,
been able to 3D print tiny replicas of human livers. But if these
itty bitty livers are of any indication, then the real deal is on its
3D Printed Food
Anjan Contractor, a Senior Mechanical Engineer at Systems and
Materials Research Corporation(SMRC) in USA hopes to use
additive manufacturing to help the continually exponentially
increasing population on Earth.
NASA has awarded a Small Business Innovation Research
(SBIR) to study the feasibility of using 3D printing, for making
food in space.
3D Printing technology could revolutionize and re-shape the world.
Advances in 3D printing technology can significantly change and
improve the way we manufacture products and produce goods
3D printing can enable fast, reliable, and repeatable means of
producing tailor-made products which can still be made inexpensively
due to automation of processes and distribution of manufacturing
3D printing may soon start an industry in which everyone has the
possibility of being a manufacturer.
Berman, A. “3-D Printing Making the Virtual Real.”EDUCAUSE
Evolving TechnologiesCommittee. 2007. Web.1 May 2010.
3D printing: Basic concepts mathematics and technologies
Anastasiou, A. Biomed. Eng. Lab., Nat. Tech. Univ. of Athens, Athens,
Greece Tsirmpas, C. ; Rompas, A. ; Giokas, K ; Koutsouris, D.(2013)
3D Printing Industry, 3dprintingindustry.com