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CHAPTER FOUR
1
Learning Objectives
1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs
and Motives and the Meaning of Goals.
2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation,
Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and
Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals.
3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs
Developed by Researchers.
4. To Understand How Human Motives Are
Studied and Measured.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2Chapter Four
Slide
Motivation as a Psychological
Force
• Motivation is the
driving force within
individuals that impels
them to action.
• Needs are the essence
of the marketing
concept. Marketers do
not create needs but can
make consumers aware
of needs.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3Chapter Four
Slide
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
4Chapter Four
Slide
Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered
primary needs or motives
Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are
generally psychological and considered secondary needs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
5Chapter Four
Slide
Goals
The sought-after results of motivated behavior
Generic goals are general categories of goals that
consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs
Product-specific goals are specifically branded
products or services that consumers select as their
goals
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
6Chapter Four
Slide
The Selection of Goals
The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms and values
Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social
environment
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
7Chapter Four
Slide
Motivations and Goals
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
8Chapter Four
Slide
Rational versus Emotional Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select goals
based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight,
price, or miles per gallon
Emotional motives imply the selection of goals
according to personal or subjective criteria
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
9Chapter Four
Slide
The Dynamics of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
People who achieve their goals set new and higher
goals for themselves
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
10Chapter Four
Slide
Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific
goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need
The substitute goal will dispel tension
Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal
over time
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
11Chapter Four
Slide
Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration.
Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to
protect their ego.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
12Chapter Four
Slide
Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal
Emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal
Environmental arousal
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
13Chapter Four
Slide
Philosophies Concerned with
Arousal of Motives
Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus
Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
Consumer does not act, but reacts
Cognitive School
Behavior is directed at goal achievement
Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized,
and transformed into attitudes and beliefs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14Chapter Four
Slide
Types and Systems of Needs
Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
A trio of needs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
15Chapter Four
Slide
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
16Chapter Four
Slide
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
(continued)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
17Chapter Four
Slide
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Figure 4.10
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
18Chapter Four
Slide
A Trio of Needs
Power
individual’s desire to control environment
Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
Achievement
need for personal accomplishment
closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
1919
Chapter Four
Slide
Measurement of Motives
Researchers rely on a
combination of techniques
Qualitative research is widely
used
Projective techniques are
often very successful in
identifying motives.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
20Chapter Four
Slide

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Consumer Behaviour Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

  • 2. Learning Objectives 1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and Motives and the Meaning of Goals. 2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals. 3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers. 4. To Understand How Human Motives Are Studied and Measured. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2Chapter Four Slide
  • 3. Motivation as a Psychological Force • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. • Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3Chapter Four Slide
  • 4. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4Chapter Four Slide
  • 5. Types of Needs Innate Needs Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired Needs Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 5Chapter Four Slide
  • 6. Goals The sought-after results of motivated behavior Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6Chapter Four Slide
  • 7. The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7Chapter Four Slide
  • 8. Motivations and Goals Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8Chapter Four Slide
  • 9. Rational versus Emotional Motives Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9Chapter Four Slide
  • 10. The Dynamics of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10Chapter Four Slide
  • 11. Substitute Goals Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need The substitute goal will dispel tension Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11Chapter Four Slide
  • 12. Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12Chapter Four Slide
  • 13. Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13Chapter Four Slide
  • 14. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives Behaviorist School Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School Behavior is directed at goal achievement Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14Chapter Four Slide
  • 15. Types and Systems of Needs Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs A trio of needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15Chapter Four Slide
  • 16. Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16Chapter Four Slide
  • 17. Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs (continued) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 17Chapter Four Slide
  • 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 18Chapter Four Slide
  • 19. A Trio of Needs Power individual’s desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1919 Chapter Four Slide
  • 20. Measurement of Motives Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Qualitative research is widely used Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 20Chapter Four Slide

Editor's Notes

  1. Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Four.
  2. Motivation is produced by a state of tension, by having a need which is unfulfilled. Consumers want to fulfill these needs and reduce the state of tension. For example, when you are very hungry, you are extremely motivated to find food. Perhaps when you need a new pair of pants, you are a bit less motivated to fulfill this need as compared to your need for food. In the case of needing pants, it is important for marketers to help increase your motivation and/or specify your need for their products - perhaps Diesel Jeans.
  3. This model highlights the motivation process. We can see that the “drive” toward behavior will often end in the fulfillment of the need. The processes and effects of previous learning tie strongly into choices made when the behavior is defined.
  4. The example of the need for food compared to a new pair of jeans can be further described by understanding types of needs. The need for food is more of an innate need and is considered a primary need. The need for a pair of jeans would be considered acquired. The need for clothing could be considered primary, but the need specifically for a pair of jeans is acquired, especially when they are a certain brand or designer jean. Needs may have a positive or negative direction. There are in fact some products we are NOT drawn to. For example, when people shop for funeral services, this is not something they are usually drawn to but rather must pursue and purchase.
  5. Continuing with our example of jeans, we can understand the types of goals that exist. When a consumer states they want a pair of jeans, they have stated a generic goal. When they announce they really want a pair of Calvin Klein jeans, then they have stated product-specific goals.
  6. Consumers have many possible goals when making decisions. They are strongly influenced by their experiences, personality, and others’ opinions and input. When choosing goals, they have to keep in mind what is socially acceptable and what they can physically attain. Think of a recent decision you might have made to go on a vacation. How was it influenced by personal experiences, the accessibility of the goal, and the social environment?
  7. We learned in an earlier slide that needs can be positive or negative. The same is true for goals which can be positive or negative. A positive goal would include joining a gym to get strong and train for an upcoming race. Another person, with a negative goal, might join the gym to avoid health problems that will certainly exist if they do not exercise regularly. Which are you?
  8. There has been extensive research regarding rational versus emotional motives during purchase. Their existence has been tied to how consumers view marketing variables, including advertisements and pricing adjustments. Furthermore, it must be realized that the definition of emotional vs. rational motivation differs significantly from one consumer to another and in different situations.
  9. Motivation is highly dynamic and constantly changes in response to life experiences. Motivations change as we age, interact with others, change careers, acquire wealth, become ill, marry or divorce, or pursue education. Humans constantly have needs. This is due in part to the fact that our needs are never fully satisfied, or once satisfied, reappear. Hunger is a good example of a need that is often not satisfied and reappears. As humans, we also develop new needs as we satisfy existing needs. The hierarch of effects model shows how we meet our lower-level needs first and then move up the hierarchy. Finally, our needs are based on the goals that we set for ourselves. If one sets a goal to enter politics, they may feel they need a law degree. However, if they are unsuccessful in getting accepted at law school, their needs may change and they may want to pursue a few years of work experience first and need to find a job.
  10. It is very common that a consumer can not attain a goal. This may be due to a lack of money, ability, desire, or accessibility. In this instance, the consumer often substitutes a different goal to reduce the tension created from the existence of this need. In time, this substitute goal might replace the initial goal. For instance, if a consumer wanted a certain cable television service, but it was not available in their area, they might choose a satellite television provider. Over time, they may be very satisfied with this choice and feel that they actually prefer the satellite service over the cable television service.
  11. Failure to achieve a goal and the frustration that follows has been experienced by everyone at some time or another. Marketers must realize what consumers’ responses might be and how they can address these responses. Online education exists for those who are too far or do not have the structured time to attend college. The table on the next slide represents several defense mechanisms that consumers might exhibit when they are frustrated about not meeting a goal. The understanding of these defense mechanisms will help provide many opportunities to craft advertising messages to reach the emotional side of the consumers.
  12. A consumer has a variety of needs but only some of them are aroused at any given time and given top-of-mind priority. Motives become aroused by the consumer’s psychological condition (they get hungry), their emotional state (frustrated), cognitive processes (they read an ad that made them think about their needs), or by events occurring in their general surroundings (the weather becomes cold).
  13. There are two opposing philosophies that deal with the arousal of human motives. The behaviorists see motivation as a mechanical process that results from a stimulus – something prompts the behavior and people behave or react. On the other hand, the cognitive school believes that all behavior is directed toward a fulfilling of goals – consumers think through their motives.
  14. Researchers are interested in developing a complete list of human needs. Although basic biological needs are easily understood and agreed upon, it is the psychological and psychosocial needs that differ from researcher to researcher. Murray and Maslow have both developed lists of needs and Maslow orders them within a hierarchy from lower-level to higher-level needs. Somewhat related to Maslow’s theory is the belief in a trio of basic needs including power, affiliation, and achievement. Consider the needs outlined on the following slides to better understand which needs this product would meet for a consumer in New York.
  15. This slide and the next provide a list of Murray’s psychogenic needs. He believed that everyone has the same basic set of needs but that individuals differ in their priority of those needs. His needs include many motives that are important when studying consumer behavior, including acquisition, achievement, recognition, and exhibition.
  16. Dr. Abraham Maslow is well known for his hierarchy of needs. The web link on this page will bring you to www.maslow.com which reports on other publications by Dr. Maslow. The hierarchy presents five basic levels of human needs which rank in order of importance from lower-level needs to higher-level needs. The theory says that consumers will fill lower-level needs before the higher-level needs – they will eat before they enroll in a Master’s program.
  17. Some psychologists believe that this trio of needs exists for most consumers and that marketers can find a tie to motivation. Power refers to the individual’s desire to control other people and objects – it is tied to a type of ego needs. Affiliation is similar to Maslow’s social need and suggests that behavior is influenced by the desire for social ties. Finally, the need for achievement, like the other needs, will vary from individual to individual.
  18. Motives are very difficult to identify and measure. This is in part because they are hypothetical and not physical concepts that can be weighed and measured with a ruler. Because they are not tangible, marketers must use a variety of measurement techniques. Because consumers often cannot or will not express their motivations outright, researchers use qualitative research to uncover consumer motives. Many of these qualitative research techniques are called projective techniques because the consumer must “project” their subconscious or hidden motives onto another stimulus. The following slide summarizes some projective techniques.