Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collection

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Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collection

  1. 1. Methods of Data Collection <ul><li>Essentially two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data – are those which are collected for the first time and are original in character </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data – are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have through some statistical analysis </li></ul>
  2. 2. Collection of Primary Data <ul><li>Primary data may be collected thru: </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys (sample surveys or census surveys) </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Interviews </li></ul>
  3. 3. Collection of Primary Data… <ul><li>Of the above, the important ones are: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Method </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Method </li></ul><ul><li>Thru Questionnaires/Schedules </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Observation Method <ul><li>Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection, when it serves a formulated research purpose, is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Under observation – the information is sought by way of investigator’s own direct observation without asking from the respondent </li></ul>
  5. 5. Observation Method… <ul><li>Main advantages are: </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective bias is eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>The information relates to what is currently happening </li></ul><ul><li>This method is independent of respondent’s willingness to respond </li></ul>
  6. 6. Observation Method… <ul><li>Main Limitations are: </li></ul><ul><li>It is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>The information provided by this method is very limited </li></ul><ul><li>Unforeseen factors may interfere with the observation task </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Observation <ul><li>Essentially two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Structured vs. Unstructured Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Participant vs. Non-participant Observation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structured vs. Unstructured Observation <ul><li>Structured Observation – when the observation is characterized by a careful definition of the units to be observed, the style of recording the observed information, standardized conditions of observation and the selection of pertinent data of observation </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Observation – when it takes place without the above characteristics </li></ul>
  9. 9. Participant vs. Non-participant <ul><li>This distinction depends upon the observer’s sharing or not sharing the life of the group he is observing </li></ul>
  10. 10. II. Interview Method <ul><li>The Interview Method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral – verbal responses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Interview <ul><li>PI Method requires the interviewer asking questions in a face-to-face contact with the person </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting information thru PI is structured – the use of a set of predetermined questions and highly standardized techniques of recording </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Interview… <ul><li>Thus, the interviewer in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure, asking questions in a form and order prescribed </li></ul><ul><li>In unstructured interviews – there is a flexibility of approach to questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interviews do not follow a system of pre-determined questions and standardized techniques of recording information </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other Interview Techniques <ul><li>Focused Interview – to focus attention on the given experience of the respondent and its effects </li></ul><ul><li>The Interviewer has the freedom to decide the manner and sequence of questions to elicit/explore reasons and motives. The main task is to confine the respondent to a discussion of issues </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Interview Techniques… <ul><li>Clinical Interview – is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of an individual’s life experience. Eliciting information is left to the interviewer’s discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Directive Interview – the interviewer's function is simply to encourage the respondent to talk about the topic with a bare minimum of direct questioning. The interviewer often acts as a catalyst to a comprehensive expression of the respondent’s feelings and beliefs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Advantages <ul><li>More information and in greater depth can be obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance may be overcome by a skilled interviewer </li></ul><ul><li>Greater flexibility – an opportunity to restructure questions </li></ul><ul><li>Observation method can also be applied to recording verbal answers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal information can be obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of spontaneous responses and thus more honest responses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Disadvantages <ul><li>Expensive method </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent bias </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Under the interview method the organization required for selecting, training, and supervising the field staff is complex with formidable problems </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing rapport to facilitate free and frank responses is very difficult </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data Collection Thru Questionnaires <ul><li>Popular in major studies </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly – a Questionnaire is sent (by post) to the persons concerned with a request to answer the questions and return the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>A Questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed in a definite order on a form </li></ul><ul><li>The Questionnaire is mailed to respondents who are expected to read and understand the questions and write down the reply in the space provided </li></ul>
  18. 18. Merits of Questionnaire Method <ul><li>Low cost – even when the universe is large and is widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Free from interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents have adequate time to think thru their answers </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents who are not easily approachable, can also be reached conveniently </li></ul><ul><li>Large samples can be used </li></ul>
  19. 19. Demerits <ul><li>Low rate of return </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents need to be educated and cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Inbuilt inflexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of ambiguous replies or omission of items </li></ul><ul><li>This method is slow </li></ul>
  20. 20. Features of a Questionnaire <ul><li>Questionnaire is the heart of a survey – needs to be carefully constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand the features of the Questionnaire – its general form, question sequence and question formulation and the wording of the questions </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1. General Form <ul><li>May be either structured or unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Questionnaires – are those in which there are definite, concrete, predetermined questions </li></ul><ul><li>The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all respondents </li></ul><ul><li>The form of the questions may be either closed (yes or no) or open (inviting free responses </li></ul>
  22. 22. General Form… <ul><li>Structured Questionnaires may also have fixed alternative questions in which responses are limited to the stated alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, a highly structured Questionnaire is one in which all the questions and answers are specified and comments in the respondents’ own words are held to the minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Questionnaire – when the above characteristics are absent, it is known as a unstructured Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>The Interviewer is provided with a general guideline on the type of information to be obtained </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Question Sequence <ul><li>Proper sequence is needed to elicit valid responses </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence must be clear – that is, the relation of one question to the next </li></ul><ul><li>To establish rapport and to gain cooperation from the respondent – difficult questions, personal questions etc should preferably come at the appropriate time rather than at the begining </li></ul>
  24. 24. 3. Question Formulation & Wording <ul><li>Phrasing the questions must be clear and unambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should be impartial and unbiased </li></ul><ul><li>Should be easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>Should be simple (one idea at a time) </li></ul><ul><li>Should be concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Form of questions may be multiple choice or open-ended </li></ul>
  25. 25. Data Collection Thru Schedules <ul><li>Very similar to the Questionnaire method </li></ul><ul><li>The main difference is that a schedule is filled by the enumerator who is specially appointed for the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerator goes to the respondents, asks them the questions from the Performa in the order listed, and records the responses in the space provided </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerators must be trained in administering the schedule </li></ul>
  26. 26. Other Methods of Data Collection <ul><li>Warranty Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Distributor or Store Audits </li></ul><ul><li>Pantry Audits </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Panels </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Depth Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Projective Tests </li></ul>
  27. 27. Collection of Secondary Data <ul><li>Published data are available in: </li></ul><ul><li>Publications of State/Central govt.s </li></ul><ul><li>Publications of International Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and Trade Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Books, Magazines and Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Reports/Publications of various organizations (banks, stock exchanges, business houses, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Reports – by scholars, Universities, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Public records, Historical Documents, etc </li></ul>
  28. 28. Secondary Data must possess the following characteristics: <ul><li>Reliability of data – may be tested by checking: </li></ul><ul><li>Who collected the data? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the sources of the data? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the data collected properly? </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability of data – data that are suitable for one enquiry may not be necessarily suitable in another enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the researcher must scrutinize the definition of various terms and units of collection. Also, the objectives, scope and nature of the original enquiry must be studied </li></ul><ul><li>Adequacy of data – the data will be considered inadequate, if they are related to an area which may be either narrower or wider than the area of the present enquiry </li></ul>

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