Great schism


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Great schism

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Europe in the Middle Ages: A.D. 1000-1500 The Great Schism
  2. 2. The Great Schism• As we discussed earlier, a power struggle between Philip IV of France & Pope Boniface VIII led to the creation of the Estates General• This disagreement stemmed in part to two official papal orders issued by Boniface• Bull of 1296: Stated that the Church could not be taxed by the King of France
  3. 3. Great Schism..cont• Unam Sanctam: Declared that there were two powers on earth, the temporal (earthly) & the spiritual (heavenly).• The spiritual power, according to the pope, was always supreme over temporal power• In short, kings must always obey popes• Philip IV is threatened w/excommunication• But before he is excommunicated he takes the offensive
  4. 4. Great Schism..cont• Philip sends a small army to Italy with the goal of kidnapping the pope to bring him back to France for trial• French soldiers burst into the pope’s palace in Anagni, outside of Rome, in Sept 1303 and take him captive• He escapes thanks to the people of Anagni• Boniface dies one month later
  5. 5. Great Schism..cont• Two years later, Philip IV persuades the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope• Clement V: : French archbishop who was elected pope in 1305• In 1309, Clement claimed that political violence in Rome was threatening his life
  6. 6. Great Schism..cont• With the help of Philip IV, Clement V moved his papacy out of Rome• Avignon: French city that Clement V moved the papacy to in 1309• This outraged the English, German, & Italian Christians• “Babylonian Captivity”: Used to describe the Avignon papacy
  7. 7. Great Schism..cont• In 1378, Pope Gregory XI died while visiting Rome, The College of Cardinals then met in Rome to choose a successor• Pope Urban VI: Italian archbishop of Bari who was elected pope in 1378• Urban VI moved the papacy back to Rome after his election
  8. 8. Great Schism..cont• A little over a year later, 13 French cardinals decided to elect another pope• Robert of Geneva: French cardinal who became Pope Clement VII & moved the papacy back to Avignon• Now there were two popes, each excommunicated the other
  9. 9. Great Schism..cont• Great Schism: Period in which the church was divided in western Europe. Lasted from 1378 to 1417• The French supported the Avignon papacy• The English, Germans, & Italians supported the Roman papacy• There were church officials appointed by both popes
  10. 10. Great Schism..contJohn Wycliffe: English professor who challenged the actions of the Church• 1) Jesus true head of Church, not pope• 2) Clergy should not own land or wealth• 3) Bible final authority for Christian life
  11. 11. Great Schism..cont• John Huss: Bohemian professor who challenged the actions of the Church• Huss taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope• He preached, like Wycliffe, in the local vernacular rather than Latin• Huss was excommunicated in 1411
  12. 12. Great Schism..cont• In 1414, the newly elected emperor of Germany, Sisismund, arranged a Church council to end the Great Schism.• Huss was urged to attend & was promised he would be safe from retribution by the Church• Instead he was seized & burned at the stake 1415
  13. 13. Great Schism..cont• Council of Constance: Church meeting that ended the Great Schism• By the time of the Council of Constance there were three popes• Martin V: Chosen pope by the Council of Constance. His election ends the Great Schism