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A SEMINAR REPORT
ON
RAPID PROTOTYPING
SUBMITTED BY
Rajat Srivastav
Roll no. 15001004061
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
DEENBANDHU CHHOTU RAM UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
MURTHAL, HARYANA
2019
3
CONTENTS
SI NO. Page no.
 Contents 3
 List of Figures 4
 Acknowledgement 5
 Abstract 6
 Introduction 7
 Literature review 10-37
.1. Traditional v/s Additive manufacturing 10
.2. Steps involved in 3D printing 16
.3. Types of 3D Printing Technologies 21
.4. Manufacturing and consumption of products 30
.5. Application of 3D Printing 33
.6. Challenges faced in 3D printing 37
 Concluding remarks 38
 References 39
4
LIST OF FIGURES
 Fig. 1 Working of a 3D printer
 Fig. 2 Subtractive manufacturing
 Fig. 3 Formative manufacturing Fig. 4 Additive manufacturing
 Fig. 5 complex geometry being manufactured by 3D printer
 Fig.6 Material wastage in Traditional manufacturing
 Fig.7 Tool wear in Traditional manufacturing
 Fig.8 Different tool used in Traditional manufacturing
 Fig.9 Automatic manufacturing by 3D printer
 Fig.10 Actual model v/s CAD design model
 Fig.11 User interface of Fusion 360
 Fig.12 CAD design model v/s sliced model schematic figure
 Fig.13 User interface of Slicing software (CURA)
 Fig.14 Support removal
 Fig.15 Sanding of the 3D printed part
 Fig.16 finished 3D printed part
 Fig.17 Painted Part v/s non painted parts
 Fig.18 Nozzle and Extruder assembly of FDM technique
 Fig.19 Mechanism of the FDM technology
 Fig.19 Different infill percentage
 Fig.19(b) over hanged parts shown as Red
 Fig.20 STL printed part
 Fig.21 Schematic diagram of STL technology
 Fig.22 Schematic diagram of the Selective laser sintering
 Fig.23 Traditional manufacturing and consumption
 Fig.24 Additive manufacturing and direct consumption
 Fig 25. International Space Station
 Fig 26. an astronaut with 3D printed Part in Space station
 Fig 27. Application of 3D printers
 Fig.28 3D printed body parts
 Fig.29 prosthetic part manufactured by 3D printer
 Fig 30. Use of 3D printer in Food Industry
 Fig 31. Kids using 3D printer
 Fig.32 3D printed Gun
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Acknowledgement
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. M.N. Mishra and Dr. R.K.Garg who
gave me the opportunity to give a Power Point Presentation and prepare a report on
such an intriguing yet important topic. They are my real inspiration since I joined
D.C.R.U.S.T as a student.
I have taken tiring efforts in this report and presentation. However it would not
have been possible for me to complete it without God’s grace and the nature
respondents. I would also like to thank to my batch mates whose dedication to
work hard motivated me a lot. Had they have not done this I would not have
worked on it hundred times more efficiently.
I would like to appreciate my special gratitude and thanks to Mr. Chuck Hull who
researched on this particular topic and opened wide dimensions for the world.
Along with it my family members who motivated me and last but not the least
thanks to our all-time favourite search engine Google for all the information
present all over the globe.
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ABSTRACT
Rapid prototyping is a group of technologies used to quickly fabricate a scale
model of a physical part or assembly using 3-Dimensional computer aided design
data.
Rapid prototyping was found by chuck hull. In 1980 and got patent in 1984. He is
the inventor of the solid imaging process known as stereo-lithography, the first
commercial rapid prototyping technology, and the STL file format.
Rapid prototyping often known as Additive manufacturing or 3d printing. These
names were given to Rapid prototyping in early 2000 when it was started to use for
manufacturing apart from making models and prototypes
3-D printing techniques have a big scope in the near future in manufacturing
industries .These printing technology is generally used where the prototyping is an
important part in the industries. 3-D printing technology has wide application in
manufacturing industry i.e. to make medical artificial bones, prosthetic foot, teeth
cap along with low manufacturing cost
By eliminating production steps and using substantially less material, ‘additive’
processes could be able to reduce waste and save more than 50% of energy
compared to today’s ‘subtractive’ manufacturing processes, and reduce material
costs by up to 90%. The use of additive manufacturing can potentially benefit a
wide range of industries including defense, aerospace, automotive, biomedical,
consumer products, and metals manufacturing..
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INTRODUCTION
Rapid Prototyping refers to technologies that create objects directly by stacking
layers of materials on each other until the required product is obtained. These
technologies basically works on principle of layer by layer deposition of material
The first form of creating layer by layer a 3 dimensional object using computer
aided design (CAD), was Rapid Prototyping developed, founded in the early
1980’s by Chuck Hull in U.S.A. In the early 1980’s 3-D printers were focused on
scale models by using CAD(Computer Aided Design).
Chuck hull issues the first patent of 3-D printer “apparatus for production of 3
dimensional objects by stereography” in 1984 Chuck hull started the first 3-D
printing company, 3-D systems corporations.
This technology was created to help and for realization of what engineers or a
designer have in mind and what or how the final product will be look like in real.
With rapid prototyping scientists and students can rapidly build and analyze
models for theoretical studies.
3-D printer is basically a concept to make and print the object layer by layer and
thus making it “3-D printer”
WHAT IS A 3-D PRINTER
A 3-D printer is a type of material design printer that design and build 3-D models
and product of devices and components using an Additive manufacturing
processes. 3 dimensional prototypes are created by the 3-D printers by directly
building them using different software.
Different software:- CAD(Computer Aided Design), Solid works, pro-e etc.
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We live in an age that is witness to what many are calling the Third Industrial
Revolution. 3D printing, more professionally called additive manufacturing, moves
us away from the Henry Ford era mass production line, and will bring us to a new
reality of customizable, one-off production.
3D printers use a variety of very different types of additive manufacturing
technologies, but they all share one core thing in common: they create a three
dimensional object by building it layer by successive layer, until the entire object is
complete. It’s much like printing in two dimensions on a sheet of paper, but with
an added third dimension: UP. The Z-axis.
Each of these printed layers is a thinly-sliced, horizontal cross-section of the
eventual object. Imagine a multi-layer cake, with the baker laying down each layer
one at a time until the entire cake is formed. 3D printing is somewhat similar, but
just a bit more precise than 3D baking
3-D printers are also called as manufacturing printers or fabrication printers
because they are used for manufacturing process also
HOW 3-D PRINTER WORKS
The basic principle of 3-D printer is to print the object layer by layer fill the
targeted object design.Printer has a framed structure and 3-D axis x,y,z. That
moves in different direction i.e., left, right, up and down.
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The starting of the 3d printing starts from creating 3 dimensional object using
design software like FUSION 360, SolidWorks etc. Then 3d designed object fed to
slicing software which converts the 3d object into the 2d layers objects and covets
these sliced layers into the gcodes which can be read by the 3d printer and this
gcode is fed to 3d printer machine using a Sd Card or USB by connecting directly
PC with printer
Fig. 1 Working of a 3D printer
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LITERATURE REVIEW
 Traditional v/s Additive Manufacturing
Traditional manufacturing methods are mainly subtractive or formative in
nature
 Subtractive manufacturing which is opposite of additive
manufacturing, involves removing material from a block of material
in order to create the desired shape
e.g., cutting wood into useful shapes for instance is a very simple example of
a subtractive process
 Whereas Formative manufacturing involves processes like injection
molding, die casting, pressing and stamping to form material into the
desired shape
Fig. 2 Subtractive manufacturing
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 Additive manufacturing (AM) creates object directly by stacking
layers of materials on each other until the required product is obtained
Fig. 3 Formative manufacturing
Fig. 4 Additive manufacturing
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 Advantages of Additive Manufacturing
 Creating complex geometries
Additive manufacturing can easily make complex geometries in easy
steps where in traditional manufacturing as geometry become intricate
the cost of production and tool required increased and thus increasing
the cost of product whereas in additive manufacturing cost of product
is negligibly vary with the geometry
 Material wastage
In general Traditional manufacturing like machining, material is being
removed from a block of material in form of chip which become
waste but in additive manufacturing there is negligible material
wastage because object is being formed layer by layer, only material
Fig. 5 complex geometry being manufactured by 3D printer
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waste is happen in the form of the support material which can be
easily recycled.
 Tool Wear and Tear
A tool is being required for accomplishing the task of manufacturing
in traditional manufacturing which got wear due to abrasion between
the tool and material object and also a tool has limited time period and
need replacement which add cost to manufacturing whereas in
Additive manufacturing there is no tool wear because there is no
abrasion in tool and need no replacement after some time so reduces
cost of tooling
Fig.6 Material wastage in Traditional manufacturing
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 Equipment and tools required
In Traditional manufacturing process, it can often requires several
steps, each using a different machine and for each new task, a new
tool is being required which increases the cost of the tooling but in
Additive manufacturing only single device handles all the aspects of
the creation
Fig.7 Tool wear in Traditional manufacturing
Fig.8 Different tool used in Traditional manufacturing
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 Skill of labour required
Traditional manufacturing requires a skilled labour for handling a
machine because a small mistake can cost a company but in Additive
manufacturing need less skilled labour because 3d printers creates
parts in a completely automated manner requiring little oversight from
the operator.
Fig.9 Automatic manufacturing by 3D printer
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 Steps involved in the 3D printing
1. Modeling the Part
A 3 dimensional object is designed by using computer aided design
(CAD) software
Software used: FUSION 360, Solid-works, Thinker-CAD etc.
This is the first and most important step because it involves defining
the geometry of the object which has to be printed if there is an error
in geometry designing then the printed object will be wrong and this
can cost the producer so a skilled design should be hireds for this job
The designed object should be in STL format or Obj format which can
be read by the Slicer software
Stl file defines the external closed surfaces of the original CAD model
Fig.10 Actual model v/s CAD design model
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2. Slicing
Slicing software convert the 3d model into 2d layer design model
which can be read by the 3d printer.
Slicing software functions
 convert 3d model into 2d layer objects
 Decides layer thickness
 Infill
 Support structure
Fig.11 User interface of Fusion 360
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Slicing software: Cura , Idea-maker, Craft-ware etc.
Fig.12 CAD design model v/s sliced model schematic figure
Fig.13 User interface of Slicing software (CURA)
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3. Post Processing
 Support Removal
 Sanding of the Printed Part
Fig.14 Support removal
Fig.15 Sanding of the 3D printed part
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 Painting
Fig.17 Painted Part v/s non painted parts
Fig.16 finished 3D printed part
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 3D Printing Technologies
There are different 3D printing technique and all 3D Printers do not use same
technology and there are numerous means to print layers so as to form the finish
product
Some technique liquefy the material or some uses high powered UV laser to
solidify photoreactive polymers resin
So, layers are stacked up in a variety of ways depending on the technology being
used. But main method is that all technology manufacture object layer by layer
Some of the technologies used are as follow:
1. FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING (FDM)
Fused deposition modeling also known as fused filament fabrication (fff).
Fused deposition modeling basically use two king of material , a modeling
material which constitutes the finished object and a support material which
acts as a scaffolding to support the object as it being printed.
FDM consist of an extruder arrangement with a nozzle in the filament is
being fed and being melted at desired temperature at hot end of the nozzle
and being deposited on the base.
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During Printing these material are fed through an extrusion nozzle. The
nozzle melts the filaments and extrude them onto a base, sometimes called a
build platform or heatbed as its being heated upto 60°C so that the warping
i.e., bending of corner of parts due to cooling.
Both the nozzle and the base are controlled by a circuit that translates the
dimensions of an object into X,Y,Z coordinate for the nozzle and base to
follow during the printing
Fig.18 Nozzle and Extruder assembly of FDM technique
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The advantages of this technology is that we can make both hollow and
solid parts with requires infill percentage which saves a lot of material and
make this technique most economical one
Fig.19 Mechanism of the FDM technology
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INFILL
 Infill is the internal structure that is printed inside an object
 FDM is the only technology in which we can define the infill of a structure
which saves a lot of material
 Infill is decided on the basis of purpose of the part if it is for decorative
purpose than low infill will be good and if part is being used for a structure
then infill should be increases up to 40-50%which will be enough
 As percentage of infill increases the strength of the part increases but time
taken to print the part increases
 It is extruded in a designated percentage and pattern, which is set in the
slicing software
 Infill percentage and pattern influence print weight, material usage, strength,
print time and sometimes decorative properties
Fig.19(a) different infill percentage
25
Support structures
 Support structures are used to provide support to the overhang parts or
intricate models
 Support structure are used to provide a base for deposition of the material
because extruded filament will need a base
 Material wastage is only taken in the form of the support structures, a part
with less support structure will have low material wastage
Fig.19(b) overhanged parts shown as Red
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2. Stereolithography (SLA)
This technique uses a Vat of polymer resin and produce parts in a layer by
layer fashion using photochemical processes by which light causes chemical
monomers to link together to form polymers as expose to UV laser causes
the chains of atoms in the polymer gum to connect.
This is basically the first 3D printing technology to be known. So SLA
holds the historical distinction of being world first 3D printing technology
and was founded by Chuck Hull in 1980 in U.S.A.
This uses a high powered pointed UV laser and is being controlled by the
mirror galvanometer which converts the electric signals into the movements
and thus controlling the direction of the laser, as laser moves and come into
the contact of the resin its gets solidify.
The benefits of this technology is that it has high quality resolution and
finished product, also this technique can make any intricate object.
The drawback of this technique is that it uses a pointed laser so it takes
more times to print and through this technique it’s also not possible to create
a closed and hollow object, also polymers which can be converted into the
resin can be used.
27
Fig.21 Schematic diagram of STL technology
Fig.20 STL printed part
28
3. SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
Creating an object with powder bed fusion technology and polymer base
powder is generally known as Selective Laser Sintering(SLS)
It consist of two bin of powder , one on which laser work and other bin
powder is used for delivering to another bin.
First bin of polymer powder is heated to a temperature just below the
polymers melting point. Next a recoating blade or wiper deposits a very thin
layer of powdered material typically 0.1mm thick onto a build platform. So
this is a process of compacting and forming a solidmass of material by heat
without melting it to the point of liquefaction. CO2 laser beam is used for
sintering purpose.
This process begins with scanning the surface, when the entire cross section
is scanned the build platform will move down one layer thickness in height.
The recoating blade deposits a fresh layer of powder on the top of the
recently scanned layer and the layer will sinter the next cross section of
object onto the previously solidified cross section.
The benefit of this technique is that it can make fully colored object by
using different colored powder layer and in this objects does not require
support material as object is being supported by the powder present below
the object in the bin.
29
The drawbacks are that this can be very messy as its uses powder and must
be carried out in a completely sealed chamber of inert gas and at a precise
temperature.
Fig.22 Schematic diagram of the Selective laser sintering
technology
30
 Manufacturing and consumption of Products
 Traditional Manufacturing
In the traditional manufacturing the object which has to be consumed
by the consumer is first manufactured in an industry and then its being
transported or imported through the trucks or ships to the desire place
and then the products are available in nearby shopping mall or shops
,so that consumer can buy that product
 Additive Manufacturing
In additive manufacturing a consumer can design his/her own product
at home and can easily manufacture it with any 3D printing
technologies, so this method basically saves time
Use of this method are basically where , there the delivery of an item
or product took time and not easy to send.
Fig.23 Traditional manufacturing and consumption
31
e.g., Space stations and natural disaster places
If International space station has any damage part then the part has to be deliver by
some rocket which can be very costly so in place of sending the parts through
Fig.24 Additive manufacturing and direct consumption
Fig 25. International Space Station
32
rockets , a 3D printer can be send with space station and if any parts can damage
the astronauts can easily manufacture at space station and can save a lot of cost
Fig 26. an astronaut with 3D printed Part in Space station
33
Applications of 3D printers
 Doctors can build a model of damage body parts to analyze it and plan
better procedure for operation
 Market researchers can see what people think of a particular new
product
 Rapid prototyping makes it easier for artists to explore their creativity
Fig 27. Application of 3D printers
34
 3D printing can be used for making decorative and aesthetic looking
product which can attract more customer
 Prosthetic parts can be easily manufactured for disabled peoples
 3D printing can play a vital role for developing the creativity of
students by letting them to use the 3d printers in school and colleges
 It also a boon for food industries as 3D printers can easily make
eatable and decorative product by replacing the polymer filament
Fig.28 3D printed body parts
35
Fig.29 prosthetic part manufactured by 3D printer
Fig 30. Use of 3D printer in Food Industry
36
Fig 31. Kids using 3D printer
37
Challenges facing in 3D printers
3D printing is only limited for the Polymer or polymer based material like
composite filament of carbon fiber with polymer as a base. So there is still a
lot of work and research has to be accomplished before additive
manufacturing technology becomes standard in manufacturing industries
because not every commonly used manufacturing material can be handled
In wrong hands, weapons like guns can be easily manufactured if a person
get the design of the gun. So its very necessary for which purpose a person is
purchasing a 3D printer
Fig.32 3D printed Gun
38
Concluding remarks
3D printer is a device which uses different techniques to make an object layer by
layer. The basic principle of 3D printing, is that it creates a part layer by layer,
instead of subtractive methods of manufacturing, which remove material from a
block of material which provide additive manufacturing a benefits saving material
Instead of starting with a big chunk of plastic and carving away (milling or
turning) the surface in order to produce your product. Additive manufacturing only
"prints" what you want, where you want it. Other manufacturing techniques can be
just as wasteful. 3D printing is future just-in-time method of manufacturing. .no
longer to wait for availability of product in nearby shop or shopping centers Just
you need to have 3D printer which can print at your own demands also you can
design your own product at your wish and print it at your home which gives 3D
printing a benefits. You can add your own desired features on the parts which
means it is fully customized Whether you are designing any parts just keep in mind
whether the part is cost effective or not. Additive manufacturing open up your
designs to a whole new level. Because undercuts, complex geometry and thin
walled parts are difficult to manufacture using traditional methods, but are
sometimes a piece of cake with 3D printing. The geometry using additive
manufacturing techniques is very simple to calculate, since each layer is analysed
39
separately and 2D information is always simpler than 3D. This mathematical
difference, while hard to explain is the fundamental reason why 3D printing is
superior to other manufacturing techniques. It almost always better to keep things
simple and additive manufacturing is simple by its very nature. With so many
potential benefits of 3D printing, there’s no surprise that this method is making its
way through a diverse number of industries and quickly becoming a favourite tool
of progressive marketers. Comparing the numerous advantages, applications and
future scope, we can conclude that the 3D printer and its technology is able to
create next industrial revolution.
40
References
 https://all3dp.com/1/types-of-3d-printers-3d-printing-technology/
 https://all3dp.com/2/3d-printing-supports-guide-all-you-need-to-
know/
 Optimization of 3D-Printer Process Parameters for Improving Quality
of Polylactic Acid Printed Part A. E. Tontowi#1, L. Ramdani#2, R. V.
Erdizon#3, D. K. Baroroh#4 # Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah
Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
 Comparison of Different Types of 3D Printing Technologies
Shiwpursad Jasveer*, Xue Jianbin**
 https://www.slideshare.net/MonarchMetal/how-common-
manufacturing-methods-compare
 https://www.geeetech.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=19919

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Report on 3D printing , types, application, challenges

  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2 A SEMINAR REPORT ON RAPID PROTOTYPING SUBMITTED BY Rajat Srivastav Roll no. 15001004061 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering DEENBANDHU CHHOTU RAM UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY MURTHAL, HARYANA 2019
  • 3. 3 CONTENTS SI NO. Page no.  Contents 3  List of Figures 4  Acknowledgement 5  Abstract 6  Introduction 7  Literature review 10-37 .1. Traditional v/s Additive manufacturing 10 .2. Steps involved in 3D printing 16 .3. Types of 3D Printing Technologies 21 .4. Manufacturing and consumption of products 30 .5. Application of 3D Printing 33 .6. Challenges faced in 3D printing 37  Concluding remarks 38  References 39
  • 4. 4 LIST OF FIGURES  Fig. 1 Working of a 3D printer  Fig. 2 Subtractive manufacturing  Fig. 3 Formative manufacturing Fig. 4 Additive manufacturing  Fig. 5 complex geometry being manufactured by 3D printer  Fig.6 Material wastage in Traditional manufacturing  Fig.7 Tool wear in Traditional manufacturing  Fig.8 Different tool used in Traditional manufacturing  Fig.9 Automatic manufacturing by 3D printer  Fig.10 Actual model v/s CAD design model  Fig.11 User interface of Fusion 360  Fig.12 CAD design model v/s sliced model schematic figure  Fig.13 User interface of Slicing software (CURA)  Fig.14 Support removal  Fig.15 Sanding of the 3D printed part  Fig.16 finished 3D printed part  Fig.17 Painted Part v/s non painted parts  Fig.18 Nozzle and Extruder assembly of FDM technique  Fig.19 Mechanism of the FDM technology  Fig.19 Different infill percentage  Fig.19(b) over hanged parts shown as Red  Fig.20 STL printed part  Fig.21 Schematic diagram of STL technology  Fig.22 Schematic diagram of the Selective laser sintering  Fig.23 Traditional manufacturing and consumption  Fig.24 Additive manufacturing and direct consumption  Fig 25. International Space Station  Fig 26. an astronaut with 3D printed Part in Space station  Fig 27. Application of 3D printers  Fig.28 3D printed body parts  Fig.29 prosthetic part manufactured by 3D printer  Fig 30. Use of 3D printer in Food Industry  Fig 31. Kids using 3D printer  Fig.32 3D printed Gun
  • 5. 5 Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. M.N. Mishra and Dr. R.K.Garg who gave me the opportunity to give a Power Point Presentation and prepare a report on such an intriguing yet important topic. They are my real inspiration since I joined D.C.R.U.S.T as a student. I have taken tiring efforts in this report and presentation. However it would not have been possible for me to complete it without God’s grace and the nature respondents. I would also like to thank to my batch mates whose dedication to work hard motivated me a lot. Had they have not done this I would not have worked on it hundred times more efficiently. I would like to appreciate my special gratitude and thanks to Mr. Chuck Hull who researched on this particular topic and opened wide dimensions for the world. Along with it my family members who motivated me and last but not the least thanks to our all-time favourite search engine Google for all the information present all over the globe.
  • 6. 6 ABSTRACT Rapid prototyping is a group of technologies used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using 3-Dimensional computer aided design data. Rapid prototyping was found by chuck hull. In 1980 and got patent in 1984. He is the inventor of the solid imaging process known as stereo-lithography, the first commercial rapid prototyping technology, and the STL file format. Rapid prototyping often known as Additive manufacturing or 3d printing. These names were given to Rapid prototyping in early 2000 when it was started to use for manufacturing apart from making models and prototypes 3-D printing techniques have a big scope in the near future in manufacturing industries .These printing technology is generally used where the prototyping is an important part in the industries. 3-D printing technology has wide application in manufacturing industry i.e. to make medical artificial bones, prosthetic foot, teeth cap along with low manufacturing cost By eliminating production steps and using substantially less material, ‘additive’ processes could be able to reduce waste and save more than 50% of energy compared to today’s ‘subtractive’ manufacturing processes, and reduce material costs by up to 90%. The use of additive manufacturing can potentially benefit a wide range of industries including defense, aerospace, automotive, biomedical, consumer products, and metals manufacturing..
  • 7. 7 INTRODUCTION Rapid Prototyping refers to technologies that create objects directly by stacking layers of materials on each other until the required product is obtained. These technologies basically works on principle of layer by layer deposition of material The first form of creating layer by layer a 3 dimensional object using computer aided design (CAD), was Rapid Prototyping developed, founded in the early 1980’s by Chuck Hull in U.S.A. In the early 1980’s 3-D printers were focused on scale models by using CAD(Computer Aided Design). Chuck hull issues the first patent of 3-D printer “apparatus for production of 3 dimensional objects by stereography” in 1984 Chuck hull started the first 3-D printing company, 3-D systems corporations. This technology was created to help and for realization of what engineers or a designer have in mind and what or how the final product will be look like in real. With rapid prototyping scientists and students can rapidly build and analyze models for theoretical studies. 3-D printer is basically a concept to make and print the object layer by layer and thus making it “3-D printer” WHAT IS A 3-D PRINTER A 3-D printer is a type of material design printer that design and build 3-D models and product of devices and components using an Additive manufacturing processes. 3 dimensional prototypes are created by the 3-D printers by directly building them using different software. Different software:- CAD(Computer Aided Design), Solid works, pro-e etc.
  • 8. 8 We live in an age that is witness to what many are calling the Third Industrial Revolution. 3D printing, more professionally called additive manufacturing, moves us away from the Henry Ford era mass production line, and will bring us to a new reality of customizable, one-off production. 3D printers use a variety of very different types of additive manufacturing technologies, but they all share one core thing in common: they create a three dimensional object by building it layer by successive layer, until the entire object is complete. It’s much like printing in two dimensions on a sheet of paper, but with an added third dimension: UP. The Z-axis. Each of these printed layers is a thinly-sliced, horizontal cross-section of the eventual object. Imagine a multi-layer cake, with the baker laying down each layer one at a time until the entire cake is formed. 3D printing is somewhat similar, but just a bit more precise than 3D baking 3-D printers are also called as manufacturing printers or fabrication printers because they are used for manufacturing process also HOW 3-D PRINTER WORKS The basic principle of 3-D printer is to print the object layer by layer fill the targeted object design.Printer has a framed structure and 3-D axis x,y,z. That moves in different direction i.e., left, right, up and down.
  • 9. 9 The starting of the 3d printing starts from creating 3 dimensional object using design software like FUSION 360, SolidWorks etc. Then 3d designed object fed to slicing software which converts the 3d object into the 2d layers objects and covets these sliced layers into the gcodes which can be read by the 3d printer and this gcode is fed to 3d printer machine using a Sd Card or USB by connecting directly PC with printer Fig. 1 Working of a 3D printer
  • 10. 10 LITERATURE REVIEW  Traditional v/s Additive Manufacturing Traditional manufacturing methods are mainly subtractive or formative in nature  Subtractive manufacturing which is opposite of additive manufacturing, involves removing material from a block of material in order to create the desired shape e.g., cutting wood into useful shapes for instance is a very simple example of a subtractive process  Whereas Formative manufacturing involves processes like injection molding, die casting, pressing and stamping to form material into the desired shape Fig. 2 Subtractive manufacturing
  • 11. 11  Additive manufacturing (AM) creates object directly by stacking layers of materials on each other until the required product is obtained Fig. 3 Formative manufacturing Fig. 4 Additive manufacturing
  • 12. 12  Advantages of Additive Manufacturing  Creating complex geometries Additive manufacturing can easily make complex geometries in easy steps where in traditional manufacturing as geometry become intricate the cost of production and tool required increased and thus increasing the cost of product whereas in additive manufacturing cost of product is negligibly vary with the geometry  Material wastage In general Traditional manufacturing like machining, material is being removed from a block of material in form of chip which become waste but in additive manufacturing there is negligible material wastage because object is being formed layer by layer, only material Fig. 5 complex geometry being manufactured by 3D printer
  • 13. 13 waste is happen in the form of the support material which can be easily recycled.  Tool Wear and Tear A tool is being required for accomplishing the task of manufacturing in traditional manufacturing which got wear due to abrasion between the tool and material object and also a tool has limited time period and need replacement which add cost to manufacturing whereas in Additive manufacturing there is no tool wear because there is no abrasion in tool and need no replacement after some time so reduces cost of tooling Fig.6 Material wastage in Traditional manufacturing
  • 14. 14  Equipment and tools required In Traditional manufacturing process, it can often requires several steps, each using a different machine and for each new task, a new tool is being required which increases the cost of the tooling but in Additive manufacturing only single device handles all the aspects of the creation Fig.7 Tool wear in Traditional manufacturing Fig.8 Different tool used in Traditional manufacturing
  • 15. 15  Skill of labour required Traditional manufacturing requires a skilled labour for handling a machine because a small mistake can cost a company but in Additive manufacturing need less skilled labour because 3d printers creates parts in a completely automated manner requiring little oversight from the operator. Fig.9 Automatic manufacturing by 3D printer
  • 16. 16  Steps involved in the 3D printing 1. Modeling the Part A 3 dimensional object is designed by using computer aided design (CAD) software Software used: FUSION 360, Solid-works, Thinker-CAD etc. This is the first and most important step because it involves defining the geometry of the object which has to be printed if there is an error in geometry designing then the printed object will be wrong and this can cost the producer so a skilled design should be hireds for this job The designed object should be in STL format or Obj format which can be read by the Slicer software Stl file defines the external closed surfaces of the original CAD model Fig.10 Actual model v/s CAD design model
  • 17. 17 2. Slicing Slicing software convert the 3d model into 2d layer design model which can be read by the 3d printer. Slicing software functions  convert 3d model into 2d layer objects  Decides layer thickness  Infill  Support structure Fig.11 User interface of Fusion 360
  • 18. 18 Slicing software: Cura , Idea-maker, Craft-ware etc. Fig.12 CAD design model v/s sliced model schematic figure Fig.13 User interface of Slicing software (CURA)
  • 19. 19 3. Post Processing  Support Removal  Sanding of the Printed Part Fig.14 Support removal Fig.15 Sanding of the 3D printed part
  • 20. 20  Painting Fig.17 Painted Part v/s non painted parts Fig.16 finished 3D printed part
  • 21. 21  3D Printing Technologies There are different 3D printing technique and all 3D Printers do not use same technology and there are numerous means to print layers so as to form the finish product Some technique liquefy the material or some uses high powered UV laser to solidify photoreactive polymers resin So, layers are stacked up in a variety of ways depending on the technology being used. But main method is that all technology manufacture object layer by layer Some of the technologies used are as follow: 1. FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING (FDM) Fused deposition modeling also known as fused filament fabrication (fff). Fused deposition modeling basically use two king of material , a modeling material which constitutes the finished object and a support material which acts as a scaffolding to support the object as it being printed. FDM consist of an extruder arrangement with a nozzle in the filament is being fed and being melted at desired temperature at hot end of the nozzle and being deposited on the base.
  • 22. 22 During Printing these material are fed through an extrusion nozzle. The nozzle melts the filaments and extrude them onto a base, sometimes called a build platform or heatbed as its being heated upto 60°C so that the warping i.e., bending of corner of parts due to cooling. Both the nozzle and the base are controlled by a circuit that translates the dimensions of an object into X,Y,Z coordinate for the nozzle and base to follow during the printing Fig.18 Nozzle and Extruder assembly of FDM technique
  • 23. 23 The advantages of this technology is that we can make both hollow and solid parts with requires infill percentage which saves a lot of material and make this technique most economical one Fig.19 Mechanism of the FDM technology
  • 24. 24 INFILL  Infill is the internal structure that is printed inside an object  FDM is the only technology in which we can define the infill of a structure which saves a lot of material  Infill is decided on the basis of purpose of the part if it is for decorative purpose than low infill will be good and if part is being used for a structure then infill should be increases up to 40-50%which will be enough  As percentage of infill increases the strength of the part increases but time taken to print the part increases  It is extruded in a designated percentage and pattern, which is set in the slicing software  Infill percentage and pattern influence print weight, material usage, strength, print time and sometimes decorative properties Fig.19(a) different infill percentage
  • 25. 25 Support structures  Support structures are used to provide support to the overhang parts or intricate models  Support structure are used to provide a base for deposition of the material because extruded filament will need a base  Material wastage is only taken in the form of the support structures, a part with less support structure will have low material wastage Fig.19(b) overhanged parts shown as Red
  • 26. 26 2. Stereolithography (SLA) This technique uses a Vat of polymer resin and produce parts in a layer by layer fashion using photochemical processes by which light causes chemical monomers to link together to form polymers as expose to UV laser causes the chains of atoms in the polymer gum to connect. This is basically the first 3D printing technology to be known. So SLA holds the historical distinction of being world first 3D printing technology and was founded by Chuck Hull in 1980 in U.S.A. This uses a high powered pointed UV laser and is being controlled by the mirror galvanometer which converts the electric signals into the movements and thus controlling the direction of the laser, as laser moves and come into the contact of the resin its gets solidify. The benefits of this technology is that it has high quality resolution and finished product, also this technique can make any intricate object. The drawback of this technique is that it uses a pointed laser so it takes more times to print and through this technique it’s also not possible to create a closed and hollow object, also polymers which can be converted into the resin can be used.
  • 27. 27 Fig.21 Schematic diagram of STL technology Fig.20 STL printed part
  • 28. 28 3. SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING Creating an object with powder bed fusion technology and polymer base powder is generally known as Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) It consist of two bin of powder , one on which laser work and other bin powder is used for delivering to another bin. First bin of polymer powder is heated to a temperature just below the polymers melting point. Next a recoating blade or wiper deposits a very thin layer of powdered material typically 0.1mm thick onto a build platform. So this is a process of compacting and forming a solidmass of material by heat without melting it to the point of liquefaction. CO2 laser beam is used for sintering purpose. This process begins with scanning the surface, when the entire cross section is scanned the build platform will move down one layer thickness in height. The recoating blade deposits a fresh layer of powder on the top of the recently scanned layer and the layer will sinter the next cross section of object onto the previously solidified cross section. The benefit of this technique is that it can make fully colored object by using different colored powder layer and in this objects does not require support material as object is being supported by the powder present below the object in the bin.
  • 29. 29 The drawbacks are that this can be very messy as its uses powder and must be carried out in a completely sealed chamber of inert gas and at a precise temperature. Fig.22 Schematic diagram of the Selective laser sintering technology
  • 30. 30  Manufacturing and consumption of Products  Traditional Manufacturing In the traditional manufacturing the object which has to be consumed by the consumer is first manufactured in an industry and then its being transported or imported through the trucks or ships to the desire place and then the products are available in nearby shopping mall or shops ,so that consumer can buy that product  Additive Manufacturing In additive manufacturing a consumer can design his/her own product at home and can easily manufacture it with any 3D printing technologies, so this method basically saves time Use of this method are basically where , there the delivery of an item or product took time and not easy to send. Fig.23 Traditional manufacturing and consumption
  • 31. 31 e.g., Space stations and natural disaster places If International space station has any damage part then the part has to be deliver by some rocket which can be very costly so in place of sending the parts through Fig.24 Additive manufacturing and direct consumption Fig 25. International Space Station
  • 32. 32 rockets , a 3D printer can be send with space station and if any parts can damage the astronauts can easily manufacture at space station and can save a lot of cost Fig 26. an astronaut with 3D printed Part in Space station
  • 33. 33 Applications of 3D printers  Doctors can build a model of damage body parts to analyze it and plan better procedure for operation  Market researchers can see what people think of a particular new product  Rapid prototyping makes it easier for artists to explore their creativity Fig 27. Application of 3D printers
  • 34. 34  3D printing can be used for making decorative and aesthetic looking product which can attract more customer  Prosthetic parts can be easily manufactured for disabled peoples  3D printing can play a vital role for developing the creativity of students by letting them to use the 3d printers in school and colleges  It also a boon for food industries as 3D printers can easily make eatable and decorative product by replacing the polymer filament Fig.28 3D printed body parts
  • 35. 35 Fig.29 prosthetic part manufactured by 3D printer Fig 30. Use of 3D printer in Food Industry
  • 36. 36 Fig 31. Kids using 3D printer
  • 37. 37 Challenges facing in 3D printers 3D printing is only limited for the Polymer or polymer based material like composite filament of carbon fiber with polymer as a base. So there is still a lot of work and research has to be accomplished before additive manufacturing technology becomes standard in manufacturing industries because not every commonly used manufacturing material can be handled In wrong hands, weapons like guns can be easily manufactured if a person get the design of the gun. So its very necessary for which purpose a person is purchasing a 3D printer Fig.32 3D printed Gun
  • 38. 38 Concluding remarks 3D printer is a device which uses different techniques to make an object layer by layer. The basic principle of 3D printing, is that it creates a part layer by layer, instead of subtractive methods of manufacturing, which remove material from a block of material which provide additive manufacturing a benefits saving material Instead of starting with a big chunk of plastic and carving away (milling or turning) the surface in order to produce your product. Additive manufacturing only "prints" what you want, where you want it. Other manufacturing techniques can be just as wasteful. 3D printing is future just-in-time method of manufacturing. .no longer to wait for availability of product in nearby shop or shopping centers Just you need to have 3D printer which can print at your own demands also you can design your own product at your wish and print it at your home which gives 3D printing a benefits. You can add your own desired features on the parts which means it is fully customized Whether you are designing any parts just keep in mind whether the part is cost effective or not. Additive manufacturing open up your designs to a whole new level. Because undercuts, complex geometry and thin walled parts are difficult to manufacture using traditional methods, but are sometimes a piece of cake with 3D printing. The geometry using additive manufacturing techniques is very simple to calculate, since each layer is analysed
  • 39. 39 separately and 2D information is always simpler than 3D. This mathematical difference, while hard to explain is the fundamental reason why 3D printing is superior to other manufacturing techniques. It almost always better to keep things simple and additive manufacturing is simple by its very nature. With so many potential benefits of 3D printing, there’s no surprise that this method is making its way through a diverse number of industries and quickly becoming a favourite tool of progressive marketers. Comparing the numerous advantages, applications and future scope, we can conclude that the 3D printer and its technology is able to create next industrial revolution.
  • 40. 40 References  https://all3dp.com/1/types-of-3d-printers-3d-printing-technology/  https://all3dp.com/2/3d-printing-supports-guide-all-you-need-to- know/  Optimization of 3D-Printer Process Parameters for Improving Quality of Polylactic Acid Printed Part A. E. Tontowi#1, L. Ramdani#2, R. V. Erdizon#3, D. K. Baroroh#4 # Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia  Comparison of Different Types of 3D Printing Technologies Shiwpursad Jasveer*, Xue Jianbin**  https://www.slideshare.net/MonarchMetal/how-common- manufacturing-methods-compare  https://www.geeetech.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=19919