MOTIVATION
Employee Engagement
Emotional and cognitive
motivation, self-efficacy
to perform the job, a
clear understanding of
one’s r...
Needs & Motives
Needs :
Tension states that arouse us to seek gratification
Drives : behavior is “Pushed “ from within us ...
• Needs
– Goal-directed forces that people experience.
– Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals
– Goals formed by ...
Defining Motivation
Key Elements
1. Intensity: how hard a person tries
2. Direction: toward beneficial goal
3. Persistence...
Self-Self-
actual-actual-
izationization
PhysiologicalPhysiological
SafetySafety
BelongingnessBelongingness
EsteemEsteem
M...
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
• Lowest unmet need has
strongest effect
• When lower need is
satisfied, next higher
need ...
Evaluating Maslow’s Theory
• Criticism :
• Lack of support for theory
• People have different
hierarchies – don’t progress...
2.Two-Factor Theory (Frederick
Herzberg)
A theory that identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction:
 M...
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of
Motivation
Hygiene factors avoid
job dissatisfaction
• Company policy and
administration
• Su...
3.David McClelland’s Theory of Needs
nAch
nPow
nAff
David McClelland’s - Learned Needs Theory
• Needs are amplified or suppressed
through self-concept, social norms,
and past...
4.Four-Drive Theory
Drive to BondDrive to Bond
Drive to LearnDrive to Learn
• Drive to form relationships and
social commi...
How Four Drives Affect Motivation
1. Four drives determine which emotions are
automatically tagged to incoming
information...
Four Drive Theory of Motivation
Social norms, personal values, and
experience transform drive-based
emotions into goal-dir...
E-to-P
Expectancy
P-to-O
Expectancy
Outcomes
& Valences
Outcome 1Outcome 1
+ or -+ or -
EffortEffort PerformancePerformanc...
Increasing E-to-P and P-to-O Expectancies
• Increasing E-to-P Expectancies
– Assuring employees they have competencies
– P...
Increasing Outcome Valences
• Ensure that rewards are valued
• Individualize rewards
• Minimize counter valent outcomes
Feedback
• Specific – connected to goal details
• Relevant – Relates to person’s behavior
• Timely – to improve link from ...
Feedback Through Strengths-Based
Coaching
• Maximizing the person’s potential by
focusing on their strengths rather than
w...
Multisource Feedback – 360 degrees
• Received from a full circle of people
around the employee
• Provides more complete an...
Evaluating Goal Setting and Feedback
• Goal setting has high
validity and usefulness
• Goal setting/feedback
limitations:
...
6.Equity Theory
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Keeping Pay Equitable at Costco
Costco Wholesale CEO Jim
Sinegal (shown in this photo)
thinks the large wage gap
between m...
Organizational Justice
• Distributive justice
– Perceived fairness in
outcomes we receive
relative to our
contributions an...
Correcting Inequity Feelings
Actions to correct inequity Example
Evaluating Equity Theory
• Good at predicting situations unfair
distribution of pay/rewards
• Difficult to put into practi...
Procedural Justice
• Perceived fairness of procedures used to decide
the distribution of resources
• Higher procedural fai...
Lecture motivation
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  • 13 10
  • Lecture motivation

    1. 1. MOTIVATION
    2. 2. Employee Engagement Emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, a clear understanding of one’s role in the organization’s vision and a belief that one has the resources to perform the job Motivated employees are engaged employees!
    3. 3. Needs & Motives Needs : Tension states that arouse us to seek gratification Drives : behavior is “Pushed “ from within us by drives stemming from basic needs. • An individual is in a state of drive when he/ she is said to be in a state of behavior in order to achieve a particular goal • The stronger the drive the greater the level of arousal experienced by the individual Motives: • Goal directed behaviors.
    4. 4. • Needs – Goal-directed forces that people experience. – Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals – Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience Self-concept, social norms, and past experience Drives (primary needs) Needs Decisions and Behavior Drives and Needs
    5. 5. Defining Motivation Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
    6. 6. Self-Self- actual-actual- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
    7. 7. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory • Lowest unmet need has strongest effect • When lower need is satisfied, next higher need becomes the primary motivator • Self-actualization -- a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied Self-Self- actual-actual- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Need toNeed to knowknow Need forNeed for beautybeauty
    8. 8. Evaluating Maslow’s Theory • Criticism : • Lack of support for theory • People have different hierarchies – don’t progress through needs in the same order • Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated Self-Self- actual-actual- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Need toNeed to knowknow Need forNeed for beautybeauty • Latest Additions
    9. 9. 2.Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) A theory that identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction:  Motivators Job-content factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself  Hygiene Factors Job-context variables such as salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, working conditions, and company policies and administration
    10. 10. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Company policy and administration • Supervision • Interpersonal relations • Working conditions • Salary • Status • Security • Achievement • Achievement recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth • Increasing Salary Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
    11. 11. 3.David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
    12. 12. David McClelland’s - Learned Needs Theory • Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past experience • Therefore, needs can be “learned” (i.e. strengthened or weakened through training)
    13. 13. 4.Four-Drive Theory Drive to BondDrive to Bond Drive to LearnDrive to Learn • Drive to form relationships and social commitments • Basis of social identity • Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information Drive to DefendDrive to Defend • Need to protect ourselves • Reactive (not proactive) drive • Basis of fight or flight Drive to AcquireDrive to Acquire • Drive to take/keep objects and experiences • Basis of hierarchy and status Theory propounded by Harvard Business school professors Lawrence and Nohria
    14. 14. How Four Drives Affect Motivation 1. Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information 2. Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention 3. Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, and experience to transform drive-based emotions into goal- directed choice and effort
    15. 15. Four Drive Theory of Motivation Social norms, personal values, and experience transform drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort Drive to Acquire Social norms Drive to Bond Drive to Learn Drive to Defend Personal values Past experience Mental skill set resolves competing drive demands Mental skill set resolves competing drive demands Goal-directed choice and effort Goal-directed choice and effort
    16. 16. E-to-P Expectancy P-to-O Expectancy Outcomes & Valences Outcome 1Outcome 1 + or -+ or - EffortEffort PerformancePerformance Outcome 3Outcome 3 + or -+ or - Outcome 2Outcome 2 + or -+ or - 5.Expectancy Theory of Motivation
    17. 17. Increasing E-to-P and P-to-O Expectancies • Increasing E-to-P Expectancies – Assuring employees they have competencies – Person-job matching – Provide role clarification and sufficient resources – Behavioral modeling • Increasing P-to-O Expectancies – Measure performance accurately – More rewards for good performance – Explain how rewards are linked to performance
    18. 18. Increasing Outcome Valences • Ensure that rewards are valued • Individualize rewards • Minimize counter valent outcomes
    19. 19. Feedback • Specific – connected to goal details • Relevant – Relates to person’s behavior • Timely – to improve link from behavior to outcomes • Sufficiently frequent – Employee’s knowledge/experience – task cycle • Credible – trustworthy source
    20. 20. Feedback Through Strengths-Based Coaching • Maximizing the person’s potential by focusing on their strengths rather than weaknesses • Motivational because: – people inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws – person’s interests, preferences, and competencies stabilize over time
    21. 21. Multisource Feedback – 360 degrees • Received from a full circle of people around the employee • Provides more complete and accurate information • Several challenges
    22. 22. Evaluating Goal Setting and Feedback • Goal setting has high validity and usefulness • Goal setting/feedback limitations: – Focuses employees on measurable performance – Motivates employees to set easy goals (when tied to pay) – Goal setting interferes with learning process in new, complex jobs
    23. 23. 6.Equity Theory
    24. 24. Equity Theory (cont’d)
    25. 25. Keeping Pay Equitable at Costco Costco Wholesale CEO Jim Sinegal (shown in this photo) thinks the large wage gap between many executives and employees is blatantly unfair. “Having an individual who is making 100 or 200 or 300 times more than the average person working on the floor is wrong,” says Sinegal, whose salary and bonus are a much smaller multiple of what his staff earn. 5-26
    26. 26. Organizational Justice • Distributive justice – Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others • Procedural justice – Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
    27. 27. Correcting Inequity Feelings Actions to correct inequity Example
    28. 28. Evaluating Equity Theory • Good at predicting situations unfair distribution of pay/rewards • Difficult to put into practice – doesn’t identify comparison other – doesn’t indicate relevant inputs or outcomes • Equity theory explains only some feelings of fairness – procedural justice is as important as distributive justice
    29. 29. Procedural Justice • Perceived fairness of procedures used to decide the distribution of resources • Higher procedural fairness with: – Voice – Unbiased decision maker – Decision based on all information – Existing policies consistently – Decision maker listened to all sides – Those who complain are treated respectfully – Those who complain are given full explanation

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