MOTIVATION Motivation is a process that start with physiological and psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive
MOTIVATION THEORIES Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Higher Order InternalLower Order External
Needs were categorized as five levels of lower-to higher order needs. Individual must satisfy lower order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfy needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing that at what level a person in on hierarchy Hierarchy of needs Lower order (external): physiological, safety Higher order (internal): social, esteem, self actualization
HIERARCHY OF WOK MOTIVATION SELF-ACTUALIZATION Personal growth, realization of potential Esteem needs Titles, status symbols promotions Social needs Formal and informal workgroups or teams Security needs Seniority plans, union, health insurance, employee assistance Plans, severance pay, pension Basic Needs Pay
APPLYING MASLOWS NEEDS HIERARCHY - BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS Physiological Motivation: Provide ample breaks for lunch and recuperation and pay salaries that allow workers to buy lifes essentials. Safety Needs: Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom from threats. Social Needs: Generate a feeling of acceptance, belonging, and community by reinforcing team dynamics. Esteem Motivators: Recognize achievements, assign important projects, and provide status to make employees feel valued and appreciated. Self-Actualization: Offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation, creativity, and progress according to long-term goals.
APPLICATION-JOB DESIGN Job Characteristics Model