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    1. 1. Chapter 6 Motivational Process <ul><li>Motivation as a general term means involvement of an individual in work. In a specific sense it means a particular need or motive . </li></ul>
    2. 2. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter 6 6 – What Is Motivation? Direction Persistence Intensity
    3. 3. <ul><li>I was saying </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm the greatest” </li></ul><ul><li>long before </li></ul><ul><li>I believed it. </li></ul>Intensity
    4. 4. Direction
    5. 5. <ul><li>It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer. </li></ul>Persistence
    6. 6. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter 6 6 – Direction Persistence Intensity
    7. 8. Defining Motivation <ul><li>Key Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity: how hard a person tries </li></ul><ul><li>Direction: toward beneficial goal </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence: how long a person tries </li></ul>
    8. 9. Approaches to Understanding Motivation Adapted from Figure 14.1 <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s needs hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s learned needs </li></ul><ul><li>Job & Organization Contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two-factor theory </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity theory </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-setting theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Basic expectancy theory </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated expectancy model </li></ul>14.2
    9. 10. Content Theories of Motivation Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence Motivator--Hygiene Theory Motivators Hygienes Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation McClelland’s Learned Needs ERG Theory Needs Hierarchy Theory
    10. 11. Need Hierarchy Theory (Maslow) Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self- actualization needs Lower-order needs Higher-order needs
    11. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary
    12. 13. Need Hierarchy and Organisational Aspects   <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization need </li></ul><ul><li>Ego needs </li></ul><ul><li>Love needs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Job challenge, performance, advancement, creativity, growth, training, self-image. </li></ul><ul><li>Status, responsibilities, recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive and supportive coworkers, teams, 0ther work groups, supervisors, subordinates, customers etc </li></ul><ul><li>Work safety, job security, health insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Work place conditions (air, water, temperature), base salary </li></ul>
    13. 14. Alderfer's ERG Theory <ul><li>an extension of Maslow's theory </li></ul><ul><li>three categories of needs: </li></ul><ul><li>existence, - similar to Maslow's physiological and safety need categories. </li></ul><ul><li>relatedness, - interpersonal relationships and are comparable to aspects of Maslow's love and ego needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth - attainment of one's potential and are associated with Maslow's self-actualisation needs. </li></ul><ul><li>differs from Maslow in two respects. (1) It does not suggest that lower-order needs must be satisfied before upper-order needs become motivational. (2) if upper-order needs are not satisfied, an individual will regress, and lower-order needs become the major motivation determinants . </li></ul>
    14. 15. Alderfer's ERG Theory <ul><li>The main contribution of ERG theory is also in drawing attention to the satisfaction of lower-order needs, but also meeting higher-order needs, like job challenge, performance, advancement, creativity, growth, training etc. Alderfer also believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g., the power you get the more you want power), like an addiction. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)
    16. 17. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
    17. 18. Hygiene Factors <ul><li>Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of pay </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul>Motivational Factors <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Career advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Job interest </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation
    18. 19. Needs Theories Maslow Herzberg Hygiene Motivators Factors Social Safety Physiological Self-Actualisation Esteem
    19. 20. Herzberg ’ s Two-Factor Model <ul><li>Hygiene Factors </li></ul><ul><li>(pre vent dissatisfaction) </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Working Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Company Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Work Group </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>(provide satisfaction) </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself </li></ul>
    20. 21. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory High Motivation High Hygienes Adapted from Figure 14.4 Low High Motivators Low Low Motivation Dissatisfaction Low Dissatisfaction 14.6
    21. 22. Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction
    22. 23. Understanding Needs <ul><li>Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed vs. Wanted </li></ul><ul><li>( Schutz) </li></ul><ul><li>Approach vs. Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>( Atkinson) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal vs. Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs. Social </li></ul>
    23. 24. McClelland’s Learned Needs <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>desire to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>desire for satisfying relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>desire to influence and control others </li></ul>14.5
    24. 25. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
    25. 26. Six main needs or motives <ul><li>The achievement motive </li></ul><ul><li>The affiliation motive </li></ul><ul><li>The influence motive </li></ul><ul><li>The control motive </li></ul><ul><li>The extension motive </li></ul><ul><li>The dependency motive </li></ul>
    26. 27. Approach and Avoidance Dimensions of Six Motives <ul><li>Motives Approach Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li> (hope of) (Fear of) </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Success Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation Inclusion Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension Relevance Irrelevance </li></ul><ul><li>Influence Impacting Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Control Order Chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Growth Lonliness </li></ul>
    27. 28. Expectancy Theory E X H I B I T 6-8
    28. 29. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter 6 6 – Expectancy Theory (Vroom) 3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence 1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality Individual Effort Individual Performance Personal Goals Organisational Rewards 1 2 3
    29. 30. Overview of Expectancy Theory Effort Expectancy Instrumentality Valence of reward Performance Reward MOTIVATION Role perceptions and opportunities Abilities and traits JOB PERFORMANCE X X
    30. 31. Expectancy Theories (Vroom) <ul><li>Expectancy means the subjective probability of an outcome and is expressed as : </li></ul><ul><li>Work motivation = </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy (subjective probability of an outcome) X </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality (first level outcome leading to the second level outcome) X </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction for the second level outcome </li></ul><ul><li>If anyone is zero, motivation is zero </li></ul>
    31. 32. How Expectancy Theory Works © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.
    32. 33. Expectancy Theory Example <ul><li>Employees need to answer these in affirmative if their motivation is to be maximized: </li></ul><ul><li>If I give maximum effort , will it be recognized in my performance appraisal? </li></ul><ul><li>If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards ? </li></ul><ul><li>If I am rewarded, are the rewards ones that I am personally attractive? </li></ul><ul><li>( Personal goals) </li></ul>
    33. 34. Work Motivation Model Smith & Cranny E X H I B I T Rewards Performance Effort or Intention Satisfaction
    34. 35. Patchen’s Model of Two- level Work Motivation <ul><li>The motive to achieve is the basic motive for work motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The motive works according to the incentive value and expectancy in the situation </li></ul><ul><li>The motive depends on the expected approval and expected other satisfactions a person can derive as a result of achieving a goal </li></ul><ul><li>These in turn depend on some factors of the job and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Work Motivation = Achievement Motivation X Achievement incentive X Expectancy </li></ul>
    35. 36. Integrative Expectancy Model Adapted from Figure 14.7 Role perceptions Satisfaction Perceived equity Effort-reward link Performance Effort Value of reward Abilities and traits Extrinsic rewards Intrinsic rewards 14.10
    36. 37. Porter & Lawler ’ s Expectancy Model <ul><li>Satisfaction (work motivation) is influenced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities and Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Role Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
    37. 38. Lawler ’ s Model of Work Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy (subjective probability that </li></ul><ul><li>effort will lead to performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs about outcomes of the performance </li></ul><ul><li>Valence (attractiveness) of the outcomes </li></ul>
    38. 39. Integrated Theory of Work Motivation <ul><li>Work motivation can be conceived at 3 levels: </li></ul><ul><li>1.first level: individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second and third level: Individual ’ s interaction with organization </li></ul><ul><li>In short Work motivation is determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Individual ’ s psychological needs </li></ul><ul><li>The way role is designed and perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Role performance and rewards </li></ul>
    39. 40. Matching Achievers and Jobs
    40. 41. Performance Dimensions E X H I B I T 6-9