Chapter 7 Consumer Learning


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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

Chapter 7 Consumer Learning

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Consumer Learning
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Elements of Consumer Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of Consumer Learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning <ul><li>The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers must teach consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where to buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to dispose of products </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Theories <ul><li>Behavioral Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning based on mental information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often in response to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Discussion Question <ul><li>For Coca-Cola: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How have they used behavioral theory in their marketing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive theory? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have they built brand loyalty? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. weblink
  7. 7. Elements of Learning Theories <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behavioral Learning Theories <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling or Observational Learning </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
  10. 10. Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7-2a
  11. 11. Figure 7-2b
  12. 12. We now associate this product with strength.
  13. 13. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Slows the pace of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising wearout is a problem </li></ul>Basic Concepts
  14. 14. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Having the same response to slightly different stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Helps “me-too” products to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in product extensions </li></ul>Basic Concepts
  15. 15. Discussion Question Stimulus Generalization <ul><li>How does CVS Pharmacy use stimulus generalization for their private brands? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think it is effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Should this be allowable? </li></ul>weblink
  16. 16. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs </li></ul>Basic Concepts
  17. 17. Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
  18. 18. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>
  19. 19. A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7-10
  20. 20. Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing <ul><li>Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Massed versus Distributed Learning </li></ul>
  21. 21. Observational Learning A process by which individuals observe how others behave in response to certain stimuli and reinforcements. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.
  22. 22. The consumer observes a positive response by two teens.
  23. 23. Cognitive Learning Theory Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
  24. 24. Information Processing <ul><li>Relates to cognitive ability and the complexity of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals differ in imagery – their ability to form mental images which influences recall </li></ul>
  25. 25. Information Processing and Memory Stores - Figure 7.14
  26. 26. Information Processing <ul><li>Movement from short-term to long-term storage depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Discussion Question <ul><li>How do advertisers drive consumers to rehearse information? </li></ul><ul><li>When does this work against the advertiser? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of examples of advertisements which drive you to rehearse? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Retention <ul><li>Information is stored in long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodically : by the order in which it is acquired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically : according to significant concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total package of associations is called a schema </li></ul>
  29. 29. Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive Learning Attention Cognitive Action Conative Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest Evaluation Persuasion Knowledge Awareness Awareness Knowledge Interest Desire Sequential Stages of Processing Innovation Adoption Model Decision-Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model
  30. 30. Issues in Involvement Theory <ul><li>Consumer Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Measure of Involvement </li></ul>
  31. 31. Consumer Relevance <ul><li>Involvement depends on degree of personal relevance. </li></ul><ul><li>High involvement is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very important to the consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provokes extensive problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion <ul><li>Central route to persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For high involvement purchases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires cognitive processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral route to persuasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer less motivated to think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through repetition, visual cues, and holistic perception </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Peripheral route to persuasion
  34. 34. Measures of Consumer Learning <ul><li>Recognition and Recall Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aided and Unaided Recall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Responses to Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty </li></ul>
  35. 35. Brand Loyalty <ul><li>Function of three groups of influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four types of loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covetous loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premium loyalty </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Harley-Davidson Has Strong Brand Loyalty weblink
  37. 37. Brand Equity <ul><li>Refers to the value inherent in a well-known brand name </li></ul><ul><li>Value stems from consumer’s perception of brand superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity reflects learned brand loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Brand loyalty and brand equity lead to increased market share and greater profits </li></ul>