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Career Motivation Test

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Career motivation test - theoretical background, test structure and validation study highlights

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Career Motivation Test

  1. 1. Career MotivationTestPresentation by Ilona Jerabek, PhD 1
  2. 2. About PsychTests Meat = development and validation of psychometric assessments Gravy = satellite products facilitating delivery of the assessments Side dish = compatibility systems, HR consulting, training and coaching Desert = fun tests and quizzes 2
  3. 3. About PsychTests Online since 1996 More than 100 professional tests  Career  Personality  Intelligence  Sports  Attitudes and beliefs  Health  Relationships 3
  4. 4. Workshop Plan Introduction Various purposes of using assessments Motivators  Theoretical background  Overview of the main motivators covered in the Career Motivation Test and how to manage employees according to their main motivators  Common combinations of motivators and how they play out in the dynamics of everyday work life Validation of the Career Motivation Test  Summary of results from studies  Tidbits and insights Question period and discussion 4
  5. 5. You can lead a horse to water, butyou can’t make him drink … 5
  6. 6. Importance of Motivation Improves  Performance  Productivity  Efficiency  Engagement  Morale  Quality orientation and customer focus Facilitates adaptation to change Increases job satisfaction Decreases turnover and absenteeism Decreases undesirable behaviors  Time theft  Cyberloafing  Cheating and theft 6
  7. 7. Why and when use assessments Pre-hire evaluation Engagement strategies Management insight  How to manage an individual  Matching with teams & managers  Development of policies, fringe benefits etc. Personal development Career development and planning Succession planning 7
  8. 8. Theoretical Background 8
  9. 9. Definitions Motivation is the activation or energizing of goal- orientated behavior A number of theories attempt to explain and classify motivation According to various theories, motivation  may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure,  may be fueled by a deficiency in satisfaction of specific needs such as eating and resting,  may be driven by a desire for an object, goal, state of being, or an ideal,  or may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Source: Wikipedia 9
  10. 10. The Candle Problem Task: Fix a lighted candle on a wall (a cork board) in a way so the candle wax wont drip onto the table below Materials provided:  Candle  Box of thumbtacks  Book of matches 10
  11. 11. The Candle Problem (Sam Glucksberg ) 11
  12. 12. Soma-cube experiment Deci (1971) 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Variation on Maslow’s theory 3 factors:  Existence – lower order needs (physiological and safety needs)  Relatedness – middle order needs (belongingness and external component of self-esteem needs)  Growth – higher level needs (intrinsic component of self-esteem and self-actualization) 16
  17. 17. Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHygiene factors: don’t motivate if satisfied, but will demotivate if unsatisfied Pay and benefits (financial rewards) Company policy and administration Relationship with co-workers Working conditions Status Job security Work-life balance Supervision 17
  18. 18. Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHygiene factors (cont.) Supervision  Micromanagement  Lack of direction  Lack of recognition  Public reprimand  Chain of command (ambiguity of roles, conflicting requests, serving multiple bosses, conflicts between managers)  Unfair division of work  Nepotism and favoritism  Excessive executive pay Frequent changes in standard operating procedures (moving target) 18
  19. 19. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Motivators  Achievement  Recognition  Work Itself  Responsibility  Advancement/Promotion  Growth 19
  20. 20. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Key findings as a result of this identification  Bad environment can result in dissatisfaction, but good environment is usually taken for granted and thus doesn’t have much impact on satisfaction.  The prevention of dissatisfaction is just as important as encouragement of motivator satisfaction.  Hygiene factors operate independently of motivation factors. An individual can be highly motivated in his work and be dissatisfied with his work environment.  All hygiene factors are equally important, although their frequency of occurrence differs considerably.  Hygiene improvements have short-term effects on motivation. Any improvements result in a short-term removal of, or prevention of, dissatisfaction.  Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature and come back to a starting point. This leads to the "What have you done for me lately?" syndrome. 20
  21. 21. Adams’ Equity Theory 21
  22. 22. Adams’ Equity Theory Inputs  Outcomes  Time  Job security  Effort  Esteem  Loyalty  Salary  Hard Work  Employee benefit  Commitment  Expenses  Ability  Recognition  Adaptability  Reputation  Flexibility  Responsibility  Tolerance  Sense of achievement  Determination  Praise  Enthusiasm  Thanks  Personal sacrifice  Stimuli  Trust in superiors  Support from co-workers and colleagues  Skill 22
  23. 23. Adams’ Equity Theory Employees expect a fair return for what they contribute to their jobs, a concept referred to as the “equity norm”. Employees determine what their equitable return by “social comparison” – they compare their inputs and outcomes with those of their coworkers. Individuals seek to maximize their outcomes (where outcomes are defined as rewards minus costs). Staff perceptions of inputs and outcomes of themselves and others may be incorrect, and perceptions need to be managed 23
  24. 24. Adams’ Equity Theory Employees who perceive themselves to be in an inequitable situation will seek to reduce the inequity  by distorting inputs and/or outcomes in their own minds (“cognitive distortion”),  by directly altering inputs and/or outputs,  or by leaving the organization. When individuals perceive inequitable relationships, they become distressed - both the person who gets “too much” and the person who gets “too little”.  The person who gets too much may feel guilt or shame.  The person who gets too little may feel angry or humiliated. Individuals who perceive that they are in an inequitable relationship attempt to eliminate their distress by restoring equity.  Those who feel under-compensated may work less, lower the effort, or even level the playing field by other means (theft).  Those who feel over-compensated may increase their effort. However they may also adjust the values that they ascribes to their own personal inputs – can develop a sense of superiority and actually decrease their efforts. 24
  25. 25. Adams’ Equity TheoryE 25
  26. 26. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Attempts to explain the mental processes related to decisions to pursue goal-related behavior Postulates that  behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain  employees performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities Rewards  should be directly related to performance  Should be deserved and wanted by the recipients 26
  27. 27. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Three variables:  Valence (rating -10 to 10) - strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome  Instrumentality (rating 0 to 1.0) – perceived relationship between performance and outcome (broken promises => low instrumentality)  Expectancy (rating 0 to 1.0) - strength of a persons belief about whether or not a particular job performance is attainable The force of motivation is the product of these variables  Motivation = (Valence * Instrumentality) Expectancy 27
  28. 28. McGregor X and Y TheoryCompanies managing according to Companies managing according to Theory X believe that employees Theory Y believe that Dislike work, are inherently lazy and  Work can be as natural as play and will avoid work if they can rest Have no ambition, avoid responsibility  People will be self-directed to meet and would rather follow than lead their work objectives if they are Are self-centered and don’t care about committed to them their job or the organization  People will be committed to their Resist change objectives if rewards are in place that The only way to motivate is by address higher needs such as self- monetary rewards fulfillment  Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility  Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population 28
  29. 29. McLelland’s theory Focuses on an individuals desire  High N-Ach: for significant accomplishment,  Choose moderately difficult task mastering of skills, control, or high that are still challenging but within standards reach Employees are not motivated by  Low N-Ach: the mere need for money  Choose easy tasks to minimize Extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) risk of failure could extinguish intrinsic  Choose very difficult tasks so that motivation such as achievement failure is not embarrassing motivation 3 factors:  Need for achievement  Need for affiliation  Need for power 29
  30. 30. McLelland’s theory High in N-Pow  High N-Aff:  Desire to establish and  Desire to control maintain friendly others, influence their relations with others behavior or be  Want to fit in and be responsible for them liked by others  Prefer work that has  Prefer work that an impact on people involves interpersonal and events and brings relationships, provides public recognition and companionship (team praise work) and that brings social approval 30
  31. 31. Goal-setting Theory (Edwin Locke) People are driven to reach a  Goal setting affects performance clearly defined end state by This end state is a reward in itself  Focusing attention towards goal- relevant activities and away from Goal efficiency is affected by: goal-irrelevant activities  Proximity  Serving as an energizer; higher  Difficulty goals will induce greater effort  Specificity while low goals induce lesser Goal should be effort  Affecting persistence  Of moderate difficulty – not too hard but not too easy (challenging  Activating cognitive resources - but attainable knowledge and strategies which  Objectively defined allow employees to cope with the situation at hand  Understandable for the person  Clarifying performance  Specific and measurable expectations  Establishing a frame of reference for feedback and self-evaluation 31
  32. 32. Goal-setting Theory => Tips SMART goals: specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-bound Set challenging but achievable goals Ensure buy-in – goal acceptance and commitment Clarify goal priorities Give feedback on goal accomplishment Reward goal accomplishment 32
  33. 33. Career Motivation TestThe scales and what they assess 33
  34. 34. Motivators covered in the test Achievement  Recognition and Identity and Purpose Appreciation Independence/autonomy  Fun and Enjoyment Change and Variety  Power Creativity  Status Learning  Financial Reward Improvement  Balanced Lifestyle Inspiration  Mobility Social Factors  Stability 34
  35. 35. Achievement "I want to get ahead, and I am willing to make the necessary sacrifices."  Driven by a sense of satisfaction at reaching goals  Like to rise up to meet challenges at work  Energized by the opportunity to move up or advance in their career in some way  Enjoy excelling at their chosen endeavor 35
  36. 36. AchievementWhat works What irritates them Tasks they find personally  Not knowing what is expected of challenging them Advancement within the company  Lack of alignment between Setting regular goals along with organizational goals and personal concrete ways of measuring ones progress  Lack of opportunities to improve Opportunities to introduce new skills ideas  Stagnation Regular job evaluation/feedback  Lack of feedback about their so that they know how they are performance progressing  Lack of recognition Opportunities to develop new skills  Coworkers who are too laid back and training in areas they are and not pulling their weight interested in  Sharing credit with slackers, when Recognition for work well done it comes to team work 36
  37. 37. Identity and Purpose “I am what I do for a living."  Career is generally more than just a job - it is, in fact, important to their whole idea of who they are and how they fit into the world  Their career and role in the workplace give them a sense of meaning and play a key role in their personal identity 37
  38. 38. Identity and PurposeWhat works What irritates them A job that fits their values and self-  Idling identity  Meaningless tasks Meaningful job that they can be  Lack of recognition proud of  Environment that suppresses Fancy job titles, name tags initiative or makes it difficult for Letting them shape their job employees to be engaged Giving them a choice of projects  Apathetic colleagues and tasks or assigning to them  Companies that are cynical or projects with personal dishonest meaning/importance Recognition and appreciation of their contribution Opportunities to "shine" 38
  39. 39. Independence “I need to be free to choose how I do things and stay in charge of what I do at work.."  Need to have a sense of freedom in their jobs to make important decisions, work on their own schedule and choose their own approach to projects  Desire a high level of autonomy and flexibility  Are driven by a feeling of personal empowerment  Don’t like the feeling of being closely monitored or controlled 39
  40. 40. IndependenceWhat works What irritates them Empowerment  Micromanagement Autonomy to take personal  Lack of authority; worst case is when responsibility for their work the manager delegates the Trust on the part of the employer responsibility to them but not the Flexible work schedule authority to make decision and to control the process Telecommuting  Inflexible schedule Giving them responsibility for the entire  Detailed timesheets project or a large part of a project and letting them develop the plan of action Delegate to them not only the tasks Watch out for and the responsibility, but also  Ambiguity – if goals are unclear, they sufficient decision power may go down the wrong path for a Sense of control over their day-to-day while schedule  Scope creep (especially if coupled with Management by objectives motivators such as creativity and Turning projects into entrepreneurial improvement) – they will get plenty of ideas as the project unfolds endeavors or giving them ownership of a project 40
  41. 41. Change and Variety "Variety keeps me going – can’t do the same old stuff day-in and day-out."  Are generally curious  Crave the thrill of experiencing, learning or doing something new  Thrive on diversity  Likely to get bored or restless in a position that involves too much routine 41
  42. 42. Change and VarietyWhat works What irritates them Innovative, flexible, and dynamic work  Boredom environment  Idling A variety of projects and tasks  Routine tasks Rotation of routine tasks among  Strict, stifling atmosphere at work employees  Ban on adjusting their work space Non-restrictive job description (moving furniture, decorating, bringing Opportunity to get involved in projects plants, pictures etc.) outside of the usual domain  Strict, all-business décor Minimize routine tasks, automate  Working on a production line wherever possible  Following strict procedures Opportunities for training to learn new skills Lateral moves within the company Opportunity to express new ideas Integration of some variety into the usual routine 42
  43. 43. Creativity "I am an idea person and need to satisfy my creative side through my work."  Driven by a desire to express their creativity  Creativity can be expressed through "typical" creative endeavors (art, writing, decoration, etc.) or by coming up with innovative approaches or solutions  Would feel stifled and frustrated if they had to stick to the tried-and-true at all times, or if they werent involved in any creative processes as part of their work 43
  44. 44. CreativityWhat works What irritates them Giving them creative projects or  9 to 5 jobs with no flexibility tasks that require creative thinking  Micromanagement Environment that is conducive to  Sticking to tried-and-true solutions creativity; one that minimizes rigid  Boredom guidelines  Routine tasks An atmosphere of openness to  Strict, stifling atmosphere at work new ideas and encouragement of "out of the box" thinking  Ban on adjusting their work space Management open to innovative (moving furniture, decorating, approaches bringing plants, pictures etc.) Some "down-time" is necessary in  Strict, all-business décor order to play with new ideas  Working on a production line Opportunities for nurturing  Following strict procedures creativity (brainstorming sessions, creativity training, etc.) Opportunity to showcase their creative endeavors 44
  45. 45. Learning “Learning is a life-long process."  Driven by a desire to gain new knowledge and insight, or to learn new skills  Overall, they are motivated by a "thirst for knowledge", which may be specific to their field or extend to all domains  Tend to be life-long learners 45
  46. 46. LearningWhat works What irritates them Tasks that require gaining new  Lack of opportunities to learn new knowledge things Training and courses in their areas of  Managers and colleagues who don’t interest or outside of it value education and knowledge Intellectually stimulating atmosphere  Environment where going a little that encourages growth deeper than expected is discouraged Minimizing routine; avoiding "non- or even punished thinking" tasks  Positions where there is no challenge, Research-related tasks as often as no unknowns, nothing to new to learn possible  Lack of intellectual stimulation on the Find or create opportunities for job movement within the company (vertical  Routine tasks that don’t lead to or lateral) learning new things Opportunities to share new knowledge  Meaningless tasks (training, coaching, mentoring) 46
  47. 47. Improvement “I want to make the world a better place."  Ready to give their all on the job for the satisfaction of knowing they have helped make the world a better place  Energized by the idea of contributing to the world in a positive way, be it on an individual, organizational or societal basis 47
  48. 48. ImprovementWhat works What irritates them Opportunities to improve the  Indifference conditions at work  Complacency Opportunities to improve processes  Lack of drive to innovate and efficiency at work  Lack of morality in coworkers Engaged staff – passionate about the  Companies that are cynical or product/services dishonest Create opportunities for charity work  Meaningless tasks (organize a company sponsorship, etc.) Projects that have some affect on the community or a wider society Connection between their work and the causes they support Communicating vision - how the companys work is beneficial to others Corporate citizenship - company’s involvement in community, charity involvement 48
  49. 49. Inspiration “I want to make people think or feel something, to be moved by what I do."  Driven by the satisfaction they obtain from knowing they have inspired others, either through creative means (artwork, literature) or by opening minds to new ideas (through teaching, personal coaching, etc.)  Essentially, they want to affect people in some way or move others to feel or experience something 49
  50. 50. InspirationWhat works What irritates them Opportunity to express their ideas and perspectives  Lack of opportunities to inspire others  verbally  Lack of purpose in their job  through writing  Lack of vision  some other art form  by doing what they are good at -  Lack of opportunity to share their serving as an example knowledge and ideas Opportunity to interact with others in a  Inability to have any input into projects meaningful way  Lack of respect Opportunities for mentoring, coaching or training Give regular feedback on their work Environment that encourages "out-of- the-box" thinking Leadership roles (team leaders, management positions) 50
  51. 51. Social Factors “Im a people-person and I need human interaction to feel fulfilled."  Want their work to satisfy their need for contact with other people  Enjoy the feeling that they are part of a group or community  Energized by social interaction  Like sharing their thoughts and ideas  Are generally strong communicators  Often extroverted 51
  52. 52. Social FactorsWhat works What irritates them Team work  Bullying and unfriendliness Opportunities to collaborate with  Social isolation co-workers and interact with  Solitary work clients Opportunity to help others  Lack of social activities  Clients  Limited communication with others  Coworkers  Staff full of introverts Social activities and team building exercises Friendly, supportive environment; Watch out for good team  Chatterboxes Creating a feeling of belonging Managers who truly care about their direct reports 52
  53. 53. Recognition/Appreciation “I need a word of thanks or some positive encouragement to show me that what Im doing is noticed and appreciated."  Want to feel valued and see the visible signs that others appreciate for their work  Essentially, they are driven by the positive feelings they get from the knowledge that they are making a valuable, recognized contribution to the company 53
  54. 54. Recognition/AppreciationWhat works What irritates them Opportunities to excel  Unfairness Regular feedback  Credit grabbers Regular recognition (company awards,  Managers who only give negative any show of thanks, pat on the back) feedback but never praise for a job Varied ways of showing appreciation well done (boss taking them for lunch, mention of  Disapproval and criticism (they may be exemplary performance at a team able to take it but it makes them feel meeting, etc.) anxious) Bonuses in recognition of work well  Being systematically outperformed done (landing a contract, finishing a  Lack of feedback long term project, coming in under budget, etc.) Diplomacy during performance Watch out for  People who take it too far – extremely evaluation  start with positive feedback high need for approval is unhealthy  Those with dependency issues  explain shortcomings as  Selective attention to negative “challenges”  develop concrete action plan for feedback improvement  reiterate positive aspects Feeling of belonging to a team 54
  55. 55. Fun and Enjoyment “Time flies when you’re having fun. If I’m not enjoying what I’ve chosen as my career, it’s simply not the right one for me."  What they are doing in life is not as important as whether they enjoy doing it  Would like to work in an organization where enjoying oneself is part of the corporate culture, and encouraged by management  Want the work itself to be inherently entertaining … whatever that means to them. 55
  56. 56. Fun and EnjoymentWhat works What irritates them Ensure good job fit  They may tolerate a certain amount of When possible, assign projects based on interests and strengths “unpleasant” tasks, but their motivation When dividing tasks, allow people to might take a hit if it’s too much volunteer  Micromanagement During pre-hire interviews, ask about  Strict, stifling atmosphere at work what they enjoy (fun means different  Ban on adjusting their work space things to different people During performance evaluation, ask (moving furniture, decorating, bringing what aspects of their job or what plants, pictures etc.) projects they enjoyed the most and the  Strict, all business décor least (=> and customize the job description if possible) Social events Watch out for Generous vacation packages  Time-wasters Flextime  Time management issues Light-hearted, playful, fun environment Management by objectives  Entitledness 56
  57. 57. Power “I want to be the one in charge."  Feel energized by being in a leadership position  Naturally take the lead in a group  Need to feel that they have a certain level of influence over others  Enjoy making important decisions  Enjoy responsibility  Have a healthy (or not) dose of competitiveness running through their veins 57
  58. 58. PowerWhat works What irritates them Leadership opportunities  Following a weak leader Offering management training and  Ambiguous chain of command development of leadership skills  Flat organizational structure with Opportunity to lead projects (as no room at the top team leaders)  Micromanagement Giving them autonomy, responsibility and decision-making Watch out for power (don’t forget to define their  Power tripping boundaries) Consider a job title/description  Poor social and communication with some clout skills Opportunity for advancement  Lack of consideration for the social Career development programs factors  Unhealthy competition Healthy competition 58
  59. 59. Status “I want my job to carry some weight in society."  Driven by the social standing and the rank that their job will bring them  Need to feel that they play an important role in society and in their company  Desire respect and acknowledgement for their contribution 59
  60. 60. StatusWhat works What irritates them A job at a company that is well known  Demeaning jobs A position within a company that has a  Lack of purpose  PR disasters (feel personal shame to lot of pull A job title that is meaningful to them be working for the company)  Lack of respect Anything that adds to their prestige  Lack of appreciation and recognition (name plate, reserved parking, being  Not having a business card invited to important meetings)  Nepotism, favoritism Opportunities to shine through their  Being bypassed for a promotion work (needs to be handles with extra care) Public recognition of work well done Opportunity for advancement within Watch out for the company  Unhealthy competition Appointment to committees  Credit grubbers Healthy competition 60
  61. 61. Financial Reward "Work should afford me the lifestyle I deserve. I work hard, but I want a high return on that investment."  Strive for the big pay-off that comes as the fruit of their labor  Want to feel that their salary and benefits equal the value of the time and energy they invest in their work  Extremely sensitive to compensation issues  Know their value and are not afraid to flaunt it 61
  62. 62. Financial RewardWhat works: What irritates them A competitive salary and benefits:  Being or feeling employers should stay on top of undercompensated the industry standards.  Perceived inequity, especially An established system for raises compared to colleagues with that they can work towards “worse” performance Merit-based raises  Struggling financially Performance bonuses  Seeing things they “should” be Commission able to afford but are not Perks: incentives, bonuses, stock options, profit sharing, expense Watch out for: account, company car, cell phone,  Entitledness living allowance  Overgrown egos  Job hoppers 62
  63. 63. Balanced Lifestyle "I work to live, not live to work.”  Need to feel that they have an active, fulfilling life outside of work  Although their careers may be extremely important to them, they dont want to sacrifice their personal needs for job success.  Seek work-life balance  Not just working parents – many people seek work-life balance because they want to pursue other interests 63
  64. 64. Balanced LifestyleWhat works What irritates them Flextime  Juggling too many responsibilities Telecommuting  Guilt trips if they take time off to take Work sharing care of sick children Generous vacation time  Too much travel (especially single Personal & sick days, compassionate parents) care policies  Overtime requests Flexible benefits packages (mix and  Shift work match options)  Irregular schedule Work-related social activities involving  Last minute assignments the whole family  End-of-day meetings Perks and rewards: gym membership, game tickets, weekend get-aways Watch out for Child-care facility in the building  Time theft Allowing streaming video at breaks to check on kids (some daycare centers  Fake sick days offer real-time viewing)  Burnout Bring your child to work day  Stress-related health issues Pet-friendly offices  Absenteeism Stress reduction programs Reasonable travel policies 64
  65. 65. Mobility “I want my work to take me to new places."  Driven by the desire to see and experience new places through their work.  They want the opportunity to travel regularly or possibly even to relocate to a completely different city/state/country 65
  66. 66. MobilityWhat works What irritates them Opportunities to travel through  They love to hate the challenges work, even if only occasionally of frequent travel Attending conferences, training, or  Not being compensated properly retreats in different places Reasonable travel policies for travel time and weekend travel  Cheap hotels Possibilities for relocation (for some but certainly not all)  Stingy travel policy Perks: company car, cell  Being away from family phone/blackberry, laptop Encourage travel with a spouse/family – allow them to take vacation before and after trip Ample vacation time to allow travel on their own 66
  67. 67. Stability “I want a job I can count on, one that gives me a sense of security."  Need a sense of security in their careers  Are typically uncomfortable taking large risks like starting their own company or working on contract  Want their job to provide a solid anchor in their lives  Unlikely to quit unless they have another offer 67
  68. 68. StabilityWhat works What irritates them Clear sense of where things are going  Rumors about lay-off, cut-backs, at work. mergers etc. Approachable managers Fairly structured, dependable Watch out for environment  Total devastation if you terminate the Make sure communication is clear employee – if they were doing a regarding any "instability" issues decent job, assist them in finding a (industry trouble, cutbacks, etc.) is new job, give them letters of clear. recommendation etc. Clear employment contract Delicate handling of termination of others (firing/laying off people on the spot creates anxiety and guilt in survivors) Regular communication about their performance Regular communication about company performance and future direction Change management 68
  69. 69. Common combinations of motivators 69
  70. 70. Charismatic Leadership ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Primary  Leadership profile  Have a vision they strongly believe in  Improvement and the drive to achieve it  Inspiration  Are keenly aware of people around  Achievement and know how to inspire them and  Social factors persuade them to follow Secondary  Can come up with creative ideas, think out-of-the-box  Creativity  Learning  Identity and purpose  Fun and enjoyment 70
  71. 71. The “Suits” ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Primary  Three different business meetings in a week, in three different cities? Need  Little desire for someone to spearhead the opening of balanced lifestyle a new branch in another country?  Mobility Choose someone with this profile.  Identity and Purpose  Always on the go  Power  Business traveler  Can make a makeshift remote office at  Status the gate at the airport Secondary  Creativity  Learning 71
  72. 72. Generation Y ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Primary  Know what they’re looking for in a job, and will not stick around long if a  Change and Variety position doesn’t live up to their  Independence expectations.  Creativity  Boredom is their enemy.  Learning  Generation Y is the most  Fun and Enjoyment technologically advanced generation. They are likely to be quick learners. Secondary  Are likely to be the ones starting many  Power of the .com businesses – this allows  “Job-hopping” (little them to be their own boss, and work at something they are passionate about. desire for stability, mobility) 72
  73. 73. Employee of the Month ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Primary  Want to be valued  Public praise will make their day  Recognition and  Reprimand in private – public appreciation reprimand would be devastating to  Status their sense of self Secondary  Want to be popular among their peers,  Identity and purpose not just among the management  Fun and enjoyment  Will appreciate a performance bonus  Social factors but don’t use the carrot-on-a-stick method; rather, reward after the  Financial reward accomplishment, but not every time 73
  74. 74. Work Horse Cluster How this plays out in the workplace:Motivators:  Need stability to perform optimally - job security is Primary absolutely essential.  Mostly content with status quo, tried and true ways  Stability of solving problems  Financial  Like routine, easily slip into complacency reward  Get a sense of accomplishment by plowing Secondary through their task list  No lofty goals – they want to do their job, do it well,  Achievement and that’s it  Power  They are attached to the company, but not particularly engaged  Balanced lifestyle is NOT prevalent in this cluster  Will be drawn to jobs with practical perks – retirement plan, medical insurance, etc.  Will work very hard and complain very little 74
  75. 75. Super Achiever ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Achievement  Would likely enjoy challenging projects Creativity outside their comfort zone  Would likely thrive if offered a Improvement promotion to a leadership position – Inspiration will set a good example for others; set Learning high standards  Learning is an ongoing process – will Some power likely take advantage of opportunities to update their skills 75
  76. 76. Humanitarian ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Achievement  They want to know that their job makes Improvement a difference.  Make it clear to them how their work Inspiration fits into the big picture.  Will want to work for a company that is actively involved in the community, and possesses strong ethics and values (environmentally conscious, good corporate citizenship). Could do well in a position that allows them to spearhead these issues. 76
  77. 77. Innovator ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Achievement  These are the pioneers  They don’t just visualize ideas – they Creativity have the motivation to bring them to Learning fruition Change and variety  Allow them to spearhead brainstorm meetings, or initiate project ideas 77
  78. 78. Visionary ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Creativity  Creative types with a heart of gold  Will want their artistry or ingenuity to Improvement move others, or benefit the world in Inspiration some way.  Allow them to come up with ideas on how the company can improve its corporate image. 78
  79. 79. Freelancer ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Change and Variety  Autonomy is key – if they can’t make Independence their own decisions at work, at least involve them in the decision-making process.  Offer them novel tasks and projects to tackle. A monotonous job is not one they’ll stick to for very long.  Encourage them to suggest/initiate projects, ideas, improvements. 79
  80. 80. The “Donald” (Tycoon) ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Identity and Purpose  Even if these people do start at the Power bottom, they’ll always have their Status eyes on the topmost rung of the ladder. Recognition and  Will want to make a name for Appreciation themselves – don’t expect them to Financial Reward be a faceless, cubicle-filling, pencil pusher for very long. If they’re not the ones running the company, they will be soon enough. 80
  81. 81. Approval Seeker ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace:  Will desire both tangible (plaques, Recognition and awards) and intangible rewards (praise). Appreciation  Promotions will be a major motivating Status factor. A fancy job title will go a long Identity and Purpose way.  Praise, especially public one, is Achievement extremely important.  On the flip side, they may tend to be sensitive to criticism and become defensive. Be diplomatic when discussing issues, and be specific as to what to do to improve – they will bend over backwards to make that happen. 81
  82. 82. Prestige Seeker ClusterMotivators: How this plays out in the workplace: Primary  Very driven and would likely  Financial reward accomplish great things if you make it worth their while. Want to  Power be the top banana.  Status  A bit full of themselves with some Secondary propensity to power tripping – they know their value and are not afraid  Recognition and to flaunt it Appreciation  Score-keepers – can be fiercely  Identity and Purpose competitive, within the company  Achievement but also their social network  Promotions, praise, perks, an important-sounding job title all work to motivate them – they show that they are valued, indispensable and admired. 82
  83. 83. Validation Study Highlights 83
  84. 84. Sample Sample size:  6165 subjects Gender:  Women: 3370 subjects (55%)  Men: 1936 subjects (31%) Age distribution:  Below 17 (n = 760) (12.0 %)  18-24 (n = 1409) (23.0 %)  25-29 (n = 745) (12.0 %)  30-39 (n = 958) (16 %)  40-49 (n = 760) (12.0 %)  50+ (n = 461) (8.0 %) 84
  85. 85. Ranking of MotivatorsRank Motivators Mean Rank Motivators Mean 1 Achievement 88 11 Social Factors 65 2 Learning 83 12 Mobility 64 3 Inspiration 81 13 Power 64 4 Creativity 80 Recognition and 5 Fun and Enjoyment 78 14 Appreciation 63 6 Improvement 77 15 Balanced Lifestyle 62 7 Financial Reward 71 16 Independence 62 8 Change and Variety 67 17 Status 50 9 Identity and Purpose 67 10 Stability 66 85
  86. 86. Gender differencesWomen score higher on Men score higher on Achievement (+2 points)  Creativity (+2 points) Balanced lifestyle (+4 points)  Financial reward (+5 points) Identity and purpose (+2  Mobility (+4 points) points)  Power (+5 points) Improvement (+7 points)  Status (+3 points) Learning (+2 points) Recognition and appreciation (+4 points) Social factors (+3 points) Fun and enjoyment (+3 points) 86
  87. 87. Interesting Tidbits 22% would sacrifice their personal life for their dream job. Only 6% like having a routine at work (same daily duties). 16% consider it essential to be creative or express their creativity at work. 11% indicated that their main career goal is to be wealthy. 9% indicated that their job is their identity. 35% consider helping others through their work essential. Only 1% felt that work isnt supposed to be fun. 8% claimed that they would be upset if they didnt receive praise/positive feedback after doing well on a project 87
  88. 88. Interesting Tidbits 8% would be upset if others werent impressed by what they do for a living 11% indicated that they would not be happy in a job environment that had a no-nonsense, no-fun atmosphere - even if they were paid well, had an understanding boss, and were in their field of study 70% indicated that they want to inspire others through their work 20% love the feeling of being in charge 14% indicated that they need appreciation from others in order to feel fulfilled at work 5% felt that social contact with others at work wasnt a necessity 77% want a strong sense of security in their job 14% proudly stated that they would feel good knowing that others were envious of their career success 88
  89. 89. Motivators as a Function of Age 89
  90. 90. Balanced Lifestyle as a Function of Age 90
  91. 91. Change and Variety as a Function of Age 91
  92. 92. Creativity as a Function of Age 92
  93. 93. Financial Reward Scale as a Function of Age 93
  94. 94. Improvement Scale as a Function of Age 94
  95. 95. Independence Scale as a Function of Age 95
  96. 96. Learning Scale as a Function of Age 96
  97. 97. Mobility Scale as a Function of Age 97
  98. 98. Power Scale as a Function of Age 98
  99. 99. Recognition and Appreciation Scale as aFunction of Age 99
  100. 100. Social Factors Scale as a Function of Age 100
  101. 101. Status Scale as a Function of Age 101
  102. 102. Fun and Enjoyment Scale as a Function of Age 102
  103. 103. Motivators as a Function of Education 103
  104. 104. Achievement Scale as a Function of Education 104
  105. 105. Balanced Lifestyle Scale as a Function of Education 105
  106. 106. Change and Variety Scale as a Function of Education 106
  107. 107. Creativity Scale as a Function of Education 107
  108. 108. Financial Reward Scale as a Function of Education 108
  109. 109. Identity and Purpose Scale as a Function of Education 109
  110. 110. Improvement Scale as a Function of Education 110
  111. 111. Independence Scale as a Function of Education 111
  112. 112. Inspiration Scale as a Function of Education 112
  113. 113. Learning Scale as a Function of Education 113
  114. 114. Mobility Scale as a Function of Education 114
  115. 115. Recognition and Appreciation Scale as a Function of Education 115
  116. 116. Social Factors Scale as a Function of Education 116
  117. 117. Stability Scale as a Function of Education 117
  118. 118. Status Scale as a Function of Education 118
  119. 119. Fun and Enjoyment Scale as a Function of Education 119
  120. 120. Motivators as a Function of Position 120
  121. 121. Balanced Lifestyle Scale as a Function of Position 121
  122. 122. Change and Variety Scale as a Function of Position 122
  123. 123. Creativity Scale as a Function of Position 123
  124. 124. Financial Reward Scale as a Function of Position 124
  125. 125. Identity and Purpose Scale as a Function of Position 125
  126. 126. Improvement Scale as a Function of Position 126
  127. 127. Independence Scale as a Function of Position 127
  128. 128. Inspiration Scale as a Function of Position 128
  129. 129. Learning Scale as a Function of Position 129
  130. 130. Mobility Scale as a Function of Position 130
  131. 131. Power Scale as a Function of Position 131
  132. 132. Motivators as a Function ofSocio-Economic Status (SES) 132
  133. 133. Change and Variety Scale as a Function of SES 133
  134. 134. Financial Reward Scale as a Function of SES 134
  135. 135. Identity and Purpose Scale as a Function of SES 135
  136. 136. Improvement Scale as a Function of SES 136
  137. 137. Independence Scale as a Function of SES 137
  138. 138. Learning Scale as a Function of SES 138
  139. 139. Mobility Scale as a Function of SES 139
  140. 140. Power Scale as a Function of SES 140
  141. 141. Social Factors Scale as a Function of SES 141
  142. 142. Stability Scale as a Function of SES 142
  143. 143. Motivators as a Function ofSatisfaction with Current Job 143
  144. 144. Achievement Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 144
  145. 145. Balanced Lifestyle Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 145
  146. 146. Change and Variety Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 146
  147. 147. Creativity Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 147
  148. 148. Financial Reward Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 148
  149. 149. Identity and Purpose Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 149
  150. 150. Improvement Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 150
  151. 151. Independence Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 151
  152. 152. Inspiration Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 152
  153. 153. Learning Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 153
  154. 154. Power Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 154
  155. 155. Recognition and Appreciation Scale as aFunction of Satisfaction with Current Job 155
  156. 156. Social Factors Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 156
  157. 157. Stability Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 157
  158. 158. Status Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 158
  159. 159. Fun and Enjoyment Scale as a Function of Satisfaction with Current Job 159
  160. 160. Complementary assessments Intelligence Types Test Management Skills and Style Assessment (MANSSA) Career Advancement Test Emotional Intelligence Test Advanced Multidimensional Personality Matrix (AMPM) 160
  161. 161. ConclusionAssess career motivators of employees to Figure out how to best manage them Select perks and benefits that are of value to your staff Assign projects to them that have high personal appeal, thus improving performance, engagement, attendance and job satisfaction 161
  162. 162. Ilona Jerabek, PhD9001 blvd. de l’Acadie, Suite 802 Montreal, Qc H4N 3H5 ilona@psychtests.comDirect line: 514-745-3189, ext 112 Fax: 514-745-6242 http://archprofile.com http://www.psychtests.com 162

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