Chapter Motivation Presentation PPM OB EM10B


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Presentasi Tugas Chapter Motivation Perilaku Budaya Organisasi

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  • Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class.A motive is an impulse that causes a person to act. Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward a goal. Motivation, like intelligence, can’t be directly observed. Instead, motivation can only be inferred by noting a person’s behaviour.
  • Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, goals/ targetIntensity: the strength of a response in the chosen directionPersistence: how long a person continues to devote effort in the chosen direction.
  • (1) Improves Performance Level:The ability to do work and willingness to do work both affect the efficiency of a person. The ability to do work is obtained with the help of education and training and willingness to do work is obtained with the help of motivation.Willingness is more important in comparison to ability. For example, a person is highly educated and he is recruited on this very basis. But it is not essential that he will do outstanding work.He shall have to be motivated to do good work. This is possible only through motivation. Therefore, motivation improves efficiency. The efficiency of a person is reflected through increase in productivity and decrease in costs.(2) Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees:Some employees of an organisation have a negative attitude. They always think that doing more work will not bring any credit. A manager uses various techniques to change this attitude.For example, if the financial situation of such an employee is weak, he gives him a raise in his remuneration and if his financial condition is satisfactory he motivates him by praising his work.(3) Reduction in Employee Turnover:The reputation of an organisation is affected by the employee turnover. This creates a lot of problems for the managers. A lot of time and money go waste in repeatedly recruiting employees and giving them education and training.Only motivation can save an organisation from such wastage. Motivated people work for a longer time in the organisation and there is a decline in the rate of turnover.(4) Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organisation:In some of the organisations, the rate of absenteeism is high. There are many causes for this-poor work conditions, poor relations with colleagues and superiors, no recognition in the organisation, insufficient reward, etc. A manager removes all such deficiencies and motivates the employees. Motivated employees do not remain absent from work as the workplace becomes a source of joy for them.(5) Reduction in Resistance to Change:New changes continue taking place in the organisation. Normally workers are not prepared to accept any changes in their normal routine. Whereas it becomes essential to bring in some changes because of the demands of time.Employees can be made to accept such changes easily with the help of motivation. Motivated people accept these changes enthusiastically and improve their work performance.
  • The self-determination theory states that people prefer to have control over their actions. So when they are required to do something they previously freely chose, it will diminish their motivation.Cognitive Evaluation Teoriiniberpendapatbahwabilaimbalanintrinsik yang dihasilkandari orang-orang yang melakukanapa yang merekasukaituberkurang. Dengan kata lain, bilaimbalanekstrinsikitudiberikanpadaseseoranguntukmelakukansuatutugas yang menarik, imbalantersebutmenyebabkanturunnyaketertarikanintrinsikatastugasitusendiri.Hal inibisamunculkarena orang tersebutmengalamisuatukehilangankendaliatasperilakunyasendirisehinggamotivasiintrinsiksebelumnyaituberkurang. Lebihlanjut, berkurangnyaimbalanekstrinsikdapatmenyebabkansuatupergeserandalampersepsiindividumengenaisebabmengapadiamengerjakansuatutugas.
  • This theory sets forth that in the workplace, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not independent of one another. In fact, the presence of extrinsic rewards may decrease the intrinsic rewards. In addition to extrinsic rewards, managers need to realize the importance of using goal setting and verbal rewards as a method to increase motivation. motivasiintrinsiksepertipencapaian, tanggungjawab, dankompetensiituterlepasdari motivator ekstrinsiksepertitingkatupah, kenaikanjabatan, hubungan supervisor yang baik, dankondisitempatkerja yang menyenangkan. Artinya, pendorong (stimulasi) darisatumotivasitidakakanmempengaruhimotivasilainnya.
  • organizations need people who are engaged with their work. These organizations expect proactivity, initiative and responsibility for personal development from their employees. engaged employees are fully involved in, and enthusiastic about their work. in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, emotionally and mentally during role performances
  • Relationship between goals and performance depends on: Goal commitment (the more public the better!) Task characteristics (simple, well-learned),NationalCulture.MBO is a systematic way to utilize goal-setting.Goals must be:Tangible VerifiableMeasurableAtaubisamenggunakan SMARTCorporate goals are broken down into smaller, more specific goals at each level of organization
  • Higher efficacy is related to:Greater confidenceGreater persistence in the face of difficultiesBetter response to negative feedback (work harder)
  • Self-efficacy can be increased in several ways. The first is increasing your mastery of a task/skill. Another way is to model your actions after someone else who performs the task effectively and applying their actions to your own. The final methods to increase self-efficacy is to receive verbal persuasion through others as well as getting excited about completing the task.
  • The Reinforcement Theory is based on the goal-setting theory we looked at earlier. However, it focuses on behaviors instead of cognitive factors. This theory believes that reinforcement conditions behavior and by reinforcing certain behaviors we can increase the types of behaviors that impact organizational effectiveness in a positive way. This theory is based on the idea that behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior is believed to be based on the consequences and not on thoughts, feelings, or attitudes. This theory is not technically a motivational theory, rather it is a method used to analyze behavior. It is important to keep in mind that reinforcement does impact behavior but it is not the only factor that does so.
  • Adam’s equity theory utilizes perception theory that we looked at in previous chapters. The idea is that employees compare their ratios of outcomes to inputs of others they see as relevant. When they see the ratios as equal, there is a perceived state of equity and no tension arises. However, when they perceive the ratios to be unequal, they may experience anger or guilt, depending on the result of the equity analysis, and then tension can arise. This tension can motivate people to act in a way to bring the situation into a more equitable state.
  • This theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way is dependent on the strength of the expectation that they will receive a given outcome and that the outcome is desired.Employees are willing to work harder if they believe that their actions will get them an outcome they desire. For example, employees are willing to work long and hard hours if they know that they will be rewarded through promotion, recognition, or pay in response to their hard work.
  • This graph looks at integrating the various motivational theories we have looked at. It is based onexpectancy theory. This graph looks at individual effort and recognizes that it can be impacted by opportunity. Goals effect behavior and will definitely influence individual effort. Employees will exert a lot of effort if they perceive that effort will help them perform better and receive rewards for that performance. This also assumes that the rewards are based on a fair and objective appraisal process as perceived by the individual. If equity is perceived, motivation is high.
  • () adalah proses partisipasi yang menggunakanseluruhkapasitaskaryawandan yang dirancanguntukmendorongpeningkatankomitmen demi kesuksesanorganisasi.(involvement programs and motivation theories)adalah program pelibatankaryawandapatmemberikankepadakaryawanmotivasidenganmeningkatkankesempatanuntukberkembang, tanggungjawab, dalampelibatankerjaitusendiri, yang dimanaakanmembantukaryawanuntukmeningkatkanhargadiri.(), proses dimanabawahanberbagikekuasaandalampengambilankeputusansampaiderajat yang tertentuatasanlangsungnya(a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors)- (), adalah para pekerjaberpartisipasikedalampengambilankeputusanorganisasilewatkelompokkecil yang mewakilikaryawana system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees.
  • Chapter Motivation Presentation PPM OB EM10B

    1. 1. Organizational Behavior Group Presentation 1. Adiarti Nursasanti 2. Fithriani 3. Gunadhi Abiyoga 4. Aria Arifin 5. Meysha Agni 6. Raden Krisma Hadianto 7. Shafiqah
    2. 2. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Defining  Motivation example
    3. 3. Persistence Three key elements of motivation: Direction Intensity 1 2 3
    4. 4. Why Is Motivation Important? Improves Performance Level Reduction in Resistance to Change Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organization Reduction in Employee Turnover
    5. 5. EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Theory X & Y Hierarchy Needs of Theory Two Factor Theory McClellands Theory
    6. 6. Self-actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Growth, achieving our potential & self-fulfillment Self-respect, autonomy, achievment, ex : statu, recognition and attention Affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship Protection and emotional harm Hunger, thirst, sex an d other bodily needs Weakness Research does not validate Ex : unstatisfied needs motivate & statisfied need activates movement to a new need level Abraham Maslow
    7. 7. Managers believe employee inherently dislike work Managers assume employee can learn to accept, seek and responsibility Weakness • No evidence • Theory Y assumptions will lead to more motivated workers Douglas McGregor
    8. 8. Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Two-Factor Theory • Advancement • Recognition • Responsibility • Achievement Hygiene Factors Company policy & administration, supervision and salary Weakness • Limited – relies on self-reports • Reability – questionable • No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized • Herzberg only look at satisfaction  relationship satisfaction - productivity Frederick Herzberg
    9. 9. David McClellands Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, & to strive to succeed Need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship Weakness • The best research support • Less practical effect than the other 3
    10. 10. Contemporary Theories of Motivation  Self Determination Theory  Motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation  Cognitive Evaluation Theory  Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation
    11. 11. Major Implications for Work Rewards  Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not independent  Extrinsic rewards may decrease intrinsic rewards  Goal setting is more effective in improving motivation  Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation; tangible rewards reduce it Self-concordance When the personal reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with personal interests and core values (intrinsic motivation), people are happier and more successful Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    12. 12. • Job Engagement Investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into (causes and effects) job performance Value Match Between work and personal expectations Company Support Perceived safety, trust and personal control Self Image Level of confidence in own abilities Company Citizenship Active , collaborative, innovative, and involved Task Performance Activities directly involved in the accomplishment of core job tasks JOB ENGAGEMENT Simultaneous investment of cognitive, emotional, and physical energy Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    13. 13. • Goal Setting Theory Cascading of ObjectivesExhibit 7-4 Specific & difficult goals, with self- generated feedback, lead to higher performance. Relationship between goals and performance will depend on: •goal commitment •task characteristics •national culture Management By Objectives Programs (MBO) is a systematic way to utilize goal-setting. •Company wide goals & objectives •Goals aligned at all levels •Based on Goal Setting Theory Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    14. 14. • Self Efficacy Theory An individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”) Self-Efficacy complements Goal-Setting Theory Enhances probability that goals will be achieved Exhibit 7-5 Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    15. 15. Increasing Self-Efficacy • Enactive mastery – Most important source of efficacy – Gaining relevant experience with task or job – “Practice makes Perfect” • Vicarious modeling – Increasing confidence by watching others perform the task – Most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him- or herself • Verbal persuasion – Motivation through verbal conviction – Pygmalion and Galatea effects - self-fulfilling prophecies • Arousal – Getting “psyched up” – emotionally aroused – to complete task – Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the task © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    16. 16. • Reinforcement Theory Similar to Goal-Setting Theory, but focused on a behavioral approach rather than a cognitive one(thoughts, feelings, or attitudes) - Behavior is environmentally caused - Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences - Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated Concept Assumption Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    17. 17. Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Equity Theory/Organizational Justice Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. Model of Organizational JusticeExhibit 7-7 Equity TheoryExhibit 7-6 - Self - inside - Self - outside - Other - inside - Other - outside Referent Comparisons “Who got What?” “How was who gets what decided?” “Was I treated well?”
    18. 18. Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Employee behaviors to create equity: 1) Change inputs (slack off) 2) Change outcomes (increase output) 3) Distort/change perceptions of self 4) Distort/change perceptions of others 5) Choose a different referent person 6) Leave the field (quit the job) • Propositions relating to inequitable pay:  Paid by time  Paid by quality
    19. 19. • Expectancy Theory Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. Expectancy TheoryExhibit 7-8 Expectancy of performance success Instrumentality of success in getting reward Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    20. 20. The Job Characteristic Model Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback High internal motivation High quality performance High satisfaction Low absenteeism & turnover meaningfulness responsibility for outcomes knowledge of the actual result activities
    21. 21. Job redesign & arrangement Job Rotation Sharing Job Flextime Combine task Natural work units Client relationship Expand job vertically Feedback JobEnrichment
    22. 22. Employe Involvement Motivation Theory Linking Employee involvement Participate Management Manajemen melibatkan karyawan dalam proses pengambilan keputusan Representative participation Membentuk team kerja dalam proses pengambilan keputusan EXAMPLES
    23. 23. Variable Pay Programs Piece Rate pay plan Merit-based pay plan Bonus skill-based pay Profit-sharing plan Gainsharing Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP),
    24. 24. cerita ini adalah fiktif belaka, mohon maaf apabila ada kesamaan nama, tokoh, karakter ataupun peristiwa itu adalah kebetulan semata dan tidak ada unsur kesengajaan murni untuk tujuan pembelajaran
    25. 25. MOTIVATION Early Theories Abraham Maslow Hierarchy needs 5 hierarchy needs (basic-security-social-esteem-actualization) Douglas McGregor X&Y Two way of views (positive/like & negative/dislike) Frederick Herzberg Two Factors Satisfied & dissatisfied (motivators and Hygiene) David McClellands 3 level of needs Needs of (achievement, power, affiliation) Contemporary Theories Self Determination have control, focus on cognitive, extrinsic reduce intrinsic rewards, want --> have to, need for autonomy self concordance --> considers how strongly gthe reason to pursuing goals consistent Job Engagement employee believes, confidence, related or belonging to company and converted into performance Goal Setting whats need to be done how much effort is needed Self Efficacy complement of goal setting, cognitive/social learning supportive to achieve goals more confidence Reinforcement behavior based on consequences on the idea that behavior is environmentally caused Equity compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. Expectancy Expect from side of outcome, effort, and values Integrating & Application Job Design Employee Involvement and rewards IMPULS  - Energize, - Motif, Movere (Penggerak), - Exert high degree of effort - int. ext. factor that stimulate energy 1. DIRECTION (orientation toward goals) 2. INTENSITY (how hard to tries) 3. PERSISTENCE (how long to maintain the effort)