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Time
Management
Course Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Introduction
• Dave Gotham is a Project Manager in
Globus Inc., a leading software
manufacturer.
• Let us look at what is going on in Dave’s
mind on a typical workday.
Introduction
Oh no! I am
late to office
again!
Introduction
So many emails to check!
I don’t even have time left for
morning tea now.
Introduction
Where did I put the file for the
Maxwell Project?
I’ll have to search for it now
and my desk is a mess.
Introduction
Oh no! I still haven’t got the
presentation ready for today’s
client meeting.
Introduction
I’ll have to skip my lunch to
complete the status report
which I need to send to boss.
Introduction
Oh! I forgot I
also have to
attend the
Parent-
Teacher
meeting of
my kid today!
Introduction
I think I’ll be
late for my
wedding
anniversary
party in the
evening as I
don’t think
I’ll be able to
leave office
on time.
Introduction
• As you can see that Dave is surrounded by
various kinds of troubles such as that of
completing his tasks, reaching his kid’s school
and even his anniversary party on time.
Introduction
• So, what do you think is
the root cause of all of
Dave’s problems?
Introduction
• Yes, all of Dave’s problems arise due to
lack of proper time management.
• If Dave had managed his time well, he
would have been able to pack in a lot of
chores into a single day and yet complete
each and every one of them successfully.
• Let us see how Dave suffers from poor
time management.
Introduction
Oh no! I am late to office again!
Here, you can see that Dave has started the
day on a wrong note itself. He is late to office
to begin with and hence it is natural that he
would not have enough time to complete all
his office work and would have to work extra
hours to complete his tasks.
Introduction
Dave is late and does not have enough time to
check emails. Also, if he sits to check all of his
unread emails, it is obvious that he would be
late in completing his other important tasks.
Hence, it would have been better if Dave had
a habit of managing his emails effectively and
following proper email etiquette.
So many emails to check!
I don’t even have time left for
morning tea now.
Introduction
Dave will now have to search for the Maxwell
Project file that he cannot find. So, he would
waste time in searching for a file that he needs
urgently and will need to find the file on his
cluttered desk. Such a cluttered desk would
make him waste more time in finding the file.
Where did I put the file for the
Maxwell Project?
I’ll have to search for it now
and my desk is a mess.
Introduction
Dave was aware beforehand that he had a
client meeting today. It is crucial that rather
than putting off getting the presentation ready
on the same day of the meeting, Dave should
have completed the presentation in advance.
Oh no! I still haven’t got the
presentation ready for today’s
client meeting.
Introduction
Dave is well aware of the fact that he needs to
send a status report to his boss regularly.
Hence, it is important that he should manage
his time in such a way that he keeps aside
some hours in a day for completing the status
report.
I’ll have to skip my lunch to
complete the status report
which I need to send to boss.
Introduction
Dave forgot about his kid’s Parent-Teacher
Meeting. As he has forgotten he has also not
put aside some time to attend the Parent-
Teacher Meeting at his kid’s school. If Dave
had pre-planned his day and kept a reminder
to remind him of the meeting, he would not
have forgotten about the meeting. Dave’s kid
will feel neglected and uncared for as his father
did not bother to attend his school meeting.
Oh! I forgot I also have to
attend the Parent-Teacher
meeting of my kid today!
Introduction
I think I’ll be late for my
wedding anniversary party in
the evening as I don’t think I’ll
be able to leave office on time.
Dave will be late for his wedding anniversary
party. It was important that to be on time for
the party Dave should have planned his
workday well and managed time effectively.
His spouse will resent Dave being late for his
anniversary party.
Introduction
• Thus, you can see that
when a person does not
manage his time well, he
tends to suffer not only on
the professional but also on
the personal front.
Introduction
So, it is crucial that whether you are a student, a working professional or
a homemaker, you should learn to manage your time effectively.
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
What is Time Management?
The art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and
budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating
more effective work and productivity is known as
Time Management.
So, time management involves exercising conscious
control over the amount of time spent on specific
activities with a focus to increase effectiveness,
efficiency or productivity.
Hence, time management helps an individual
to be more organized and more productive.
Time Management
• Time management is the act
or process of exercising
conscious control over the
amount of time spent on
specific activities, especially
to increase efficiency or
productivity.
• Time management may be
aided by a range of skills,
tools, and techniques used
to manage time when
accomplishing specific tasks,
projects and goals.
Why Time Management?
Look at the questions given below and try answering them with a ‘Yes’
or ‘No’.
Do you feel the need to be more organized and/or more
productive?
Do you spend your day feeling very busy and yet wondering why
you haven't accomplished much?
Do you wish you had a more than 24-hour day to complete all
your tasks?
Do you feel stressed by an ever busy schedule with no time for
yourself?
Do you feel you rarely achieve your 100% production capability?
Why Time Management?
• If you have answered ‘Yes’ to any of the
earlier questions, then the solution to your
dilemma lies in ‘time management’.
• Time management is an effective tool that
anyone and everyone can use to pack in
more into their 24-hour day and achieve
more in the same time than they achieved
before.
• Also, time management is equally efficient
for work and study related activities as well
as for personal activities.
• Thus, time management is needed by
anyone who performs some task or the
other.
Roll your mouse
over the icon,
to learn more.
Did You Know?
Time is the point or period at which things occur or simply put, time is when stuff
happens.
There are two types of time:
Clock Time: In clock time, there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 24
hours in a day and 365 days in a year. In clock time, all time passes equally. For
example: When someone turns 60, he is exactly 60 years old, no more or no less.
Real Time: All time is relative in real time. Hence, depending on what you're doing you
would feel that time flies or drags. For example: Two hours waiting for an appointment
may feel like 5 years whereas two hours at the movies may fly by like 15 minutes.
Importance of Time Management
Time management is important as it helps to manage your time efficiently. It is
beneficial to every individual as proper time management helps us to:
Have time for
ourselves
Be Relaxed &
less stressed
Be Organized
Be Efficient
Be Self-disciplined
Prioritize tasks
Schedule efficiently
Plan efficiently
Who can Use Time Management?
• Time management has become
crucial for everyone in the
today’s modern busy world of
technology and fast paced
lifestyle.
• Each and every person from
different walks of life can use
time management techniques
and tools for managing their time
better and carrying out their
daily chores and activities
efficiently and in a relaxed
manner.
Who can Use Time Management?
Thus, time management is important and can be used by anyone such as:
Business Leaders
Politicians
Executives
Students
Teachers
Laborers
Writers
Working Professionals
Home Makers
Actors
Freelancers/Consultants
Need for Time Management
Each and every individual needs time management as Time is of essence to
everyone, whether a student, a professional, a daily wage laborer or even a
home-maker.
Every person has only a 24-hour day. Also, there are numerous tasks and a long
list of tasks that each person needs to perform on a daily basis. Also, how
much a person may achieve in a day will depend on the individual’s energy,
motivation, use of resources and skills and capabilities. So, to make best use of
all the resources both internal and external that you have at hand, it is crucial
that you should learn to use some strategies for more effective time
management. Thus, Time Management is a means to help you work smarter to
accomplish your work more easily and rapidly.
Need for Time Management
Time management is needed by everyone and is important for various reasons,
such as follows:
Need for Time Management
Time management is needed by everyone and is important for various reasons,
such as follows:
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Less stress
Improved self-esteem
Good work-life balance
There are several benefits of time management, such as follows:
Increased productivity
Prevention of panic in times of workload
Benefits of Time Management
Achievement of goals quickly and easily
Increased efficiency in fulfilling tasks
Achievement of greater success, dreams and visions
There are several benefits of time management, such as follows:
Increased confidence of fulfilling tasks
Increased energy and competency to achieve success
Benefits of Time Management
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Elements of Time Management
There are various elements that have to be considered and managed for effective Time
Management. It is important that for you to manage your time well, you should learn be
aware of and use the elements of Time Management diligently. The following are the
various elements of Time Management:
Being aware of your Time
Being aware of your Time Wasters
Priorities
Self-management
Management of your Personal Resources
Goal Setting
Measures of your Achievement
Planning
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Principles of Time Management
Always have a great
clarity of objectives
Always work with a focus
centered on achieving
the set objectives
Before beginning your work
for the day, make a list of all
your activities
Set priorities to achieve
more in the same day
Reserve large blocks of
time for important
activities
Develop a habit of
eliminating at least one
time waster from your life
each week
The following are some of the core principles that you should
follow for successful time management. Roll your mouse
over the icon,
to learn more.
Did You Know?
No matter what type of work you do, your work will be composed of
only three items. So, the only thing that you need to do to manage your
time well is to decide the proportion of the distribution of these three
items in your work. People can spend their time in only the following
three ways:
• Thoughts
• Conversations
• Actions
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Time Management Styles
Different time management styles are used by different people because
every individual is different. There are a few tools and techniques that prove
to be more effective for one time management style than for the other
styles. There are five time management styles that are identified, which are:
Let us look at each in detail.
Achievement Management
About
Achievement Management style includes
and describes people who measure their
success by how much they take on. Such
people cannot say “no” to accept more
projects and can get overwhelmed. Such
people find it difficult to do everything to
the best of their ability and may tend to
forget a task.
Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Pros:
o Others see such people as
dependable and helpful.
• Con:
o The lack of completion of projects.
Achievement Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Tools that help keep track of the
over-committed schedule such as:
• To-do Lists
• Supply Lists
• Committee Lists
• Event Lists
Achievement Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Casual Management
About
Casual Management style includes
and describes people who are the
procrastinators of the world. Such
people believe that they will get the
work done when they have time and
as a result easily lose track of time.
Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Pros:
o Casual managers think with their
“right brain” and hence tend to be
more creative.
• Con:
o A tendency to miss deadlines or to
leave things unfinished.
Casual Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Timelines help to remind such people
how much time they really have.
• Timelines also help them to focus on
deadlines.
• Alert systems like alarms or electronic
reminders should be used to provide a
reminder of the tasks that are put aside.
Casual Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Crisis Management
About
Crisis Management style includes and
describes people who consider each event
of their life as if it is the top priority. Such
people tend to take on several projects all
at once. They have trouble deciding
between which one is a priority and which
is not. Hence, many projects may get
started but don’t get finished.
Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Pros:
o Tendency to work well under pressure.
o Tasks get finished as the deadlines help
to drive such people.
• Con:
o Getting easily stressed and distracted.
Crisis Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Different types of visual reminders can be
used to remind what is coming down the
pipeline and to help them be focused.
• Visual reminders that can be used are:
o Desktop calendar
o Alert
o PDA.
• Block-scheduling can be used to set aside
the time that is needed for each task.
Crisis Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Precision Management
About
Precision Management style includes and
describes people who are the
perfectionists of the world. Such people
tend to work to deliver work that is
consistently of high quality. However, the
high quality is delivered at the expense of
a lot of time.
Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Pros:
o People are considered detail
oriented and highly capable.
• Con:
o A waste of time and energy due to
spending of an outrageous amount
of time and resources on a project.
Precision Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Precision Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Day planners help such people to keep
on track by staying focused on the big
picture as it helps to block out time
allotments.
Social Management
About
Social Management style includes
and describes people who are the
social butterflies of the world. Such
people would rather “talk” than “do.”
Social managers often lose track of
time as they busy themselves chit-
chatting the hours away.
Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Pros:
o Such people tend to have excellent
communication skills.
o Such people are great contributors in
brainstorming sessions and can effectively
get ideas across to others.
• Con:
o Wasting of valuable time in meaningless
conversations.
Social Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
Social Management
About Pros & Cons Best Tools
• Alert systems such as a wristwatch,
with an alarm, that provides a
reminder of time. This will help to
keep conversations short and to finish
projects in a timely manner.
MCQ
Q. Which of the following styles
include people who work well
under pressure?
Click on the
radio button
to select the
correct
answer!
MCQ
Q. Which of the following styles
include people who work well
under pressure?
MCQ
Q. Which of the following styles
include people who work well
under pressure?
Uses of Time Management for Individual
Help overcome Stress & Procrastination
Help being Better Organized
Help in being total control of the situation
Help balance work & personal priorities
Helps prioritize effectively
Helps meet deadlines / targets / goals
Clutter free workspace
Creates happy work environment
Uses of Time Management at Workplace
Uses of Time Management for Organization
Improved productivity - improved use of time by the personnel
Reduction of stress - crisis management by reducing the incidence of
crises through better planning
Better performance - on time delivery to customers
Increased profitability - better use of resources
Improved planning and control
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Steps for Managing Your Time
Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
Step 2: Develop a Schedule
Step 1: Set Goals
The following are the key steps that you need to follow for effective time
management:
Let us look at each in detail.
Step 1: Set Goals
Step 1: Set Goals
The first step towards managing your time is to ‘Set Goals’. While setting goals,
you should always keep in mind that you should set goals that are specific and
concrete. Never define vague goals. Also, make sure that you determine and
set both long-term goals and short-term ones to support them. Another
important thing while setting goals is to also set a deadline for your goals.
Step 1: Set Goals
Step 2: Develop a Schedule
Step 2: Develop a Schedule
The next step after you have set goals for yourself is to develop and plan out a schedule.
Initially, planning may seem a hard task, however, with practice it would become the
easier and more natural.
There are a few considerations that you need to keep in mind while developing a
schedule. Hence, while making a schedule, ask yourself these questions:
• What goals do I expect to accomplish?
• What approach do I need to adopt to reach these goals?
• What tasks are more important than others?
• How much time will each task require?
• What time of the day is best fitted to do each activity?
• What provisions do I need to keep my schedule flexible to allow for unexpected
things?
Step 2: Develop a Schedule
Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
Now, you know the goals that you want to reach and you have developed a
planned schedule to reach those goals. The next crucial step in time
management is to check whether the plan is working and check how you are
actually using your time. This step will help you identify the deviance between
your planned schedule and your actual followed schedule. You need to then
alter your schedule or your actions and revise your plan for better time
management.
Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Components of Time Management
The following are crucial Components of Time Management:
Planning
Organizing
Delegating
Managing Interruptions
Scheduling
Prioritizing
Let us look at each in detail.
Planning
For effective planning it is important that you know the difference between
‘Urgent’ and ‘Important’.
Urgent tasks assume importance as they demand immediate attention.
However, you should also bear in mind that important tasks may become
urgent if left undone. Such important tasks when are left undone may usually
have a long term effect.
Planning
So, how can you judge or gauge the balance between important versus urgent
tasks?
You should always decide to do the tasks based on the following two
considerations:
• Impact of doing a task
• Effect of not doing a task
One of the best ways to decide between ‘Urgent’ versus ‘Important’ tasks and
to balance between them is to use the ‘Stephen Covey’s Urgent Vs Important
Matrix’.
Organizing
Organizing is an important component of time management. When you are
better organized, you are better prepared to do your tasks more quickly and
diligently. You do not waste time in searching for and locating misplaced things
or gathering resources at the last minute to do a task.
Steps of Organizing
The following are the three principles or steps of
organizing:
Prioritize
Set Goals
Form Good Habits
Let us look at each in detail.
Steps of Organizing
The following are the three principles or steps of
organizing:
Prioritize
Set Goals
Form Good Habits
Set Goals
Let us look at each in detail.
Set Goals:
• Organizing begins with setting goals
both short-term and long-term goals.
• Goals should be ‘SMART’
• Always remember that all Goals have a
beginning and an end and to identify
these beginnings and endings is
important.
Steps of Organizing
The following are the three principles or steps of
organizing:
Prioritize
Set Goals
Form Good Habits
Prioritize
Prioritize:
• Put first things first.
• Priority is a ‘must’ to do rather than a
‘want’ to do.
• Scheduling is an important part of
Prioritizing.
Let us look at each in detail.
Steps of Organizing
The following are the three principles or steps of
organizing:
Prioritize
Set Goals
Form Good HabitsForm Good Habits
Form Good Habits:
• Never Procrastinate.
• Good habits require self-discipline.
• Keep focus with a journal/day planner.
Let us look at each in detail.
Delegating
Delegation is an important concept when you learn about time management.
Delegating is:
‘The act of delegating, or investing with authority to act for another’ or ‘the
distribution of responsibility and authority to others while holding them
accountable for their performance.’
Hence, delegating means asking someone else to perform a task that is one of
your responsibilities or work that you are being paid to do.
It is entrusting responsibility and authority to others who then become
responsible to us for their results but we remain accountable to our boss for
what our subordinates do.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
Accountability
Let us look at each in detail.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
Accountability
Authority
Authority:
Authority can be defined as the power and
right of a person to use and allocate the
resources efficiently, to take decisions and to
give orders so as to achieve the
organizational objectives.
Authority must be well- defined.
People with authority should know the
scope of their authority.
Authority always flows from top to bottom.
Let us look at each in detail.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
Accountability
Authority
Authority:
Authority can be defined as the power and
right of a person to use and allocate the
resources efficiently, to take decisions and to
give orders so as to achieve the
organizational objectives.
Authority must be well- defined.
People with authority should know the
scope of their authority.
Authority always flows from top to bottom.
Let us look at each in detail.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
Accountability
Responsibility
Responsibility:
• Responsibility is the duty of the person
to complete the task assigned to him.
• A person who is given the responsibility
should ensure that he accomplishes the
tasks assigned to him.
• Responsibility without adequate
authority leads to discontent and
dissatisfaction among the person.
• Responsibility flows from bottom to top.
• The person held responsible for a job is
answerable for it.
Let us look at each in detail.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
AccountabilityAccountability
Accountability:
• Accountability means giving
explanations for any variance in the
actual performance from the
expectations set.
• Accountability cannot be delegated.
Let us look at each in detail.
Elements of Delegation
The following are the three elements of
delegation:
Responsibility
Authority
AccountabilityAccountability
Accountability:
• Accountability means giving
explanations for any variance in the
actual performance from the
expectations set.
• Accountability cannot be delegated.
Let us look at each in detail.
Importance of Delegation in Time Management
Flowchart for Delegation Decision
You can use the following flowchart to come to a decision whether the task
can be delegated.
Does this NEED to be done?
Does it need to be done by
ME?
Does it need to be done
NOW?
Resist & Stop
(Dump)
YES
YES
YES
DO IT!
Consider
Delegating
Plan and ...
NO
NO
NO
Steps of Effective Delegation
Step 1:
Clarify your
goals &
opportunities
Step 2:
Decide
what goals
and
projects can
be done by
others
Step 3:
Select the
right
person
Step 4:
Organize
the tasks
being
delegated
Step 5:
Give clear
instructions
& request
feedback
Step 6:
Set
deadlines &
ask for
reports
Step 7:
Support
and
monitor
Step 8:
Provide
Recognition
Managing Interruptions
The following are some of the methods to
manage various kinds of interruptions:
Let us look at each in detail.
Managing Documents
Managing Workspace
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing Phone
Managing Interruptions
The following are some of the methods to
manage various kinds of interruptions:
Let us look at each in detail.
Managing Documents
Managing Workspace
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing Phone
Managing Workspace
Managing Workspace:
• De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the
end of each working day
• File documents once they have been
used
• Organize a work flow system in your
space
Managing Interruptions
The following are some of the methods to
manage various kinds of interruptions:
Let us look at each in detail.
Managing Documents
Managing Workspace
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing Phone
Managing Documents
Managing Documents:
• Define what you need to keep and for
how long
• Arrange file materials logically
• Facilitate easy access to materials
• Purge the files on a regular basis
Managing Interruptions
The following are some of the methods to
manage various kinds of interruptions:
Let us look at each in detail.
Managing Documents
Managing Workspace
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing Phone
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing Drop-in visitors:
• Create a visual barrier at your
workspace to reduce the ‘drop-in’ visits
• Don’t have extra chairs in your
workspace as people would not hang
around long if they have to stand
• For important work , move to another
space
• Learn to say ‘NO ‘in a polite way
Managing Interruptions
The following are some of the methods to
manage various kinds of interruptions:
Let us look at each in detail.
Managing Documents
Managing Workspace
Managing Drop-in visitors
Managing PhoneManaging Phone
Managing Phone:
• Batch your outward calls
• Delegate calls that you don’t have to
make personally to one of your team
members
• Terminate calls once the business has
been done
• Set up a rotation of team members of
your team for handling incoming calls
Types of Interruptions
The following are some of the culprits that could act as an interruption:
• Over socializing on Job
o Unnecessary Meetings
o Setting Unattainable Goals
• Telephone Interruptions
o Ineffective Prioritization
o Junk Mails
• Poorly Run Meetings
o Poor Planning
o Misfiled Information
• Drop-in visitors
o Cluttered Workspace
o Extended Lunch Breaks
• Procrastination
o Waiting/Delays
o Ineffective Delegation
Scheduling
Scheduling is the process by which you look at the time available to you and
plan how you will use it to achieve the goals you have identified.
By using a schedule properly, you can:
• Understand what you can realistically achieve with your time.
• Plan to make the best use of the time available.
• Leave enough time for things you must absolutely do.
• Preserve contingency time to handle 'the unexpected'.
• Minimize stress by avoiding over-commitment to yourself and others.
Prioritizing
The process of deciding which of several options or tasks is most important is
known as ‘Prioritizing’. Hence, determining your priorities or prioritizing
involves deciding that Activity ‘A’ is more important than Activity ‘B’.
You should keep in mind that your priorities may change over time and in
relation to various situations. The essence of Time management lies in
managing ourselves in relation to time. So, the crux of time management lies in
setting priorities and taking charge. You should keep in mind that your
priorities are influenced by your values and your goals.
How to Prioritize Your Tasks?
The following questions need to be considered to determine the
priority of any activity:
What am I doing that doesn’t really need to be done?
What am I doing that could be done by someone else?
What am I doing that could be done more
efficiently?
What are the costs versus the benefits of doing this
activity?
How well does this activity fit into my goals?
How to Prioritize Your Tasks?
The following questions need to be considered to determine the
priority of any activity:
Does this activity have a deadline for completion?
How much do I enjoy doing this activity?
Have I promised or agreed to do this activity?
Which of my needs will be satisfied by doing this
activity?
How much time does this activity require for completion?
Roll your
mouse over the
icon, to learn
more.
Tip
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is NOT a
component of time management?
Click on the
radio button
to select the
correct
answer!
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is NOT a
component of time management?
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is NOT a
component of time management?
Let us now look at a
real life example to
understand the role
of prioritizing in
time management.
Real Life Example
Dave Hudson is a Project
Manager at Helios Inc. Dave is
always very busy with a list of
numerous tasks to complete in
a single day. Dave suffered
from poor time management
and hence ended up postponing
most of his tasks and leaving
many of the tasks incomplete.
Real Life Example
Dave’s boss Kevin advised Dave
to attend a workshop on time
management to help him learn
about managing his time well
and performing his work better.
Dave attended the workshop on
time management and learned
about the importance of
‘prioritizing’ in time
management.
Real Life Example
So, Dave decided to plan his
day in advance for managing
his time well. Dave now knows
that he needs to prioritize his
tasks in order of their
importance. He has made a list
of the tasks that he needs to
complete in a particular day.
Real Life Example
The following is a list of the tasks that Dave has to complete on
the particular day:
• Check and identify mails to be sent today.
• Conduct the morning team meeting.
• Discuss with a colleague about last night’s cricket match.
• Complete fortnightly status report to submit to boss.
• Schedule a meeting with boss about my career progression.
Real Life Example
• Make a phone call to a friend enquiring about his health.
• Buy a gift for friend’s birthday party in the evening.
• Conduct a quality review meeting with each team member.
Can you help prioritize Dave’s
tasks for him in the order of
their importance?
Real Life Example
Given below is the list of Dave’s
tasks that have been prioritized
as per their importance. Please
keep in mind that the following
list is just an indicative answer
and there may be a few
variations in the list depending
upon your sense of priority and
the way you tend to manage
your tasks.
Real Life Example
1. Conduct the morning team meeting.
2. Check and identify mails to be sent today.
3. Complete fortnightly status report to submit to boss.
4. Conduct a quality review meeting with each team member.
5. Make a phone call to a friend enquiring about his health.
Real Life Example
6. Buy a gift for friend’s birthday party in the evening.
7. Schedule a meeting with boss about my career progression.
8. Discuss with a colleague about last night’s cricket match.
Hence, you can see that by
prioritizing the tasks, Dave
now knows which of the tasks
are urgent and important. As
Dave has a list of prioritized
tasks, he now knows which of
the tasks he can postpone for
completion at a later date; if he
is pressed for time on the
particular day.
Real Life Example
Scope of Time Management
• There are various skills, tools,
and techniques that can be
practiced for effective time
management which helps an
individual to manage time to
accomplish specific tasks,
projects and goals complying
with a due date.
• The various tasks that are
included in the scope of time
management include: planning,
setting goals, delegation,
allocating, analysis of time spent,
organizing, monitoring,
scheduling, and prioritizing.
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Tools for Time Management
There are various tools that you
can use for Time Management,
such as:
Planners 1
2
3
4
5
To-do
Lists
Diary
Calendar
Activity
Logs
Let us look at each in detail.
Planners
2
3
4
5
Planners1
• A very useful tool for time management is a 'Planner'.
• You can use 'Planners' to effectively plan a day, a week as well
as a month in advance.
• Always keep in mind that you make sure to note down
important meetings, deadlines, project milestones etc. in the
planner.
• Whenever you commit any due dates or social events, always
enter the same into the planner at once.
Planners
Calendar
• Another useful time management tool is a paper or an
electronic calendar. You can use a calendar to record meetings,
appointments and due dates for a monthly view as well as an
yearly view.
• For a person who handles multiple responsibilities and loads
of tasks at the same time, an annual calendar should be used.
• You can organize the annual calendar by areas of
responsibility and then jotting down the tasks and events on
such an annual calendar.
Calendar
2
3
4
5
1
Calendar
To-do
Lists
You can use a to-do list to list down all the tasks that you need to
complete and in the order of priority in which they have to be
completed. So, a to-do list has the most important tasks listed at the
top of the list, and the least important tasks at the bottom. Also,
such a list helps you to work as per the set priorities as you have
listed the important tasks on top.
To-do Lists
2
3
4
5
1
To-do lists prove to be greatly useful for someone who has a list of
multiple tasks that need to be completed. To-do lists help to keep
track of the tasks that need to be completed and help in avoiding
forgetting to do a few of them when caught in the midst of all the
activity. A to-do list proves to be greatly useful as it helps to avoid
forgetting tasks as you have all the tasks listed in one place.
To-do Lists
Activity Logs
2
3
4
5
1
Activity
Logs
Most people are not aware about how they spend their day and time.
Generally, people do not have the habit of keeping track of and are
unaware of the amount of time that they wasted in breaks, idle chit-
chat, checking emails, browsing through useless sites etc.
An ‘Activity Log’ is a vital tool that helps you to keep a track of your
time. You can use an activity log to keep track and later analyze how
you actually spend your time. You can use it to see at a glance, the
amount of time you wasted and the activities that you waste your time
on. Always make a habit of keeping an Activity Log for several days.
Then, you should analyze your daily activity log
after you have logged your time for a few days.
Keep a track of the areas on which you have
wasted time and also track the low value jobs.
Activity Logs
Diary
• One of the most common and effective tools of time
management is a ‘diary’.
• You can use a diary as a journal to list down your daily
experiences, action plans, your techniques to save time,
resources etc.
• Hence, you can use a diary to reflect back on your day and help
you to save time and plan for the future.
Diary
2
3
4
5
1
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is an
appropriate tool for Achievement
Management Style?
Click on the
radio button
to select the
correct
answer!
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is an
appropriate tool for Achievement
Management Style?
MCQ
Q. Which of the following is an
appropriate tool for Achievement
Management Style?
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Technology and Time Management
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In the modern technological world, there are many modern-day tools that are
offered by technology which can be used for time management and save time
efficiently . Some such tools offered by modern-day technology are:
Telephone
1
• Telephone is a great time-saving tool when
used correctly.
• Telephones help you to communicate with the
other person without having to waste the time
of meeting a person face-to-face.
• It also helps to save money and time as
communication can be carried out without the
need to travel.
• For efficient time management, it is important
that you plan your calls in advance before
making them.
• If possible, set aside a block of time for making
and receiving calls.
• While on a call, make sure you keep track of
the time and do not waste time on idle chit-
chat.
Telephone
1
Email
• Email or electronic mail is a form of electronic
communication. For efficient time
management, the best way to handle emails is
in batches at regularly scheduled times of the
day, just like other routine tasks.
• Inform and ask your contacts to use specific and
meaningful subject lines to help you identify
the purpose of the email at a glance.
• Use specific and meaningful subject lines in
your emails.
• Classify the emails as you view the subject lines
as business or personal, urgent or trivial.
• First of all, make a habit of reading the urgent
emails and responding to them as and when
you view them
2
Email
2
Teleconferencing
• An important tool that you can use for
more personal contact than emails is
‘Teleconferencing’. Teleconferencing
proves to be greatly useful when real-
time sharing is needed. There are various
teleconferencing systems available today
that you can use as per your needs such
as: Adobe’s Acrobat.com, Microsoft Live
Meeting, or Citrix’s GoToMeeting.
3
Teleconferencing
3
Chat
• Chat is another modern-day
technology tool that proves to be
useful for saving time. Usually,
while writing through emails, a lot
of time may get wasted in to and
fro emails. On the other hand, the
option of using chat saves a lot of
such to and fro time that may get
wasted in sending emails. In
situations where the participants
of a meeting are located in
different locations, you can use
instant messaging applications and
chat rooms as a great alternative
to meetings.
4
Chat
4
Web Meeting
• Web meeting is a modern-technology tool
that proves to be greatly useful in saving
valuable time and at the same time having
the same advantages as that of a face-to-
face meeting.
• Web meeting or web conferencing is also
known as webinars.
• Web meeting is usually used for interactive
conferences as well as online workshops.
• Web meeting is a service that is basically an
online conference.
• It allows the conferencing events to be
shared with remote locations.
• Such webinars allow real-time point-to-point
communications.
5
Web Meeting
5
Email Lists and Online Groups
• Emails are used by many
people for both personal as
well as professional purposes.
• However, another useful
technology tool that uses a
variation of emails is the email
lists and online groups.
• Email Lists, Forum and Online
Groups prove to be greatly
useful to share communication
with a meeting group that
requires ongoing and
interactive communication on
a regular basis.
6
Email Lists and Online Groups
6
Collaboration Applications
• Collaboration Applications are another
modern-day technology tool that help in
time management.
• Such various kinds of collaboration tools
can be used to save a lot of time that gets
wasted in meetings or phone calls.
• Users can use various systems like
Microsoft SharePoint, Wrike, Pelotonics,
Google Docs, and Basecamp for interaction
and collaboration with each other from any
location.
• Such collaboration tools prove to be most
useful for project meetings, or situations
where users need to peer review each
other’s work.
7
Let us now look at a
real life example to
understand the
methods of time
management.
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
You had seen in the
introduction scenario that
Dave is surrounded by
various kinds of problems
due to lack of proper time
management.
Real Life Example
You had seen that Dave did not
manage his time well and hence
he is not able to complete his
daily chores and also suffers on
the professional as well as
personal front due to poor time
management.
Let us now see how Dave could
manage his time well and pack
in more in the same 24 hours of
time that everyone has in a day.
Real Life Example
In order to manage time well,
Dave should pre-plan each of his
days on the previous day. By
planning each of his days in
advance, Dave would know the
tasks that have to be completed
on the same day, the meetings
that have been scheduled for
that day, the tasks that he can
delegate for completion at a
later date and any odd tasks of
the day such as Parent-Teacher
Meeting, Anniversary Party etc.
Real Life Example
Also, to begin with, in
order to avoid getting
late to the office, Dave
should get up early by
means of using devices
such as alarms and start
early from home to
reach the office early. If
Dave reaches his office
early, he would have
more time to complete
his tasks of the day.
Real Life Example
A good way that Dave can manage his
emails and avoid wasting time is by
checking the important and urgent emails
first. He can identify important emails by
seeing the sender’s name, subject line,
attachments etc. Also, Dave can set
filters, sorting and tags to his emails so
that he can view the latest and important
emails first. Dave should also make a
habit of replying to each important email
as and when he views them to avoid
putting off and forgetting to reply to
them later.
Real Life Example
One of the best ways that Dave as
well as everyone can manage time
well is by avoiding wasting time on
unnecessary activities. One of the
best methods to avoid wasting time
is by keeping your workplace
organized. When Dave keeps his
desk tidy, organized and uncluttered
then he knows where each of his
files and important things are lying.
Also, he would not have to waste his
time in searching for files and things.
He can use this saved time to do
some productive and useful work.
Real Life Example
Dave could be ready with the
presentation for the client meeting
rather than panicking on the last day
by using tools such as planners, diary
etc. to remind him of his future
scheduled meetings and tasks to be
completed. This way he could have
set a reminder for himself that the
client meeting is due on a particular
day and could have completed the
presentation at a leisurely pace
rather than working on it under
stress and pressure on the day of the
client meeting itself.
Real Life Example
Dave could avoid skipping his lunch to
complete the status report which he
needs to submit to his boss by keeping
the status report ready one day in
advance. He could fix a slot of a few
hours in each day which he could
dedicate solely to working on the status
report only. This way he could complete
the status report each day and also not
have to skip his lunch to complete it.
Real Life Example
It was natural for Dave to forget about
his kid’s Parent-Teacher meeting, which
is not a routine activity that he
performs on a daily basis. To keep tab
of such odd activities and tasks, Dave
should keep a diary and reminder to
keep him abreast of the activities or
tasks that are not a part of his daily
work routine but will have to be
completed on a particular day.
Real Life Example
Dave knew very well about his
anniversary party well in advance. The
only thing he needed to do to reach his
anniversary party on time is to plan his
day well and keep a reminder that
would let him know when the party is
just in case he tends to forget the date
when it arrives. If Dave had planned his
workday well, he could have got off
work and could have left the office on
time or even early. This way he could
have reached his anniversary party on
time and also delighted his spouse by
reaching the party early.
Real Life Example
Thus, you can see that there are
several methods that Dave could
use to manage his time well. By
proper time management, Dave
would have been able to pack in
a lot of chores into a single day
and yet complete each and every
one of them successfully.
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Urgent/Important Matrix
The Urgent/Important Matrix is an important concept for time management.
Steps to Use the Urgent/Important Matrix
The following are the steps to use the Urgent/Important Matrix to prioritize
your activities:
List down all the activities and projects you feel you have to do
Make sure that you include all tasks that take up your time
at work, even if you feel the task is unimportant.
Now, use a scale of 1 to 5 to assign importance to each activity
To decide if a task is important or not is by looking at it and
identifying whether the task helps you meet your goals
Next, determine the urgency of each activity, after you
have assigned importance to each activity.
Next, as per the assigned importance and urgency, you
should plot the listed items on the Urgent/Important
Matrix.Schedule your priorities by analyzing the matrix by using
the strategies described for each quadrant.
Strategies to Evaluate Urgent/Important MatrixImportant
Not Urgent
NotImportant
Urgent
1.
Quadrant of Manage
2.
Quadrant of
Leadership & Quality
3.
Quadrant of
Deception
4.
Quadrant of Waste
Quadrant I of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant
Not Urgent
NotImportant
Urgent
1. Quadrant of Manage
ACTIVITIES
• Crisis
• Pressing Problems
• Deadline-driven Projects
2.
Quadrant of
Leadership & Quality
3.
Quadrant of
Deception
4.
Quadrant of Waste
• Quadrant I represent things that are both “urgent” and “important”. Hence,
you should make sure you spend your time on the activities listed in this
quadrant. This is the Quadrant of Manage.
• This is where you manage; you produce, where you bring your experience
and judgment to bear in responding to many needs and challenges.
• Many important activities become urgent through procrastination, or
because you don’t do enough prevention and planning.
Quadrant II of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant
Not Urgent
NotImportant
Urgent
1.
Quadrant of Manage
2. Quadrant of Leadership &
Quality
ACTIVITIES
• Prevention &
• Relationship Building
• Recognize New Opportunities
• Planning & Recreation
3.
Quadrant of
Deception
4.
Quadrant of Waste
• Quadrant II includes activities that are “important, but not urgent”. This
is the Quadrant of Quality.
• Here’s where you do your long-range planning, anticipate and prevent
problems, empower others, broaden your mind and increase your skills.
• Ignoring this Quadrant feeds and enlarges Quadrant I, creating stress,
burnout, and deeper crises for the person consumed by it.
• Investing in this Quadrant shrinks Quadrant I.
Quadrant III of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant
Not Urgent
NotImportant
Urgent
1.
Quadrant of Manage
2.
Quadrant of
Leadership & Quality
3. Quadrant of Deception
ACTIVITIES
• Interruption
• Some Calls, Mails, Reports &
Meetings
• Proximate
• Pressing Matters
4.
Quadrant of Waste
• Quadrant III includes things that are “urgent, but not important”. This is
the Quadrant of Deception.
• The feeling that a task is urgent creates the illusion of importance. The
actual activities, if they’re important at all, are important to someone
else.
• Many phone calls, meetings and drop-in visitors fall into this category.
Quadrant IV of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant
Not Urgent
NotImportant
Urgent
1.
Quadrant of Manage
2.
Quadrant of
Leadership & Quality
3.
Quadrant of
Deception
4. Quadrant of Waste
ACTIVITIES
• Trivia
• Busy Work
• Some Mails & Calls
• Time Wasters
• Pleasant Activities
• Quadrant IV is reserved for activities that are “not urgent, not
important”. This is the Quadrant of Waste.
• You often “escape” to Quadrant IV for survival.
• Reading addictive novels, watching mindless television shows, or
gossiping at office would qualify as Quadrant IV time-wasters.
Urgent/Important Matrix
For efficient time management, increase your Q-2 and ensure your tasks are
important but not urgent.
Urgent Non-Urgent
Important Q-1
Quadrant of Necessity
Examples: Deadline-driven
project, crisis, resolving
immediate problems
Q-2
Quadrant of Quality and Personal
Leadership
Examples: Problem prevention,
relationship building, finding your
life partner, building your dream
career, personal development,
improving your health.
Not
Important
Q-3
Quadrant of Deception
Examples: Interruptions, certain
phone calls / emails / meetings /
reports, certain pressing
matters.
Q-4
Quadrant of Waste
Examples: Time wasters, surfing
TV channels, mindless web
surfing/chatting, etc.
MCQ
Q. Which of the following Quadrants
when ignored cause stress,
burnout, and deeper crises for the
person consumed by it?
Click on the
radio button
to select the
correct
answer!
MCQ
Q. Which of the following Quadrants
when ignored cause stress,
burnout, and deeper crises for the
person consumed by it?
MCQ
Q. Which of the following Quadrants
when ignored cause stress,
burnout, and deeper crises for the
person consumed by it?
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Action-Priority Matrix
Quick Wins Major Projects
Fill Ins Thankless Tasks
High
High
LowImpact
Low Effort
• A simple technique to help you decide and choose which activities/tasks to prioritize, and
which ones you should drop is the ‘Action-Priority Matrix’.
• The Action-Priority Matrix helps you in prioritizing the tasks and hence helps you make
the most of your time and opportunities.
• A variant of this tool is the ‘Impact-Feasibility Matrix’, which substitutes ‘Feasibility’ for
‘Effort’ on the horizontal axis.
• The ‘Impact-Feasibility Matrix’ gives a different perspective by looking at the
organization’s ability to deliver important changes.
Action-Priority Matrix
Quick Wins Major Projects
Fill Ins Thankless Tasks
High
High
LowImpact
Low Effort
• The figure given above shows the ‘Action-Priority Matrix’.
• To use the Action-Priority Matrix, you should look at each activity from two viewpoints -
firstly on the impact the activity will have and secondly on the effort involved in
completing the task.
• Now, after you have looked at each activity from these two viewpoints and scored it, plot
each activity on the Action Priority Matrix using these scores.
• Now, you can see at a glance, the tasks that give you the greatest returns on your efforts.
Steps to Use the Action Priority Matrix
The following are the steps to use the Action Priority Matrix:
Make a list of
all the
activities that
you would like
to complete. Score all the
activities based on
their impact such
as: 0 for no impact
to 10 for maximum
impact.
Score all the activities
based on their required
effort such as: 0 for no real
effort to 10 for a very
major effort.
Now, plot all of
the activities on
the Action-
Priority Matrix.
Next, you can
decide to
either
complete or
drop the
activities
appropriately
based on the
matrix.
Strategies to Evaluate Action-Priority Matrix
The following are the various strategies to evaluate Action-Priority Matrix:
Let us look at each in detail.
Quick Wins
Quick Wins (High Impact, Low
Effort):
This is the quadrant that includes
activities that are high in impact
and low in effort. Hence, these
are the activities that are the
‘quick wins’. These are the most
attractive projects, giving you a
good return for relatively little
effort. You should focus on such
activities as much as you can.
Major Projects
Major Projects (High Impact, High
Effort):
This is the quadrant that includes
activities that are high in impact
and also high in effort. Hence,
these are the activities that are
the ‘major projects’. These
activities give good returns but
also take a long time to complete.
You should always bear in mind
that one such ‘Major Project’ can
withhold the completion of many
‘Quick Wins’.
Fill Ins
Fill Ins (Low Impact, Low Effort):
This is the quadrant that includes
activities that are low in impact
and also low in effort. Hence,
these are the activities that are
the ‘Fill-ins’. You should never
worry about such activities too
much. So, you should complete
such activities, only if you have
got spare time. If you do not have
the spare time, you should drop
such activities for completing a
better task.
Thankless Tasks
Thankless Tasks (Low Impact. High
Effort):
This is the quadrant that includes
activities that are low in impact and
also high in effort. Hence, these
activities are the ‘Thankless Tasks’. It
is vital for efficient time management
that you should avoid these tasks. So,
make sure that you do not waste your
time on such activities as such tasks
are low in returns. Also, as they are
high in effort, they would consume
more time which would be better
used elsewhere.
• Although it may not be
apparent to most people at
first, however, there is an
important relationship
between stress and time
management.
• Almost everyone has at
some time or the other in
their life felt frustrated,
pressurized and
overwhelmed by large
number of tasks and
commitments that they need
to fulfil.
Relationship between Stress and Time Management
Relationship between Stress and Time Management
• Thus, it is obvious that
such pressures and
overloads on an
individual causes stress.
• Such an overload of tasks
can lead to stress.
• So, you can understand
now that stress and time
management are related
to each other.
• Therefore, the best way
to avoid stress is through
effective time
management.
Relationship between Stress and Time Management
• When you practice
effective time
management, you learn
to use methods and
techniques of time
management that will
help you identify and
fulfil those activities that
are most productive and
will yield maximum
returns for you.
• Thus, in this manner
when you practice time
management methods
and techniques, you will
learn to save time.
Relationship between Stress and Time Management
• You will also learn to work
smart and not work hard.
• When you save time, you
are not overloaded with
the burden of completing
many tasks in a short
period of time.
• So, you can carry out your
tasks at a leisurely pace
and in a relaxed manner.
• Thus, through time
management you will beat
work overload which is a
key source of stress.
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Use Your Energy Efficiently
For effective time management, it
is crucial that you should take into
consideration the energy levels of
the person. Energy levels of a
person are important because a
person can work efficiently and
quickly only when he has enough
energy to concentrate on the task.
Also, the right amount of energy
would help a person work
efficiently and quickly with
optimum mental and physical
energy. levels through the day, you
should ask yourself the following
question: At what time of the day
do you feel most energetic?
To find out the fluctuations in your energy
Evaluate your energy level at different times of
the day to answer this question. A ‘morning
person’ would feel most energetic in the early
hours of the day whereas a ‘night person’
would feel most energetic towards the end of
the day.
Now, observe your energy levels carefully for a
few days. Then, use your observations to
schedule the tasks when you have the energy
level to match that particular task. Therefore, if
you are a ‘morning person’, then schedule
study and tasks that require focus in the early
hours of the day. On the other hand, if you are
a ‘night person’, tasks that require focus should
be scheduled later on towards the end of the
day.
Use Your Energy Efficiently
The ‘biological clock’ or your ‘body
clock’ decides how of your body
works and the variance of energy
levels for different types of people at
different times of the day. Biological
clocks are also known as ‘Circadian
Rhythms’ or ‘Body Clocks’. Circadian
rhythms are internal biological clocks
that regulate many functions and
activities, including sleep,
temperature, metabolism, alertness,
blood pressure, heart rate, hormone
levels and immunities.
Understand Your Biological Clocks
Understand Your Biological Clocks
The sunlight at each morning resets these
Circadian Rhythms. Your body cycles through
several metabolic and chemical changes in
about every 24 hours. It is these cycles that
determine whether you are a “Morning
Person” or a “Night Owl”. It is a well known
fact that to maximize your efficiency you
should work with your body cycles and not
against them. So, instead of fighting these
natural rhythms, you should learn to work
with these natural rhythms. Hence, you can
make more efficient use of your time by
scheduling certain activities at certain times of
the day.
It is a well known fact that to maximize your efficiency
you should work with your body cycles and not against
them. So, instead of fighting these natural rhythms,
you should learn to work with these natural rhythms.
Hence, you can make more efficient use of your time by
scheduling certain activities at certain times of the day.
There are a few time periods at which certain brain
functions are efficient. These time periods have been
described for a ‘morning person’. Please keep in mind
that if you are a ‘night owl’, then you should shift these
times about 3-4 hours later in the day.
Understand Your Biological Clocks
Cognitive Tasks
Cognitive Tasks
8 a.m. - 12 noon
Cognitive Tasks
8 a.m. - 12 noon
Cognitive, or mental, tasks
such as reading, calculating,
and problem solving are
performed most efficiently in
the morning.
Note: If you are a Night Owl,
shift these times about 3-4
hours later in the day.
08 : 0009 : 0010 : 001 1 : 0012 : 00
Short Term Memory
Short term memory
6 a.m. - 10 a.m.
Short term memory
6 a.m. - 10 a.m.
Short term memory tasks such
as last minute reviewing for
tests are best performed early
in the morning.
Note: If you are a Night Owl,
shift these times about 3-4
hours later in the day.
06 : 0007 : 0008 : 0009 : 0010 : 00
Long Term Memory
Long term memory
1 p.m. – 4 p.m.
Long term memory
1 p.m. – 4 p.m.
Longer term Memory tasks
such as memorizing speeches
and information for
application are best performed
in the afternoon.
Note: If you are a Night Owl,
shift these times about 3-4
hours later in the day.
13 : 0014 : 0015 : 0016 : 00
Manual Dexterity
Manual Dexterity
2 p.m. to 6 p.m.
Manual Dexterity
2 p.m. to 6 p.m.
You are most efficient at tasks
involving the use of your
hands such as keyboarding
and carpentry in the afternoon
and early evening.
Note: If you are a Night Owl,
shift these times about 3-4
hours later in the day.
14 : 0015 : 0016 : 0017 : 0018 : 00
Let us now look at a
real life example to
understand the role of
biological clocks in
time management.
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Real Life Example
Leverage
Leverage is a technique in
which a small effort can be
used to achieve something of
much/larger value.
Leverage gives us
significant power.
Time Leverage should be
used to become successful
in life.
We should leverage other
people's time, to increase
productivity to an
extraordinary extent.
To leverage YOUR OWN time:
• Practice effective time
management
• Learn to prioritize tasks
• Use goal setting techniques
To leverage other people's time:
• Learn to delegate work
• Train and empower others
• Use skill and knowledge of experts
and consultants
• Outsource non-core tasks to people
with the requisite expertise
Roll your mouse
over the icon, to
learn more.
Tip
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Avoid Multitasking
People generally believe that when you
‘multitask’ and do several tasks at once, you
actually save time and get more done in the
same time.
However, this is just a myth and in reality
when you multitask, you tend to spend your
energy, concentration and focus on several
things all at once.
For example, you may be talking on the
phone with a friend while at the same time
asking a query on a chat window to your
colleague and may also try to read an email
that just came in. Hence, when you try to do
all these things together, you tend to put in
less than your hundred percent in each task
and will produce results of low quality.
Avoid Multitasking
Therefore, it is self-evident that a good time management practice would be to
avoid multitasking. So, develop a habit of finishing one task before moving onto
another. Thus, getting over the habit of multitasking will help your become
more efficient, improve the quality of your work and lower stress levels.
Tips to Avoid Multitasking
The following are a few methods to avoid multitasking and yet manage time
effectively:
Keep your thoughts
together when you feel
they are wandering
from the current task
•
•
Avoid and manage your
interruptions
Improve your concentration
and focus properly on one
task at a time
•
•
Resist the urge to
jump from one task
to another
Check emails at
designated time
intervals only
•
•
Stop immediately as soon
as you start multitasking
Plan your day in
blocks
•
Time Wasters
Some of the most common time wasters are as follows:
Stress & Anxiety
Procrastination
Lack of
Planning
Perfectionism
Interruptions
Depression
Being unorganized
Not saying ‘no’ Attempting too
much
Time Wasters
Meetings without
agenda
Fear of
delegating
No clear deadline
Problems With
Objectives/Priorities
Inadequate
resources
No passion for doing
the work
Fear of failure or success
Shifting Priorities Tired/unable to
concentrate
Challenges of Time Management
The following are the major challenges that have to be overcome for effective
Time Management:
Setting incorrect
Objectives:
• It means setting
objectives that
are unrealistic /
unattainable /
unchallenging.
Paralyzing
Perfectionism:
• It is failure to
recognize the
difference
between
excellence and
perfection.
Procrastination:
• Putting off
doing the
things that you
should be
doing at this
point!
Overcoming Challenges of Time Management
Procrastination
• List all tasks that you are currently putting off. Then, remove two from the
list by doing them now! Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest
• Reward when tasks are completed and punish when tasks are not
completed on schedule
Paralyzing Perfectionism
• Differentiate between Excellence and Perfection
• Excellence is Achievable, Healthy, Satisfying, Realistic
• Perfection is Unattainable, Frustrating, and Unrealistic
Setting Incorrect Objectives
• Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are:
o Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-bound, and
Supported by the organization
• Objectives should be challenging
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Common Time Management Pitfalls
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Not Keeping a To-Do List:
One of the most common mistakes
that everyone makes while trying to
manage time is not keeping a to-do
list. For effective time management, it
is crucial that you should learn to
maintain and keep a to-do list.
A to-do list will help you to effectively
prioritize the tasks on your list.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
SchedulingAbsence
of Goals
Absence of Goals:
You will not be able to manage your
time well if you do not know what
goals you want achieve by making use
of your time. Hence, to manage your
time effectively, it is crucial that you
should know where you are trying to
reach. Therefore, goal setting is a
crucial component of effective time
management. When you set goals, the
goals give you a sense of direction and
you know the destination and vision
to work toward.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Not
Prioritizing
Not Prioritizing:
Another common mistake that most
people commit while trying to manage
time is not prioritizing their tasks. It is
crucial that you should prioritize the
tasks that you need to complete because
there is always a long list of tasks that
need to be completed. Hence, it is
important for you to initially decide
which tasks are important, urgent and
crucial and have to be finished first.
Also, prioritizing your tasks will help you
identify tasks that can be deferred for
finishing at a later stage. You can use the
Urgent/Important Matrix to prioritize
tasks.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Getting
Distracted
Getting Distracted :
While trying to manage time and
completing many tasks, one of the
common pitfalls that most people face
is that of getting distracted. So, it is
obvious that when you fail to manage
such distractions they can prove to be
a major pitfall in time management.
So, in order to be in control of your
time and manage it well, it is vital that
you should learn to minimize
distractions and manage interruptions
effectively.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Procrastinating
Procrastinating:
One of the most serious pitfalls of
time management is ‘procrastination’
or the habit of ‘procrastinating’. When
a person tends to procrastinate, he
tends to postpone tasks. Postponing
the tasks ultimately leads to the piling
up of several tasks together. This can
lead to stress and a failure to complete
any or all of the tasks.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Overburdening
Yourself
Overburdening Yourself :
You cannot manage your time well if you
have a tendency of overburdening
yourself with too much at the same
time. So, it is important to understand
your limitations and capacity. You
should learn to say ‘no’ to people and to
accepting more tasks. When you do not
learn to say ‘no’ you would tend to
overburden yourself with too many
tasks. You should always bear in mind
that you are a human and have certain
limitations like any other human. So,
you should learn to take on only the
amount of work that you can complete
yourself efficiently.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Addiction to ‘Busyness’:
You should not make a habit of getting
addicted to a sense of ‘Busyness’. It
has been found that some people tend
to get a kick out of feeling that they
are forever busy. You should bear in
mind that always being busy and an
"addiction to busyness" does not
necessarily improve your efficiency or
effectiveness. Also, it does not show
that you're effective. On the other
hand, such an addiction can lead to
stress and a nervous breakdown.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Multitasking
Multitasking:
Most people believe that the best way
for effective time management is
‘multitasking’. However, it has been
found that you would take 20-40
percent more time to finish a list of
jobs when you multitask, instead of
when you complete the same list of
tasks sequentially one after the other.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Ineffective
Scheduling
Avoiding
Breaks
Avoiding Breaks:
Many people believe that if they skip
their breaks and avoid taking breaks,
they would be able to complete all
their tasks and pack in more into a
day. However, avoiding breaks is a big
mistake when trying to manage your
time well. This is because you should
keep in mind that ‘breaks’ is not a
waste of time. Instead, taking a break
can act as a crucial breather in a hectic
schedule and help your brain to relax.
A relaxed brain will work more
efficiently and faster than a brain
which is overworked and stressed.
Not
Keeping a
To-Do List
Absence
of Goals
Not
Prioritizing
Getting
Distracted
Procrastinating
Let’s look at each in detail.
Common Time Management Pitfalls
The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time
management:
Overburdening
Yourself
Addiction
to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding
Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Ineffective Scheduling:
A common mistake of time
management is ineffective scheduling.
Scheduling tasks effectively is very
important. Also, you should keep in
mind that you should schedule tasks
as per your biological clock and energy
levels. Therefore, a morning person
should schedule tasks that require
focus in the mornings rather than at
later in the day and vice versa.
Objectives
• Explain What is Time Management
• Explain the Benefits of Time Management
• Describe the Various Elements of Time Management
• Explain the Principles of Time Management
• Explain the Various Time Management Styles
• Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time
• Describe the Various Components of Time Management
• Explain the Tools for Time Management
• Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management
• Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix
• Explain the Action-Priority Matrix
• Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management
• Explain How to Avoid Multitasking
• Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls
• List the Tips for Effective Time Management
Tips for Effective Time Management
The following are a few tips for effective time management:
Keep a To-do
List
Plan and
Organize
Prioritize and
put first things
first
Estimate time
for tasks
Tips for Effective Time Management
The following are a few tips for effective time management:
Set clear
objectives and
deadlines
Get clear
instructions
and be focused
Avoid
interruptions
and idle-chit
chat
Always keep
additional time
Video
Look at the video given below to understand a simple rule for increased
productivity.
Click on the
video link to
play it!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-Q0eP42uv0
Practice
Let us now practice
all that you have
learned about Time
Management.
Practice
Maintain a daily log of the activities that
you perform in a day and the time that
you spent on each activity. Maintain this
log for two weeks. Now, analyze the daily
log and make the following observations:
• What is the one major important
activity that you need to perform
daily?
• What are your biggest and most
frequent time wasters?
• Which time management tool is
most useful to you in managing
time?
• How can you improve your time
management skills?
Case Study
Ronald Smith is a Project
Manager in Helion Inc. He is
a very busy person and is
always loaded with
numerous tasks in a day.
1. How can Ronald use
delegation for better
time management?
2. What steps should
Ronald follow for
effective delegation?
Summary
Time Management
Tools for Time
Management
Strategies to Evaluate
Action-Priority Matrix
Steps for Managing Your
Time
Common Time
Management Pitfalls
Strategies to Evaluate
Urgent/Important Matrix
Let’s look at each in detail.
Summary
Steps for Managing Your
Time
Time Management
Step 1: Set Goals
Step 2: Develop a
Schedule
Step 3: Revisit and
Revise Your Plan
Summary
Time Management
Tools for Time
Management
Planners
Calendar
To-do Lists
Diary
Activity Logs
Summary
Strategies to Evaluate
Urgent/Important Matrix
Time Management
Quadrant of
Manage
Quadrant of Leadership
& Quality
Quadrant of
Deception
Quadrant of Waste
Summary
Strategies to Evaluate
Action-Priority Matrix
Major Projects
(High Impact, High
Effort)
Quick Wins (High
Impact, Low Effort)
Time Management
Fill Ins (Low Impact,
Low Effort)
Thankless Tasks (Low
Impact. High Effort)
Summary
Common Time
Management Pitfalls
Time Management
Not Keeping a To-Do
List
Not Prioritizing
Getting Distracted
Procrastinating
Addiction to
‘Busyness’
Multitasking
Avoiding Breaks
Ineffective
Scheduling
Absence of Goals
Overburdening Yourself
Glossary
B
G
M
P
S
Click each alphabet to learn more.
B
G
M
P
S
Glossary
Click each alphabet to learn more.
• Busy – Busy means when
someone is actively or fully
engaged or occupied
• Biological Clock - Biological
Clock is an innate mechanism in
living organisms that controls
the periodicity of many
physiological functions
B
G
M
P
S
Glossary
Click each alphabet to learn more.
• Goal - Goal is a target that is
intended to be achieved and
that when achieved terminates
the behavior intended to
achieve it
• Group - Group is any number of
entities or members that are
considered as a unit
B
G
M
P
S
Glossary
Click each alphabet to learn more.
• Multitasking - Multitasking means
to perform more than one task at
the same time
• Management - Management is the
act of managing something
B
G
M
P
S
Glossary
Click each alphabet to learn more.
• Procrastinating - Procrastinating
means to postpone or delay
needlessly
• Project - Project is a planned
undertaking
B
G
M
P
S
Glossary
Click each alphabet to learn more.
• Scheduling - Scheduling means
setting an order and time for
planned events
• Strategy - Strategy is an
elaborate and systematic plan of
action
Time Management

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Time Management

  • 2. Course Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 3. Introduction • Dave Gotham is a Project Manager in Globus Inc., a leading software manufacturer. • Let us look at what is going on in Dave’s mind on a typical workday.
  • 4. Introduction Oh no! I am late to office again!
  • 5. Introduction So many emails to check! I don’t even have time left for morning tea now.
  • 6. Introduction Where did I put the file for the Maxwell Project? I’ll have to search for it now and my desk is a mess.
  • 7. Introduction Oh no! I still haven’t got the presentation ready for today’s client meeting.
  • 8. Introduction I’ll have to skip my lunch to complete the status report which I need to send to boss.
  • 9. Introduction Oh! I forgot I also have to attend the Parent- Teacher meeting of my kid today!
  • 10. Introduction I think I’ll be late for my wedding anniversary party in the evening as I don’t think I’ll be able to leave office on time.
  • 11. Introduction • As you can see that Dave is surrounded by various kinds of troubles such as that of completing his tasks, reaching his kid’s school and even his anniversary party on time.
  • 12. Introduction • So, what do you think is the root cause of all of Dave’s problems?
  • 13. Introduction • Yes, all of Dave’s problems arise due to lack of proper time management. • If Dave had managed his time well, he would have been able to pack in a lot of chores into a single day and yet complete each and every one of them successfully. • Let us see how Dave suffers from poor time management.
  • 14. Introduction Oh no! I am late to office again! Here, you can see that Dave has started the day on a wrong note itself. He is late to office to begin with and hence it is natural that he would not have enough time to complete all his office work and would have to work extra hours to complete his tasks.
  • 15. Introduction Dave is late and does not have enough time to check emails. Also, if he sits to check all of his unread emails, it is obvious that he would be late in completing his other important tasks. Hence, it would have been better if Dave had a habit of managing his emails effectively and following proper email etiquette. So many emails to check! I don’t even have time left for morning tea now.
  • 16. Introduction Dave will now have to search for the Maxwell Project file that he cannot find. So, he would waste time in searching for a file that he needs urgently and will need to find the file on his cluttered desk. Such a cluttered desk would make him waste more time in finding the file. Where did I put the file for the Maxwell Project? I’ll have to search for it now and my desk is a mess.
  • 17. Introduction Dave was aware beforehand that he had a client meeting today. It is crucial that rather than putting off getting the presentation ready on the same day of the meeting, Dave should have completed the presentation in advance. Oh no! I still haven’t got the presentation ready for today’s client meeting.
  • 18. Introduction Dave is well aware of the fact that he needs to send a status report to his boss regularly. Hence, it is important that he should manage his time in such a way that he keeps aside some hours in a day for completing the status report. I’ll have to skip my lunch to complete the status report which I need to send to boss.
  • 19. Introduction Dave forgot about his kid’s Parent-Teacher Meeting. As he has forgotten he has also not put aside some time to attend the Parent- Teacher Meeting at his kid’s school. If Dave had pre-planned his day and kept a reminder to remind him of the meeting, he would not have forgotten about the meeting. Dave’s kid will feel neglected and uncared for as his father did not bother to attend his school meeting. Oh! I forgot I also have to attend the Parent-Teacher meeting of my kid today!
  • 20. Introduction I think I’ll be late for my wedding anniversary party in the evening as I don’t think I’ll be able to leave office on time. Dave will be late for his wedding anniversary party. It was important that to be on time for the party Dave should have planned his workday well and managed time effectively. His spouse will resent Dave being late for his anniversary party.
  • 21. Introduction • Thus, you can see that when a person does not manage his time well, he tends to suffer not only on the professional but also on the personal front.
  • 22. Introduction So, it is crucial that whether you are a student, a working professional or a homemaker, you should learn to manage your time effectively.
  • 23. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 24. What is Time Management? The art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity is known as Time Management. So, time management involves exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities with a focus to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Hence, time management helps an individual to be more organized and more productive.
  • 25. Time Management • Time management is the act or process of exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase efficiency or productivity. • Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals.
  • 26. Why Time Management? Look at the questions given below and try answering them with a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Do you feel the need to be more organized and/or more productive? Do you spend your day feeling very busy and yet wondering why you haven't accomplished much? Do you wish you had a more than 24-hour day to complete all your tasks? Do you feel stressed by an ever busy schedule with no time for yourself? Do you feel you rarely achieve your 100% production capability?
  • 27. Why Time Management? • If you have answered ‘Yes’ to any of the earlier questions, then the solution to your dilemma lies in ‘time management’. • Time management is an effective tool that anyone and everyone can use to pack in more into their 24-hour day and achieve more in the same time than they achieved before. • Also, time management is equally efficient for work and study related activities as well as for personal activities. • Thus, time management is needed by anyone who performs some task or the other. Roll your mouse over the icon, to learn more.
  • 28. Did You Know? Time is the point or period at which things occur or simply put, time is when stuff happens. There are two types of time: Clock Time: In clock time, there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day and 365 days in a year. In clock time, all time passes equally. For example: When someone turns 60, he is exactly 60 years old, no more or no less. Real Time: All time is relative in real time. Hence, depending on what you're doing you would feel that time flies or drags. For example: Two hours waiting for an appointment may feel like 5 years whereas two hours at the movies may fly by like 15 minutes.
  • 29. Importance of Time Management Time management is important as it helps to manage your time efficiently. It is beneficial to every individual as proper time management helps us to: Have time for ourselves Be Relaxed & less stressed Be Organized Be Efficient Be Self-disciplined Prioritize tasks Schedule efficiently Plan efficiently
  • 30. Who can Use Time Management? • Time management has become crucial for everyone in the today’s modern busy world of technology and fast paced lifestyle. • Each and every person from different walks of life can use time management techniques and tools for managing their time better and carrying out their daily chores and activities efficiently and in a relaxed manner.
  • 31. Who can Use Time Management? Thus, time management is important and can be used by anyone such as: Business Leaders Politicians Executives Students Teachers Laborers Writers Working Professionals Home Makers Actors Freelancers/Consultants
  • 32. Need for Time Management Each and every individual needs time management as Time is of essence to everyone, whether a student, a professional, a daily wage laborer or even a home-maker. Every person has only a 24-hour day. Also, there are numerous tasks and a long list of tasks that each person needs to perform on a daily basis. Also, how much a person may achieve in a day will depend on the individual’s energy, motivation, use of resources and skills and capabilities. So, to make best use of all the resources both internal and external that you have at hand, it is crucial that you should learn to use some strategies for more effective time management. Thus, Time Management is a means to help you work smarter to accomplish your work more easily and rapidly.
  • 33. Need for Time Management Time management is needed by everyone and is important for various reasons, such as follows:
  • 34. Need for Time Management Time management is needed by everyone and is important for various reasons, such as follows:
  • 35. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 36. Less stress Improved self-esteem Good work-life balance There are several benefits of time management, such as follows: Increased productivity Prevention of panic in times of workload Benefits of Time Management
  • 37. Achievement of goals quickly and easily Increased efficiency in fulfilling tasks Achievement of greater success, dreams and visions There are several benefits of time management, such as follows: Increased confidence of fulfilling tasks Increased energy and competency to achieve success Benefits of Time Management
  • 38. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 39. Elements of Time Management There are various elements that have to be considered and managed for effective Time Management. It is important that for you to manage your time well, you should learn be aware of and use the elements of Time Management diligently. The following are the various elements of Time Management: Being aware of your Time Being aware of your Time Wasters Priorities Self-management Management of your Personal Resources Goal Setting Measures of your Achievement Planning
  • 40. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 41. Principles of Time Management Always have a great clarity of objectives Always work with a focus centered on achieving the set objectives Before beginning your work for the day, make a list of all your activities Set priorities to achieve more in the same day Reserve large blocks of time for important activities Develop a habit of eliminating at least one time waster from your life each week The following are some of the core principles that you should follow for successful time management. Roll your mouse over the icon, to learn more.
  • 42. Did You Know? No matter what type of work you do, your work will be composed of only three items. So, the only thing that you need to do to manage your time well is to decide the proportion of the distribution of these three items in your work. People can spend their time in only the following three ways: • Thoughts • Conversations • Actions
  • 43. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 44. Time Management Styles Different time management styles are used by different people because every individual is different. There are a few tools and techniques that prove to be more effective for one time management style than for the other styles. There are five time management styles that are identified, which are: Let us look at each in detail.
  • 45. Achievement Management About Achievement Management style includes and describes people who measure their success by how much they take on. Such people cannot say “no” to accept more projects and can get overwhelmed. Such people find it difficult to do everything to the best of their ability and may tend to forget a task. Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 46. • Pros: o Others see such people as dependable and helpful. • Con: o The lack of completion of projects. Achievement Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 47. Tools that help keep track of the over-committed schedule such as: • To-do Lists • Supply Lists • Committee Lists • Event Lists Achievement Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 48. Casual Management About Casual Management style includes and describes people who are the procrastinators of the world. Such people believe that they will get the work done when they have time and as a result easily lose track of time. Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 49. • Pros: o Casual managers think with their “right brain” and hence tend to be more creative. • Con: o A tendency to miss deadlines or to leave things unfinished. Casual Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 50. • Timelines help to remind such people how much time they really have. • Timelines also help them to focus on deadlines. • Alert systems like alarms or electronic reminders should be used to provide a reminder of the tasks that are put aside. Casual Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 51. Crisis Management About Crisis Management style includes and describes people who consider each event of their life as if it is the top priority. Such people tend to take on several projects all at once. They have trouble deciding between which one is a priority and which is not. Hence, many projects may get started but don’t get finished. Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 52. • Pros: o Tendency to work well under pressure. o Tasks get finished as the deadlines help to drive such people. • Con: o Getting easily stressed and distracted. Crisis Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 53. • Different types of visual reminders can be used to remind what is coming down the pipeline and to help them be focused. • Visual reminders that can be used are: o Desktop calendar o Alert o PDA. • Block-scheduling can be used to set aside the time that is needed for each task. Crisis Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 54. Precision Management About Precision Management style includes and describes people who are the perfectionists of the world. Such people tend to work to deliver work that is consistently of high quality. However, the high quality is delivered at the expense of a lot of time. Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 55. • Pros: o People are considered detail oriented and highly capable. • Con: o A waste of time and energy due to spending of an outrageous amount of time and resources on a project. Precision Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 56. Precision Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools • Day planners help such people to keep on track by staying focused on the big picture as it helps to block out time allotments.
  • 57. Social Management About Social Management style includes and describes people who are the social butterflies of the world. Such people would rather “talk” than “do.” Social managers often lose track of time as they busy themselves chit- chatting the hours away. Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 58. • Pros: o Such people tend to have excellent communication skills. o Such people are great contributors in brainstorming sessions and can effectively get ideas across to others. • Con: o Wasting of valuable time in meaningless conversations. Social Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools
  • 59. Social Management About Pros & Cons Best Tools • Alert systems such as a wristwatch, with an alarm, that provides a reminder of time. This will help to keep conversations short and to finish projects in a timely manner.
  • 60. MCQ Q. Which of the following styles include people who work well under pressure? Click on the radio button to select the correct answer!
  • 61. MCQ Q. Which of the following styles include people who work well under pressure?
  • 62. MCQ Q. Which of the following styles include people who work well under pressure?
  • 63. Uses of Time Management for Individual Help overcome Stress & Procrastination Help being Better Organized Help in being total control of the situation Help balance work & personal priorities
  • 64. Helps prioritize effectively Helps meet deadlines / targets / goals Clutter free workspace Creates happy work environment Uses of Time Management at Workplace
  • 65. Uses of Time Management for Organization Improved productivity - improved use of time by the personnel Reduction of stress - crisis management by reducing the incidence of crises through better planning Better performance - on time delivery to customers Increased profitability - better use of resources Improved planning and control
  • 66. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 67. Steps for Managing Your Time Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan Step 2: Develop a Schedule Step 1: Set Goals The following are the key steps that you need to follow for effective time management: Let us look at each in detail.
  • 68. Step 1: Set Goals Step 1: Set Goals The first step towards managing your time is to ‘Set Goals’. While setting goals, you should always keep in mind that you should set goals that are specific and concrete. Never define vague goals. Also, make sure that you determine and set both long-term goals and short-term ones to support them. Another important thing while setting goals is to also set a deadline for your goals.
  • 69. Step 1: Set Goals
  • 70. Step 2: Develop a Schedule Step 2: Develop a Schedule The next step after you have set goals for yourself is to develop and plan out a schedule. Initially, planning may seem a hard task, however, with practice it would become the easier and more natural. There are a few considerations that you need to keep in mind while developing a schedule. Hence, while making a schedule, ask yourself these questions: • What goals do I expect to accomplish? • What approach do I need to adopt to reach these goals? • What tasks are more important than others? • How much time will each task require? • What time of the day is best fitted to do each activity? • What provisions do I need to keep my schedule flexible to allow for unexpected things?
  • 71. Step 2: Develop a Schedule
  • 72. Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan Now, you know the goals that you want to reach and you have developed a planned schedule to reach those goals. The next crucial step in time management is to check whether the plan is working and check how you are actually using your time. This step will help you identify the deviance between your planned schedule and your actual followed schedule. You need to then alter your schedule or your actions and revise your plan for better time management.
  • 73. Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
  • 74. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 75. Components of Time Management The following are crucial Components of Time Management: Planning Organizing Delegating Managing Interruptions Scheduling Prioritizing Let us look at each in detail.
  • 76. Planning For effective planning it is important that you know the difference between ‘Urgent’ and ‘Important’. Urgent tasks assume importance as they demand immediate attention. However, you should also bear in mind that important tasks may become urgent if left undone. Such important tasks when are left undone may usually have a long term effect.
  • 77. Planning So, how can you judge or gauge the balance between important versus urgent tasks? You should always decide to do the tasks based on the following two considerations: • Impact of doing a task • Effect of not doing a task One of the best ways to decide between ‘Urgent’ versus ‘Important’ tasks and to balance between them is to use the ‘Stephen Covey’s Urgent Vs Important Matrix’.
  • 78. Organizing Organizing is an important component of time management. When you are better organized, you are better prepared to do your tasks more quickly and diligently. You do not waste time in searching for and locating misplaced things or gathering resources at the last minute to do a task.
  • 79. Steps of Organizing The following are the three principles or steps of organizing: Prioritize Set Goals Form Good Habits Let us look at each in detail.
  • 80. Steps of Organizing The following are the three principles or steps of organizing: Prioritize Set Goals Form Good Habits Set Goals Let us look at each in detail. Set Goals: • Organizing begins with setting goals both short-term and long-term goals. • Goals should be ‘SMART’ • Always remember that all Goals have a beginning and an end and to identify these beginnings and endings is important.
  • 81. Steps of Organizing The following are the three principles or steps of organizing: Prioritize Set Goals Form Good Habits Prioritize Prioritize: • Put first things first. • Priority is a ‘must’ to do rather than a ‘want’ to do. • Scheduling is an important part of Prioritizing. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 82. Steps of Organizing The following are the three principles or steps of organizing: Prioritize Set Goals Form Good HabitsForm Good Habits Form Good Habits: • Never Procrastinate. • Good habits require self-discipline. • Keep focus with a journal/day planner. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 83. Delegating Delegation is an important concept when you learn about time management. Delegating is: ‘The act of delegating, or investing with authority to act for another’ or ‘the distribution of responsibility and authority to others while holding them accountable for their performance.’ Hence, delegating means asking someone else to perform a task that is one of your responsibilities or work that you are being paid to do. It is entrusting responsibility and authority to others who then become responsible to us for their results but we remain accountable to our boss for what our subordinates do.
  • 84. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority Accountability Let us look at each in detail.
  • 85. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority Accountability Authority Authority: Authority can be defined as the power and right of a person to use and allocate the resources efficiently, to take decisions and to give orders so as to achieve the organizational objectives. Authority must be well- defined. People with authority should know the scope of their authority. Authority always flows from top to bottom. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 86. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority Accountability Authority Authority: Authority can be defined as the power and right of a person to use and allocate the resources efficiently, to take decisions and to give orders so as to achieve the organizational objectives. Authority must be well- defined. People with authority should know the scope of their authority. Authority always flows from top to bottom. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 87. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority Accountability Responsibility Responsibility: • Responsibility is the duty of the person to complete the task assigned to him. • A person who is given the responsibility should ensure that he accomplishes the tasks assigned to him. • Responsibility without adequate authority leads to discontent and dissatisfaction among the person. • Responsibility flows from bottom to top. • The person held responsible for a job is answerable for it. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 88. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority AccountabilityAccountability Accountability: • Accountability means giving explanations for any variance in the actual performance from the expectations set. • Accountability cannot be delegated. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 89. Elements of Delegation The following are the three elements of delegation: Responsibility Authority AccountabilityAccountability Accountability: • Accountability means giving explanations for any variance in the actual performance from the expectations set. • Accountability cannot be delegated. Let us look at each in detail.
  • 90. Importance of Delegation in Time Management
  • 91. Flowchart for Delegation Decision You can use the following flowchart to come to a decision whether the task can be delegated. Does this NEED to be done? Does it need to be done by ME? Does it need to be done NOW? Resist & Stop (Dump) YES YES YES DO IT! Consider Delegating Plan and ... NO NO NO
  • 92. Steps of Effective Delegation Step 1: Clarify your goals & opportunities Step 2: Decide what goals and projects can be done by others Step 3: Select the right person Step 4: Organize the tasks being delegated Step 5: Give clear instructions & request feedback Step 6: Set deadlines & ask for reports Step 7: Support and monitor Step 8: Provide Recognition
  • 93. Managing Interruptions The following are some of the methods to manage various kinds of interruptions: Let us look at each in detail. Managing Documents Managing Workspace Managing Drop-in visitors Managing Phone
  • 94. Managing Interruptions The following are some of the methods to manage various kinds of interruptions: Let us look at each in detail. Managing Documents Managing Workspace Managing Drop-in visitors Managing Phone Managing Workspace Managing Workspace: • De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day • File documents once they have been used • Organize a work flow system in your space
  • 95. Managing Interruptions The following are some of the methods to manage various kinds of interruptions: Let us look at each in detail. Managing Documents Managing Workspace Managing Drop-in visitors Managing Phone Managing Documents Managing Documents: • Define what you need to keep and for how long • Arrange file materials logically • Facilitate easy access to materials • Purge the files on a regular basis
  • 96. Managing Interruptions The following are some of the methods to manage various kinds of interruptions: Let us look at each in detail. Managing Documents Managing Workspace Managing Drop-in visitors Managing Phone Managing Drop-in visitors Managing Drop-in visitors: • Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the ‘drop-in’ visits • Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace as people would not hang around long if they have to stand • For important work , move to another space • Learn to say ‘NO ‘in a polite way
  • 97. Managing Interruptions The following are some of the methods to manage various kinds of interruptions: Let us look at each in detail. Managing Documents Managing Workspace Managing Drop-in visitors Managing PhoneManaging Phone Managing Phone: • Batch your outward calls • Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of your team members • Terminate calls once the business has been done • Set up a rotation of team members of your team for handling incoming calls
  • 98. Types of Interruptions The following are some of the culprits that could act as an interruption: • Over socializing on Job o Unnecessary Meetings o Setting Unattainable Goals • Telephone Interruptions o Ineffective Prioritization o Junk Mails • Poorly Run Meetings o Poor Planning o Misfiled Information • Drop-in visitors o Cluttered Workspace o Extended Lunch Breaks • Procrastination o Waiting/Delays o Ineffective Delegation
  • 99. Scheduling Scheduling is the process by which you look at the time available to you and plan how you will use it to achieve the goals you have identified. By using a schedule properly, you can: • Understand what you can realistically achieve with your time. • Plan to make the best use of the time available. • Leave enough time for things you must absolutely do. • Preserve contingency time to handle 'the unexpected'. • Minimize stress by avoiding over-commitment to yourself and others.
  • 100. Prioritizing The process of deciding which of several options or tasks is most important is known as ‘Prioritizing’. Hence, determining your priorities or prioritizing involves deciding that Activity ‘A’ is more important than Activity ‘B’. You should keep in mind that your priorities may change over time and in relation to various situations. The essence of Time management lies in managing ourselves in relation to time. So, the crux of time management lies in setting priorities and taking charge. You should keep in mind that your priorities are influenced by your values and your goals.
  • 101. How to Prioritize Your Tasks? The following questions need to be considered to determine the priority of any activity: What am I doing that doesn’t really need to be done? What am I doing that could be done by someone else? What am I doing that could be done more efficiently? What are the costs versus the benefits of doing this activity? How well does this activity fit into my goals?
  • 102. How to Prioritize Your Tasks? The following questions need to be considered to determine the priority of any activity: Does this activity have a deadline for completion? How much do I enjoy doing this activity? Have I promised or agreed to do this activity? Which of my needs will be satisfied by doing this activity? How much time does this activity require for completion? Roll your mouse over the icon, to learn more.
  • 103. Tip
  • 104. MCQ Q. Which of the following is NOT a component of time management? Click on the radio button to select the correct answer!
  • 105. MCQ Q. Which of the following is NOT a component of time management?
  • 106. MCQ Q. Which of the following is NOT a component of time management?
  • 107. Let us now look at a real life example to understand the role of prioritizing in time management. Real Life Example
  • 108. Dave Hudson is a Project Manager at Helios Inc. Dave is always very busy with a list of numerous tasks to complete in a single day. Dave suffered from poor time management and hence ended up postponing most of his tasks and leaving many of the tasks incomplete. Real Life Example
  • 109. Dave’s boss Kevin advised Dave to attend a workshop on time management to help him learn about managing his time well and performing his work better. Dave attended the workshop on time management and learned about the importance of ‘prioritizing’ in time management. Real Life Example
  • 110. So, Dave decided to plan his day in advance for managing his time well. Dave now knows that he needs to prioritize his tasks in order of their importance. He has made a list of the tasks that he needs to complete in a particular day. Real Life Example
  • 111. The following is a list of the tasks that Dave has to complete on the particular day: • Check and identify mails to be sent today. • Conduct the morning team meeting. • Discuss with a colleague about last night’s cricket match. • Complete fortnightly status report to submit to boss. • Schedule a meeting with boss about my career progression. Real Life Example • Make a phone call to a friend enquiring about his health. • Buy a gift for friend’s birthday party in the evening. • Conduct a quality review meeting with each team member.
  • 112. Can you help prioritize Dave’s tasks for him in the order of their importance? Real Life Example
  • 113. Given below is the list of Dave’s tasks that have been prioritized as per their importance. Please keep in mind that the following list is just an indicative answer and there may be a few variations in the list depending upon your sense of priority and the way you tend to manage your tasks. Real Life Example
  • 114. 1. Conduct the morning team meeting. 2. Check and identify mails to be sent today. 3. Complete fortnightly status report to submit to boss. 4. Conduct a quality review meeting with each team member. 5. Make a phone call to a friend enquiring about his health. Real Life Example 6. Buy a gift for friend’s birthday party in the evening. 7. Schedule a meeting with boss about my career progression. 8. Discuss with a colleague about last night’s cricket match.
  • 115. Hence, you can see that by prioritizing the tasks, Dave now knows which of the tasks are urgent and important. As Dave has a list of prioritized tasks, he now knows which of the tasks he can postpone for completion at a later date; if he is pressed for time on the particular day. Real Life Example
  • 116. Scope of Time Management • There are various skills, tools, and techniques that can be practiced for effective time management which helps an individual to manage time to accomplish specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. • The various tasks that are included in the scope of time management include: planning, setting goals, delegation, allocating, analysis of time spent, organizing, monitoring, scheduling, and prioritizing.
  • 117. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 118. Tools for Time Management There are various tools that you can use for Time Management, such as: Planners 1 2 3 4 5 To-do Lists Diary Calendar Activity Logs Let us look at each in detail.
  • 119. Planners 2 3 4 5 Planners1 • A very useful tool for time management is a 'Planner'. • You can use 'Planners' to effectively plan a day, a week as well as a month in advance. • Always keep in mind that you make sure to note down important meetings, deadlines, project milestones etc. in the planner. • Whenever you commit any due dates or social events, always enter the same into the planner at once.
  • 121. Calendar • Another useful time management tool is a paper or an electronic calendar. You can use a calendar to record meetings, appointments and due dates for a monthly view as well as an yearly view. • For a person who handles multiple responsibilities and loads of tasks at the same time, an annual calendar should be used. • You can organize the annual calendar by areas of responsibility and then jotting down the tasks and events on such an annual calendar. Calendar 2 3 4 5 1
  • 123. To-do Lists You can use a to-do list to list down all the tasks that you need to complete and in the order of priority in which they have to be completed. So, a to-do list has the most important tasks listed at the top of the list, and the least important tasks at the bottom. Also, such a list helps you to work as per the set priorities as you have listed the important tasks on top. To-do Lists 2 3 4 5 1 To-do lists prove to be greatly useful for someone who has a list of multiple tasks that need to be completed. To-do lists help to keep track of the tasks that need to be completed and help in avoiding forgetting to do a few of them when caught in the midst of all the activity. A to-do list proves to be greatly useful as it helps to avoid forgetting tasks as you have all the tasks listed in one place.
  • 125. Activity Logs 2 3 4 5 1 Activity Logs Most people are not aware about how they spend their day and time. Generally, people do not have the habit of keeping track of and are unaware of the amount of time that they wasted in breaks, idle chit- chat, checking emails, browsing through useless sites etc. An ‘Activity Log’ is a vital tool that helps you to keep a track of your time. You can use an activity log to keep track and later analyze how you actually spend your time. You can use it to see at a glance, the amount of time you wasted and the activities that you waste your time on. Always make a habit of keeping an Activity Log for several days. Then, you should analyze your daily activity log after you have logged your time for a few days. Keep a track of the areas on which you have wasted time and also track the low value jobs.
  • 127. Diary • One of the most common and effective tools of time management is a ‘diary’. • You can use a diary as a journal to list down your daily experiences, action plans, your techniques to save time, resources etc. • Hence, you can use a diary to reflect back on your day and help you to save time and plan for the future. Diary 2 3 4 5 1
  • 128. MCQ Q. Which of the following is an appropriate tool for Achievement Management Style? Click on the radio button to select the correct answer!
  • 129. MCQ Q. Which of the following is an appropriate tool for Achievement Management Style?
  • 130. MCQ Q. Which of the following is an appropriate tool for Achievement Management Style?
  • 131. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 132. Technology and Time Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In the modern technological world, there are many modern-day tools that are offered by technology which can be used for time management and save time efficiently . Some such tools offered by modern-day technology are:
  • 133. Telephone 1 • Telephone is a great time-saving tool when used correctly. • Telephones help you to communicate with the other person without having to waste the time of meeting a person face-to-face. • It also helps to save money and time as communication can be carried out without the need to travel. • For efficient time management, it is important that you plan your calls in advance before making them. • If possible, set aside a block of time for making and receiving calls. • While on a call, make sure you keep track of the time and do not waste time on idle chit- chat.
  • 135. Email • Email or electronic mail is a form of electronic communication. For efficient time management, the best way to handle emails is in batches at regularly scheduled times of the day, just like other routine tasks. • Inform and ask your contacts to use specific and meaningful subject lines to help you identify the purpose of the email at a glance. • Use specific and meaningful subject lines in your emails. • Classify the emails as you view the subject lines as business or personal, urgent or trivial. • First of all, make a habit of reading the urgent emails and responding to them as and when you view them 2
  • 137. Teleconferencing • An important tool that you can use for more personal contact than emails is ‘Teleconferencing’. Teleconferencing proves to be greatly useful when real- time sharing is needed. There are various teleconferencing systems available today that you can use as per your needs such as: Adobe’s Acrobat.com, Microsoft Live Meeting, or Citrix’s GoToMeeting. 3
  • 139. Chat • Chat is another modern-day technology tool that proves to be useful for saving time. Usually, while writing through emails, a lot of time may get wasted in to and fro emails. On the other hand, the option of using chat saves a lot of such to and fro time that may get wasted in sending emails. In situations where the participants of a meeting are located in different locations, you can use instant messaging applications and chat rooms as a great alternative to meetings. 4
  • 140. Chat 4
  • 141. Web Meeting • Web meeting is a modern-technology tool that proves to be greatly useful in saving valuable time and at the same time having the same advantages as that of a face-to- face meeting. • Web meeting or web conferencing is also known as webinars. • Web meeting is usually used for interactive conferences as well as online workshops. • Web meeting is a service that is basically an online conference. • It allows the conferencing events to be shared with remote locations. • Such webinars allow real-time point-to-point communications. 5
  • 143. Email Lists and Online Groups • Emails are used by many people for both personal as well as professional purposes. • However, another useful technology tool that uses a variation of emails is the email lists and online groups. • Email Lists, Forum and Online Groups prove to be greatly useful to share communication with a meeting group that requires ongoing and interactive communication on a regular basis. 6
  • 144. Email Lists and Online Groups 6
  • 145. Collaboration Applications • Collaboration Applications are another modern-day technology tool that help in time management. • Such various kinds of collaboration tools can be used to save a lot of time that gets wasted in meetings or phone calls. • Users can use various systems like Microsoft SharePoint, Wrike, Pelotonics, Google Docs, and Basecamp for interaction and collaboration with each other from any location. • Such collaboration tools prove to be most useful for project meetings, or situations where users need to peer review each other’s work. 7
  • 146. Let us now look at a real life example to understand the methods of time management. Real Life Example
  • 147. Real Life Example You had seen in the introduction scenario that Dave is surrounded by various kinds of problems due to lack of proper time management.
  • 148. Real Life Example You had seen that Dave did not manage his time well and hence he is not able to complete his daily chores and also suffers on the professional as well as personal front due to poor time management. Let us now see how Dave could manage his time well and pack in more in the same 24 hours of time that everyone has in a day.
  • 149. Real Life Example In order to manage time well, Dave should pre-plan each of his days on the previous day. By planning each of his days in advance, Dave would know the tasks that have to be completed on the same day, the meetings that have been scheduled for that day, the tasks that he can delegate for completion at a later date and any odd tasks of the day such as Parent-Teacher Meeting, Anniversary Party etc.
  • 150. Real Life Example Also, to begin with, in order to avoid getting late to the office, Dave should get up early by means of using devices such as alarms and start early from home to reach the office early. If Dave reaches his office early, he would have more time to complete his tasks of the day.
  • 151. Real Life Example A good way that Dave can manage his emails and avoid wasting time is by checking the important and urgent emails first. He can identify important emails by seeing the sender’s name, subject line, attachments etc. Also, Dave can set filters, sorting and tags to his emails so that he can view the latest and important emails first. Dave should also make a habit of replying to each important email as and when he views them to avoid putting off and forgetting to reply to them later.
  • 152. Real Life Example One of the best ways that Dave as well as everyone can manage time well is by avoiding wasting time on unnecessary activities. One of the best methods to avoid wasting time is by keeping your workplace organized. When Dave keeps his desk tidy, organized and uncluttered then he knows where each of his files and important things are lying. Also, he would not have to waste his time in searching for files and things. He can use this saved time to do some productive and useful work.
  • 153. Real Life Example Dave could be ready with the presentation for the client meeting rather than panicking on the last day by using tools such as planners, diary etc. to remind him of his future scheduled meetings and tasks to be completed. This way he could have set a reminder for himself that the client meeting is due on a particular day and could have completed the presentation at a leisurely pace rather than working on it under stress and pressure on the day of the client meeting itself.
  • 154. Real Life Example Dave could avoid skipping his lunch to complete the status report which he needs to submit to his boss by keeping the status report ready one day in advance. He could fix a slot of a few hours in each day which he could dedicate solely to working on the status report only. This way he could complete the status report each day and also not have to skip his lunch to complete it.
  • 155. Real Life Example It was natural for Dave to forget about his kid’s Parent-Teacher meeting, which is not a routine activity that he performs on a daily basis. To keep tab of such odd activities and tasks, Dave should keep a diary and reminder to keep him abreast of the activities or tasks that are not a part of his daily work routine but will have to be completed on a particular day.
  • 156. Real Life Example Dave knew very well about his anniversary party well in advance. The only thing he needed to do to reach his anniversary party on time is to plan his day well and keep a reminder that would let him know when the party is just in case he tends to forget the date when it arrives. If Dave had planned his workday well, he could have got off work and could have left the office on time or even early. This way he could have reached his anniversary party on time and also delighted his spouse by reaching the party early.
  • 157. Real Life Example Thus, you can see that there are several methods that Dave could use to manage his time well. By proper time management, Dave would have been able to pack in a lot of chores into a single day and yet complete each and every one of them successfully.
  • 158. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 159. Urgent/Important Matrix The Urgent/Important Matrix is an important concept for time management.
  • 160. Steps to Use the Urgent/Important Matrix The following are the steps to use the Urgent/Important Matrix to prioritize your activities: List down all the activities and projects you feel you have to do Make sure that you include all tasks that take up your time at work, even if you feel the task is unimportant. Now, use a scale of 1 to 5 to assign importance to each activity To decide if a task is important or not is by looking at it and identifying whether the task helps you meet your goals Next, determine the urgency of each activity, after you have assigned importance to each activity. Next, as per the assigned importance and urgency, you should plot the listed items on the Urgent/Important Matrix.Schedule your priorities by analyzing the matrix by using the strategies described for each quadrant.
  • 161. Strategies to Evaluate Urgent/Important MatrixImportant Not Urgent NotImportant Urgent 1. Quadrant of Manage 2. Quadrant of Leadership & Quality 3. Quadrant of Deception 4. Quadrant of Waste
  • 162. Quadrant I of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant Not Urgent NotImportant Urgent 1. Quadrant of Manage ACTIVITIES • Crisis • Pressing Problems • Deadline-driven Projects 2. Quadrant of Leadership & Quality 3. Quadrant of Deception 4. Quadrant of Waste • Quadrant I represent things that are both “urgent” and “important”. Hence, you should make sure you spend your time on the activities listed in this quadrant. This is the Quadrant of Manage. • This is where you manage; you produce, where you bring your experience and judgment to bear in responding to many needs and challenges. • Many important activities become urgent through procrastination, or because you don’t do enough prevention and planning.
  • 163. Quadrant II of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant Not Urgent NotImportant Urgent 1. Quadrant of Manage 2. Quadrant of Leadership & Quality ACTIVITIES • Prevention & • Relationship Building • Recognize New Opportunities • Planning & Recreation 3. Quadrant of Deception 4. Quadrant of Waste • Quadrant II includes activities that are “important, but not urgent”. This is the Quadrant of Quality. • Here’s where you do your long-range planning, anticipate and prevent problems, empower others, broaden your mind and increase your skills. • Ignoring this Quadrant feeds and enlarges Quadrant I, creating stress, burnout, and deeper crises for the person consumed by it. • Investing in this Quadrant shrinks Quadrant I.
  • 164. Quadrant III of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant Not Urgent NotImportant Urgent 1. Quadrant of Manage 2. Quadrant of Leadership & Quality 3. Quadrant of Deception ACTIVITIES • Interruption • Some Calls, Mails, Reports & Meetings • Proximate • Pressing Matters 4. Quadrant of Waste • Quadrant III includes things that are “urgent, but not important”. This is the Quadrant of Deception. • The feeling that a task is urgent creates the illusion of importance. The actual activities, if they’re important at all, are important to someone else. • Many phone calls, meetings and drop-in visitors fall into this category.
  • 165. Quadrant IV of Urgent/Important MatrixImportant Not Urgent NotImportant Urgent 1. Quadrant of Manage 2. Quadrant of Leadership & Quality 3. Quadrant of Deception 4. Quadrant of Waste ACTIVITIES • Trivia • Busy Work • Some Mails & Calls • Time Wasters • Pleasant Activities • Quadrant IV is reserved for activities that are “not urgent, not important”. This is the Quadrant of Waste. • You often “escape” to Quadrant IV for survival. • Reading addictive novels, watching mindless television shows, or gossiping at office would qualify as Quadrant IV time-wasters.
  • 166. Urgent/Important Matrix For efficient time management, increase your Q-2 and ensure your tasks are important but not urgent. Urgent Non-Urgent Important Q-1 Quadrant of Necessity Examples: Deadline-driven project, crisis, resolving immediate problems Q-2 Quadrant of Quality and Personal Leadership Examples: Problem prevention, relationship building, finding your life partner, building your dream career, personal development, improving your health. Not Important Q-3 Quadrant of Deception Examples: Interruptions, certain phone calls / emails / meetings / reports, certain pressing matters. Q-4 Quadrant of Waste Examples: Time wasters, surfing TV channels, mindless web surfing/chatting, etc.
  • 167. MCQ Q. Which of the following Quadrants when ignored cause stress, burnout, and deeper crises for the person consumed by it? Click on the radio button to select the correct answer!
  • 168. MCQ Q. Which of the following Quadrants when ignored cause stress, burnout, and deeper crises for the person consumed by it?
  • 169. MCQ Q. Which of the following Quadrants when ignored cause stress, burnout, and deeper crises for the person consumed by it?
  • 170. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 171. Action-Priority Matrix Quick Wins Major Projects Fill Ins Thankless Tasks High High LowImpact Low Effort • A simple technique to help you decide and choose which activities/tasks to prioritize, and which ones you should drop is the ‘Action-Priority Matrix’. • The Action-Priority Matrix helps you in prioritizing the tasks and hence helps you make the most of your time and opportunities. • A variant of this tool is the ‘Impact-Feasibility Matrix’, which substitutes ‘Feasibility’ for ‘Effort’ on the horizontal axis. • The ‘Impact-Feasibility Matrix’ gives a different perspective by looking at the organization’s ability to deliver important changes.
  • 172. Action-Priority Matrix Quick Wins Major Projects Fill Ins Thankless Tasks High High LowImpact Low Effort • The figure given above shows the ‘Action-Priority Matrix’. • To use the Action-Priority Matrix, you should look at each activity from two viewpoints - firstly on the impact the activity will have and secondly on the effort involved in completing the task. • Now, after you have looked at each activity from these two viewpoints and scored it, plot each activity on the Action Priority Matrix using these scores. • Now, you can see at a glance, the tasks that give you the greatest returns on your efforts.
  • 173. Steps to Use the Action Priority Matrix The following are the steps to use the Action Priority Matrix: Make a list of all the activities that you would like to complete. Score all the activities based on their impact such as: 0 for no impact to 10 for maximum impact. Score all the activities based on their required effort such as: 0 for no real effort to 10 for a very major effort. Now, plot all of the activities on the Action- Priority Matrix. Next, you can decide to either complete or drop the activities appropriately based on the matrix.
  • 174. Strategies to Evaluate Action-Priority Matrix The following are the various strategies to evaluate Action-Priority Matrix: Let us look at each in detail.
  • 175. Quick Wins Quick Wins (High Impact, Low Effort): This is the quadrant that includes activities that are high in impact and low in effort. Hence, these are the activities that are the ‘quick wins’. These are the most attractive projects, giving you a good return for relatively little effort. You should focus on such activities as much as you can.
  • 176. Major Projects Major Projects (High Impact, High Effort): This is the quadrant that includes activities that are high in impact and also high in effort. Hence, these are the activities that are the ‘major projects’. These activities give good returns but also take a long time to complete. You should always bear in mind that one such ‘Major Project’ can withhold the completion of many ‘Quick Wins’.
  • 177. Fill Ins Fill Ins (Low Impact, Low Effort): This is the quadrant that includes activities that are low in impact and also low in effort. Hence, these are the activities that are the ‘Fill-ins’. You should never worry about such activities too much. So, you should complete such activities, only if you have got spare time. If you do not have the spare time, you should drop such activities for completing a better task.
  • 178. Thankless Tasks Thankless Tasks (Low Impact. High Effort): This is the quadrant that includes activities that are low in impact and also high in effort. Hence, these activities are the ‘Thankless Tasks’. It is vital for efficient time management that you should avoid these tasks. So, make sure that you do not waste your time on such activities as such tasks are low in returns. Also, as they are high in effort, they would consume more time which would be better used elsewhere.
  • 179. • Although it may not be apparent to most people at first, however, there is an important relationship between stress and time management. • Almost everyone has at some time or the other in their life felt frustrated, pressurized and overwhelmed by large number of tasks and commitments that they need to fulfil. Relationship between Stress and Time Management
  • 180. Relationship between Stress and Time Management • Thus, it is obvious that such pressures and overloads on an individual causes stress. • Such an overload of tasks can lead to stress. • So, you can understand now that stress and time management are related to each other. • Therefore, the best way to avoid stress is through effective time management.
  • 181. Relationship between Stress and Time Management • When you practice effective time management, you learn to use methods and techniques of time management that will help you identify and fulfil those activities that are most productive and will yield maximum returns for you. • Thus, in this manner when you practice time management methods and techniques, you will learn to save time.
  • 182. Relationship between Stress and Time Management • You will also learn to work smart and not work hard. • When you save time, you are not overloaded with the burden of completing many tasks in a short period of time. • So, you can carry out your tasks at a leisurely pace and in a relaxed manner. • Thus, through time management you will beat work overload which is a key source of stress.
  • 183. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 184. Use Your Energy Efficiently For effective time management, it is crucial that you should take into consideration the energy levels of the person. Energy levels of a person are important because a person can work efficiently and quickly only when he has enough energy to concentrate on the task. Also, the right amount of energy would help a person work efficiently and quickly with optimum mental and physical energy. levels through the day, you should ask yourself the following question: At what time of the day do you feel most energetic?
  • 185. To find out the fluctuations in your energy Evaluate your energy level at different times of the day to answer this question. A ‘morning person’ would feel most energetic in the early hours of the day whereas a ‘night person’ would feel most energetic towards the end of the day. Now, observe your energy levels carefully for a few days. Then, use your observations to schedule the tasks when you have the energy level to match that particular task. Therefore, if you are a ‘morning person’, then schedule study and tasks that require focus in the early hours of the day. On the other hand, if you are a ‘night person’, tasks that require focus should be scheduled later on towards the end of the day. Use Your Energy Efficiently
  • 186. The ‘biological clock’ or your ‘body clock’ decides how of your body works and the variance of energy levels for different types of people at different times of the day. Biological clocks are also known as ‘Circadian Rhythms’ or ‘Body Clocks’. Circadian rhythms are internal biological clocks that regulate many functions and activities, including sleep, temperature, metabolism, alertness, blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels and immunities. Understand Your Biological Clocks
  • 187. Understand Your Biological Clocks The sunlight at each morning resets these Circadian Rhythms. Your body cycles through several metabolic and chemical changes in about every 24 hours. It is these cycles that determine whether you are a “Morning Person” or a “Night Owl”. It is a well known fact that to maximize your efficiency you should work with your body cycles and not against them. So, instead of fighting these natural rhythms, you should learn to work with these natural rhythms. Hence, you can make more efficient use of your time by scheduling certain activities at certain times of the day.
  • 188. It is a well known fact that to maximize your efficiency you should work with your body cycles and not against them. So, instead of fighting these natural rhythms, you should learn to work with these natural rhythms. Hence, you can make more efficient use of your time by scheduling certain activities at certain times of the day. There are a few time periods at which certain brain functions are efficient. These time periods have been described for a ‘morning person’. Please keep in mind that if you are a ‘night owl’, then you should shift these times about 3-4 hours later in the day. Understand Your Biological Clocks
  • 189. Cognitive Tasks Cognitive Tasks 8 a.m. - 12 noon Cognitive Tasks 8 a.m. - 12 noon Cognitive, or mental, tasks such as reading, calculating, and problem solving are performed most efficiently in the morning. Note: If you are a Night Owl, shift these times about 3-4 hours later in the day. 08 : 0009 : 0010 : 001 1 : 0012 : 00
  • 190. Short Term Memory Short term memory 6 a.m. - 10 a.m. Short term memory 6 a.m. - 10 a.m. Short term memory tasks such as last minute reviewing for tests are best performed early in the morning. Note: If you are a Night Owl, shift these times about 3-4 hours later in the day. 06 : 0007 : 0008 : 0009 : 0010 : 00
  • 191. Long Term Memory Long term memory 1 p.m. – 4 p.m. Long term memory 1 p.m. – 4 p.m. Longer term Memory tasks such as memorizing speeches and information for application are best performed in the afternoon. Note: If you are a Night Owl, shift these times about 3-4 hours later in the day. 13 : 0014 : 0015 : 0016 : 00
  • 192. Manual Dexterity Manual Dexterity 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. Manual Dexterity 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. You are most efficient at tasks involving the use of your hands such as keyboarding and carpentry in the afternoon and early evening. Note: If you are a Night Owl, shift these times about 3-4 hours later in the day. 14 : 0015 : 0016 : 0017 : 0018 : 00
  • 193. Let us now look at a real life example to understand the role of biological clocks in time management. Real Life Example
  • 202. Leverage Leverage is a technique in which a small effort can be used to achieve something of much/larger value. Leverage gives us significant power. Time Leverage should be used to become successful in life. We should leverage other people's time, to increase productivity to an extraordinary extent. To leverage YOUR OWN time: • Practice effective time management • Learn to prioritize tasks • Use goal setting techniques To leverage other people's time: • Learn to delegate work • Train and empower others • Use skill and knowledge of experts and consultants • Outsource non-core tasks to people with the requisite expertise Roll your mouse over the icon, to learn more.
  • 203. Tip
  • 204. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 205. Avoid Multitasking People generally believe that when you ‘multitask’ and do several tasks at once, you actually save time and get more done in the same time. However, this is just a myth and in reality when you multitask, you tend to spend your energy, concentration and focus on several things all at once. For example, you may be talking on the phone with a friend while at the same time asking a query on a chat window to your colleague and may also try to read an email that just came in. Hence, when you try to do all these things together, you tend to put in less than your hundred percent in each task and will produce results of low quality.
  • 206. Avoid Multitasking Therefore, it is self-evident that a good time management practice would be to avoid multitasking. So, develop a habit of finishing one task before moving onto another. Thus, getting over the habit of multitasking will help your become more efficient, improve the quality of your work and lower stress levels.
  • 207. Tips to Avoid Multitasking The following are a few methods to avoid multitasking and yet manage time effectively: Keep your thoughts together when you feel they are wandering from the current task • • Avoid and manage your interruptions Improve your concentration and focus properly on one task at a time • • Resist the urge to jump from one task to another Check emails at designated time intervals only • • Stop immediately as soon as you start multitasking Plan your day in blocks •
  • 208. Time Wasters Some of the most common time wasters are as follows: Stress & Anxiety Procrastination Lack of Planning Perfectionism Interruptions Depression Being unorganized Not saying ‘no’ Attempting too much
  • 209. Time Wasters Meetings without agenda Fear of delegating No clear deadline Problems With Objectives/Priorities Inadequate resources No passion for doing the work Fear of failure or success Shifting Priorities Tired/unable to concentrate
  • 210. Challenges of Time Management The following are the major challenges that have to be overcome for effective Time Management: Setting incorrect Objectives: • It means setting objectives that are unrealistic / unattainable / unchallenging. Paralyzing Perfectionism: • It is failure to recognize the difference between excellence and perfection. Procrastination: • Putting off doing the things that you should be doing at this point!
  • 211. Overcoming Challenges of Time Management Procrastination • List all tasks that you are currently putting off. Then, remove two from the list by doing them now! Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest • Reward when tasks are completed and punish when tasks are not completed on schedule Paralyzing Perfectionism • Differentiate between Excellence and Perfection • Excellence is Achievable, Healthy, Satisfying, Realistic • Perfection is Unattainable, Frustrating, and Unrealistic Setting Incorrect Objectives • Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are: o Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-bound, and Supported by the organization • Objectives should be challenging
  • 212. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 214. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling
  • 215. Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Not Keeping a To-Do List Not Keeping a To-Do List: One of the most common mistakes that everyone makes while trying to manage time is not keeping a to-do list. For effective time management, it is crucial that you should learn to maintain and keep a to-do list. A to-do list will help you to effectively prioritize the tasks on your list.
  • 216. Not Keeping a To-Do List Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective SchedulingAbsence of Goals Absence of Goals: You will not be able to manage your time well if you do not know what goals you want achieve by making use of your time. Hence, to manage your time effectively, it is crucial that you should know where you are trying to reach. Therefore, goal setting is a crucial component of effective time management. When you set goals, the goals give you a sense of direction and you know the destination and vision to work toward.
  • 217. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Not Prioritizing Not Prioritizing: Another common mistake that most people commit while trying to manage time is not prioritizing their tasks. It is crucial that you should prioritize the tasks that you need to complete because there is always a long list of tasks that need to be completed. Hence, it is important for you to initially decide which tasks are important, urgent and crucial and have to be finished first. Also, prioritizing your tasks will help you identify tasks that can be deferred for finishing at a later stage. You can use the Urgent/Important Matrix to prioritize tasks.
  • 218. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Getting Distracted Getting Distracted : While trying to manage time and completing many tasks, one of the common pitfalls that most people face is that of getting distracted. So, it is obvious that when you fail to manage such distractions they can prove to be a major pitfall in time management. So, in order to be in control of your time and manage it well, it is vital that you should learn to minimize distractions and manage interruptions effectively.
  • 219. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Procrastinating Procrastinating: One of the most serious pitfalls of time management is ‘procrastination’ or the habit of ‘procrastinating’. When a person tends to procrastinate, he tends to postpone tasks. Postponing the tasks ultimately leads to the piling up of several tasks together. This can lead to stress and a failure to complete any or all of the tasks.
  • 220. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Overburdening Yourself Overburdening Yourself : You cannot manage your time well if you have a tendency of overburdening yourself with too much at the same time. So, it is important to understand your limitations and capacity. You should learn to say ‘no’ to people and to accepting more tasks. When you do not learn to say ‘no’ you would tend to overburden yourself with too many tasks. You should always bear in mind that you are a human and have certain limitations like any other human. So, you should learn to take on only the amount of work that you can complete yourself efficiently.
  • 221. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Addiction to ‘Busyness’: You should not make a habit of getting addicted to a sense of ‘Busyness’. It has been found that some people tend to get a kick out of feeling that they are forever busy. You should bear in mind that always being busy and an "addiction to busyness" does not necessarily improve your efficiency or effectiveness. Also, it does not show that you're effective. On the other hand, such an addiction can lead to stress and a nervous breakdown.
  • 222. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Multitasking Multitasking: Most people believe that the best way for effective time management is ‘multitasking’. However, it has been found that you would take 20-40 percent more time to finish a list of jobs when you multitask, instead of when you complete the same list of tasks sequentially one after the other.
  • 223. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Ineffective Scheduling Avoiding Breaks Avoiding Breaks: Many people believe that if they skip their breaks and avoid taking breaks, they would be able to complete all their tasks and pack in more into a day. However, avoiding breaks is a big mistake when trying to manage your time well. This is because you should keep in mind that ‘breaks’ is not a waste of time. Instead, taking a break can act as a crucial breather in a hectic schedule and help your brain to relax. A relaxed brain will work more efficiently and faster than a brain which is overworked and stressed.
  • 224. Not Keeping a To-Do List Absence of Goals Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Let’s look at each in detail. Common Time Management Pitfalls The following are some of the most common mistakes or pitfalls of time management: Overburdening Yourself Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Ineffective Scheduling: A common mistake of time management is ineffective scheduling. Scheduling tasks effectively is very important. Also, you should keep in mind that you should schedule tasks as per your biological clock and energy levels. Therefore, a morning person should schedule tasks that require focus in the mornings rather than at later in the day and vice versa.
  • 225. Objectives • Explain What is Time Management • Explain the Benefits of Time Management • Describe the Various Elements of Time Management • Explain the Principles of Time Management • Explain the Various Time Management Styles • Explain the Steps for Managing Your Time • Describe the Various Components of Time Management • Explain the Tools for Time Management • Explain the Role of Technology in Time Management • Explain the Urgent/Important Matrix • Explain the Action-Priority Matrix • Explain the Role of Biological Clocks in Time Management • Explain How to Avoid Multitasking • Explain the Common Time Management Pitfalls • List the Tips for Effective Time Management
  • 226. Tips for Effective Time Management The following are a few tips for effective time management: Keep a To-do List Plan and Organize Prioritize and put first things first Estimate time for tasks
  • 227. Tips for Effective Time Management The following are a few tips for effective time management: Set clear objectives and deadlines Get clear instructions and be focused Avoid interruptions and idle-chit chat Always keep additional time
  • 228. Video Look at the video given below to understand a simple rule for increased productivity. Click on the video link to play it! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-Q0eP42uv0
  • 229. Practice Let us now practice all that you have learned about Time Management.
  • 230. Practice Maintain a daily log of the activities that you perform in a day and the time that you spent on each activity. Maintain this log for two weeks. Now, analyze the daily log and make the following observations: • What is the one major important activity that you need to perform daily? • What are your biggest and most frequent time wasters? • Which time management tool is most useful to you in managing time? • How can you improve your time management skills?
  • 231. Case Study Ronald Smith is a Project Manager in Helion Inc. He is a very busy person and is always loaded with numerous tasks in a day. 1. How can Ronald use delegation for better time management? 2. What steps should Ronald follow for effective delegation?
  • 232. Summary Time Management Tools for Time Management Strategies to Evaluate Action-Priority Matrix Steps for Managing Your Time Common Time Management Pitfalls Strategies to Evaluate Urgent/Important Matrix Let’s look at each in detail.
  • 233. Summary Steps for Managing Your Time Time Management Step 1: Set Goals Step 2: Develop a Schedule Step 3: Revisit and Revise Your Plan
  • 234. Summary Time Management Tools for Time Management Planners Calendar To-do Lists Diary Activity Logs
  • 235. Summary Strategies to Evaluate Urgent/Important Matrix Time Management Quadrant of Manage Quadrant of Leadership & Quality Quadrant of Deception Quadrant of Waste
  • 236. Summary Strategies to Evaluate Action-Priority Matrix Major Projects (High Impact, High Effort) Quick Wins (High Impact, Low Effort) Time Management Fill Ins (Low Impact, Low Effort) Thankless Tasks (Low Impact. High Effort)
  • 237. Summary Common Time Management Pitfalls Time Management Not Keeping a To-Do List Not Prioritizing Getting Distracted Procrastinating Addiction to ‘Busyness’ Multitasking Avoiding Breaks Ineffective Scheduling Absence of Goals Overburdening Yourself
  • 239. B G M P S Glossary Click each alphabet to learn more. • Busy – Busy means when someone is actively or fully engaged or occupied • Biological Clock - Biological Clock is an innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions
  • 240. B G M P S Glossary Click each alphabet to learn more. • Goal - Goal is a target that is intended to be achieved and that when achieved terminates the behavior intended to achieve it • Group - Group is any number of entities or members that are considered as a unit
  • 241. B G M P S Glossary Click each alphabet to learn more. • Multitasking - Multitasking means to perform more than one task at the same time • Management - Management is the act of managing something
  • 242. B G M P S Glossary Click each alphabet to learn more. • Procrastinating - Procrastinating means to postpone or delay needlessly • Project - Project is a planned undertaking
  • 243. B G M P S Glossary Click each alphabet to learn more. • Scheduling - Scheduling means setting an order and time for planned events • Strategy - Strategy is an elaborate and systematic plan of action