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  1. 1. Motivation at Work<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Definition Of motivation <br />Motivation is <br />Qualities Of Motivation <br />Process Of Motivation<br />Six C’s of motivation <br />Basic model of motivation <br />Theory Of Motivation<br />
  3. 3. Definition of motivation<br /> The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation.<br /> The degree to which an individual wants to choose in certain behavior.<br />
  4. 4. Motivation is…<br />Complex <br />Psychological<br />Physical<br />Unique to each and every person <br />Context sensitive <br />Not fully understood<br />
  5. 5. Qualities of Motivation<br />Energizes behavior <br />Enable persistence towards a goal <br />Exists in varying details <br />Directs behavior <br />
  6. 6. Motivation as a process<br />ENERGY DIRECTION PERSISTENCE<br />It is a process by which a person’s efforts areenergized, directed and sustained towards attainingthe goal.<br />*Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. <br />*Direction- Towards organizational goal. <br />*Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal <br />
  7. 7. Six C’s of Motivation..<br />Challenges <br />Choices <br />Control <br />Collaboration<br />Consequences <br />Constructing meaning <br />
  8. 8. Basic model of motivation <br />Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieve <br /> expectations (Behavior or Action)<br /> Desired Goal<br />FeedbackFulfillment Which provides<br />
  9. 9. 3 Groups of Motivational Theories<br />Internal<br />Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior<br />Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory<br />Process<br />Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment<br />Example: Expectancy theory<br />External<br />Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior<br />Example: Two-factor theory<br />
  10. 10. SA<br />Esteem<br />Love (Social)<br />Safety & Security<br />Physiological<br />Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Lowest to highest order<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory <br />Needs were categories as five levels of lower-higher-order needs.<br />*Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.<br />*Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.<br />*Motivating a person depends on knowing at what levelthat a person is on the hierarchy.<br />
  13. 13. Hierarchy of Needs <br />*Lower order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs <br />*Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-<br />Self-Actualisation Need<br /> Social Needs<br /> Safety Needs<br /> Psychological Needs<br />Esteem Needs<br />
  14. 14. McGregor’s Theory X and Y<br />Theory X<br />Assume that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.<br />Theory Y<br />Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire, responsibility, and like to work.<br />Assumption<br /> Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.<br />
  15. 15. Motivational Theories X<br />In this theory, which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work . According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can, under Theory X the firm relies on money and benefits to satisfy employees' lower needs, and once those needs are satisfied the source of motivation is lost. Theory X in fact hinder the satisfaction of higher-level needs. Consequently, the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy their higher level needs in their work is by seeking more compensation, so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards. Theory X thus have a hard approach towards the employee’s however, McGregor assert that neither approach is appropriate because the assumptions of Theory X are not correct.<br />
  16. 16. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory X<br />In conclusion Theory X assumes that the average person:<br />Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.<br />Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead.<br />Is self-centred and therefore does not care about organizational goals.<br />Resists change.<br />
  17. 17. Motivational Theories X & Y<br />SA<br />Esteem<br />Love (Social)<br />Theory X - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs<br />Safety & Security<br />Physiological<br />Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs<br />
  18. 18. Motivational Theories Y<br />In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. They also believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. McGregor want to open a more positive view of workers and thus the possibilities that can be created. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that are required for human resource development. <br />
  19. 19. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that are required for human resource development. <br /> This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This climate would include the sharing of decision making, so that subordinates comes out with decisions that influence them. This theory is a positive view to the employees, meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style<br />
  20. 20. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y<br />Theory Y makes the following general assumptions:<br />Work can be as natural as play and rest.<br />People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them.<br />People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that addresses higher needs such as self-fulfillment.<br />Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility.<br />Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.<br />
  21. 21. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement<br />Need for Achievement :<br /><ul><li>The desire to excel and succeed.</li></ul>Competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties.<br />
  22. 22. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power<br />Need for Power -a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life.<br />The need to influence the behavior of others.<br />
  23. 23. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation<br />Need for Affiliation -a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people<br />The desire for interpersonal relationship.<br />
  24. 24. Alderfer’s ERG Theory<br />SA<br /> Esteem<br />Internal &<br />External<br />Love (Social)<br />Safety & Security<br />Physiological<br />Growth <br />Relatedness<br />Existence<br />
  25. 25. 3 Motivational Need Theories<br />Alderfer<br />Maslow<br />McClelland<br />Growth<br />Need for <br />Achievement<br />Self-actualization<br />Higher<br />Order<br />Needs<br />Esteem <br /> self<br /> interpersonal<br />Need for <br />Power<br />Belongingness(social & love)<br />Relatedness <br />Safety & Security interpersonal <br /> physical<br />Lower<br />Order<br />Needs<br />Need for <br />Affiliation<br />Existence<br />Physiological<br />
  26. 26. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory<br />Hygiene Factor -e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits that do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.<br />Motivation Factor -challenging work, recognition, responsibility that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth.<br />
  27. 27. Motivation-Hygiene & Theory of Motivation (2 Factor Theory)<br />Motivation factors increase job satisfaction<br /><ul><li>Company policy & administration
  28. 28. Supervision
  29. 29. Interpersonal Relations
  30. 30. Working conditions
  31. 31. Salary
  32. 32. Status
  33. 33. Security
  34. 34. Achievement
  35. 35. Achievement recognition
  36. 36. Work itself
  37. 37. Responsibility
  38. 38. Advancement
  39. 39. Growth
  40. 40. Salary?</li></ul>Hygiene factors avoid <br />job dissatisfaction<br />
  41. 41. Expectancy Theory of Motivation<br />Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. Expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom.<br /> Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that:<br />putting in more effort will yield better job performance<br />better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits<br />these predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee.<br />
  42. 42. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs<br />Vroom’s model is based on three concepts:<br />Valence - Strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it.<br />Instrumentality – Means of the first level outcome in obtaining the desired second level outcome; the degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome.<br />Expectancy - Probability or strength of belief that a particular action will lead to a particular first level outcome.<br />
  43. 43. Expectancy Model of Motivation<br /> Reward<br />Effort<br />Performance<br />Perceived <br />value of reward<br />Perceived <br />performance - <br />reward probability<br />Perceived effort -<br />performance <br />probability<br />“If I work hard,<br />will I get the job<br />done?”<br />“What rewards<br />will I get when <br />the job is well done?”<br />“What rewards<br />do I value?”<br />
  44. 44. Belief that effort will not result in performance.<br />Belief that performance will not result in rewards.<br />The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards.<br />3 Causes of Motivational Problems<br />
  45. 45. J.S. Adam’s Theory of Inequity<br />Inequity – the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving<br />
  46. 46. Motivational Theory of Social Exchange <br />PersonComparison <br /> other<br />NegativeOutcomes < OutcomesInequity Inputs Inputs<br />PositiveOutcomes > OutcomesInequity Inputs Inputs<br />EquityOutcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs <br />
  47. 47. Moral Maturity<br />Moral Maturity – the measure of a person’s cognitive moral development<br />Morally mature people behave and act based on universal ethical principles.<br />Morally immature people behave and act based on egocentric motivations.<br />