Disaster Management Conceptual Framework Basic Issues


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This is the presentation made during Annual Meeting of Qatar Chapter of The Institution of Engineers (India) at DOHA in Sept 2006.

Role of Engineers in Disaster Managemetn has been disussed in the presentation

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Disaster Management Conceptual Framework Basic Issues

  1. 1. WELCOME <ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>The Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>on </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer’s Role </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>- Conceptual Framework & Basic Issues </li></ul><ul><li>By: Eng. Kishan Solanki , </li></ul><ul><li>BE, AICWA, ACCA, MIE </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Topics include: </li></ul><ul><li>What is Disaster </li></ul><ul><li>What is Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework for Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Disaster Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Engineers in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is DISASTER <ul><li>Dictionary Meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedy, ruin, blow, Adversity, Catastrophe, Calamity, Serious Failure, Debacle, Misfortune, mess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>It can be defined as an Event that causes serious loss , destruction , hardship, unhappiness or death caused by natural or other reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Disaster : </li></ul><ul><li>Disasters can be broadly classified as Natural or Manmade </li></ul>
  4. 4. Natural Disaster <ul><li>This is some times called as Acts of God and may be caused by one or more of the following Natural Events : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclones & Storms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tsunami </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat & Cold waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Fires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>River & Sea Erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Slides. etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Manmade Disaster: <ul><li>This is caused due to activities undertaken by Man or Group of People ranging from one or more of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorist Activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wars & Riots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicular Accidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution – Air, Water, Noise, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sabotage Activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many of similar activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is Disaster Management <ul><ul><li>Like any other Management activity or process, Disaster Management is also a Management Activities or process undertaken by various segments of the Society - Public, Governmental, NGOs, etc with an aim to minimize or avoid occurrence of Disaster and to provide relief to the affected people and rehabilitate them. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Classification of Disaster Management <ul><li>According to Stages of Occurrence : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>While Disastrous situation prevailing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately after Disaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the Management Process : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback & Corrective Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the Level of Study : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Town / City </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>District </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose of Disaster Management <ul><li>To avoid or minimize occurrence of event of Disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate the possibility of Disaster and is magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate the warning points into the design of various structures – Buildings, Infrastructures & services </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare contingency plans for immediate relief for the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to reach the Disaster Site – Road, Rails, Water or Air route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of essential services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Civil Defense mechanism </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>For developing any Disaster management Plan for any area, it is essential to understand basic conceptual framework for the same. Following are the areas of such conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the Hazards of Disaster: Before developing any plan for any area, it is very essential to understand the type of Disaster and possible hazard and impact of the same. It can be any major type as described earlier or for combination of various disastrous situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability of Regions / Areas: After the Hazards of Disasters are identified, vulnerability of the Region / Area under consideration should be analyzed. This refers to estimation of probability of occurrence of disastrous situation based on various methods – Past observations, mathematical model, Astronomical forecasting, simulation models etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Local Context: Though Global methods are adopted for determining vulnerability of Regions / Area under consideration, one should consider local context of disastrous situation. For example, Many areas of Gujarat, Maharashtra are prone to high flood and water logging, whereas, many areas of Andhra Pradesh & Orissa are prone for Cyclone. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk, Hazard & Vulnerability Profile: This is the next step in Disaster Management Plan to prepare profile of Risk & Vulnerability for identified Hazard of Disaster for the area under consideration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conceptual Framework (contd) <ul><li>Preparedness, mitigation & prevention in Disaster Management: These are very essential terms to be understood clearly by the one interested for study of Disaster Management. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness refers to be in readiness to take appropriate actions in response to Disastrous situation. For example, accumulation of essential commodities & consumable like water, food grains, clothes, booking for alternative place of accommodation at short notice are few Examples of Preparedness for Disaster Management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation refers to measures initiated to mitigate or minimize the impact due to disastrous situation. For example, distribution of vaccines & medicines to prevent spread of waterborne disease in Flood affected areas are measures of mitigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention refers to measures initiated to prevent occurrence of disastrous situation. Construction of Dams across many Rivers is measures to prevent occurrence of Flood & Draught in many areas. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Conceptual Framework (contd) <ul><li>Relief: It is generally observed that persons affected by disastrous situation like Cyclone, Earthquake, Flood etc. loose their source of income and essential supplies like water, food, clothes, shelter etc for a short period of time. In such situation, aid or assistance provided by Governmental or Non-Governmental (NGOs) and general Public are called Relief. Timely relief provided to needy persons save them from immediate grieves of disastrous situation and comeback to normal life at the earliest. Essentially, these are short-term measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery: After relief measures are initiated for the affected persons, it is expected that they are coming up from the traumatic situation of disaster and regaining their strength to come back to normal life and work place. This process is called Recovery. Some time aid or financial assistance is provided in terms of ex-gratis grants, soft loans, and waiver of interests for some periods, etc. Essentially, these are medium term measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation: Many a times, it is observed that the impact of disaster is such that its effect continues for long term. For example, washing away of many villages and mass destruction of houses in earthquake affected areas, it is not possible to construct houses at short period for large number of people. In such situations, large scale projects are undertaken to provide long term support to affected persons mostly by establishing them at alternative locations. This is called Rehabilitation measures. Essentially, these are long-term measures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developing Disaster Management Plan for any Area <ul><li>Developing effective Plan for Disaster Management is very complex and challenging task. It involves various processes and initiatives from various sections of Society. Following is the basic process for Developing Disaster Management Plan for any Area . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of Infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability & Capability Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality and Quantification of the Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizes the Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness creation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Prevention & Mitigation measures </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Response Capability and improving the same on continuous basis </li></ul><ul><li>Public, Governmental & Non-Governmental (NGO) Participation at various levels is very essential for developing effective Disaster Management Plans . </li></ul><ul><li>Laws & Regulations: relating to Construction, Safety, Operation & maintenance of various services are also important components of any Disaster Management Plan . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Role of Engineers <ul><li>Now we have seen various issues & broad framework of Disaster Management, we can see a larger role expected from Engineers from various disciplines to contribute for Disaster Management . Following are the broad areas in which Engineers can contribute significantly for the noble cause of Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for Various Buildings, Infrastructures & Services </li></ul><ul><li>Developing & Operations of Early Detection & Warning Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Relief Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Importance to Safety while construction / Operations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Role of Engineers (contd.) <ul><li>Awareness Creation: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers are dynamic force of any Society in the sense that they command control over building and operations of Economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers can play significant role for awareness creation about the Disaster Management issues as highlighted above. </li></ul><ul><li>Various activities relating to awareness creation can be undertaken by Engineers – organizing seminars, writing articles to various media, training public on various Hazards, Safety issues and what should be done and what should not be done during disastrous situations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Role of Engineers (contd.) <ul><li>Planning for Various Buildings, Infrastructures & Services: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers play significant role during planning for various Buildings, infrastructural facilities – Roads, Rail, Drainage, Water Supply, irrigation Dams & Canal, Communication network, Oil & Gas network, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>While planning for such projects, Engineers should consider comprehensive process of vulnerability and Risk Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers should endeavor to follow the National Building Codes provisions in true spirit. This will help to minimize the losses & damages of Disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Since, natural disasters are natural phenomena, one can not prevent them but it is possible to anticipate such events and possible effects. This can be converted to appropriate design parameters & performance requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>IT Engineers / GIS Engineers can contribute for preparing & maintaining database of Land use, building, communication network, Road linkages & other topographical details relevant for local areas – Climatic conditions, weather conditions, . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Role of Engineers (contd.) <ul><li>Developing & Operations of Early Detection </li></ul><ul><li>& Warning Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Since, many disasters like Earthquake, Flood, Tsunami, Terrorist attacks etc. are occurring at a short notice and give very less time to initiate and take responsive actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Here it is very essential to have effective systems for early detections and communication of warning signals to probable affected people. It is a challenge for all Engineers to strive for developing & operations of early Detection & warning systems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Role of Engineers (contd.) <ul><li>Relief Measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Since, one can not prevent all disasters, but, one can contribute for providing relief to affected people. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers are relatively higher earning members of the Society and they can contribute monetarily for such relief measures. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy to note that Members of Qatar chapter of Institution of Engineers (India) are monetarily contributing to such relief measures – whether it is for Tsunami victims, Flood affected people, Earthquake affected or other such people, Members contribute generously to Prime Minister’s Relief Fund and donations to various bodies. Further, </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers can contribute by way of assistance for quick repairs of affected building & quick restoration of essential services – communication links, Road/Rail linkage, Food & water supply, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>In this presentation, I have highlighted and briefly described basic issues relating to Disaster Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers are dynamic part of the Society and they can contribute in various ways for the noble cause of Disaster Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: One can not prevent Disaster, but one surely contribute for one or more aspects of Disaster Management to minimise its effects </li></ul><ul><li>It is challenge for all Engineers to fight for the same. It is my humble request to all fellow Engineers to rise to the occasion and appeal them to contribute in one or more areas of Disaster Management described above. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Further References <ul><li>Disaster Management Planning for Rohtak District – available on website www.rohtak.nic.in </li></ul><ul><li>“ Disaster Preparedness” – Article on website www.vandenberg.af.mil </li></ul><ul><li>Report on Disaster Management Workshop held on 22 December 2005 at Times of India Office, Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>“ Foolproof Technology” – Article by K. Balaveera Reddy published in The Hindu dated 3rd February, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Salient Features of NBC” – published by Bureau of Indian Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Defense Handbook, Government of India </li></ul><ul><li>Various Articles & Papers relating to Disaster Management available on website of www.karmyog.com </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>