Definition of MotivationMotivation – The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation. The degree to which an individual wants to choose in certain behavior.
Motivation as a process.. It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized,directed and sustained towards attaining the goal. Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. Direction- Towards organizational goal. Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goal.
Basic model of motivation Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieveexpectations (Behavior or Action) Desired Goals Feedback fulfillments Which Provides
Motivation is… Complex Psychological Physical Unique to each and every person Context sensitive Not fully understood
Qualities of Motivation Energizes behavior Directs behavior Enable persistence towards a goal Exists in varying details
Six C’s of Motivation.. Challenges ChoicesControl collaboration Consequences Constructing meaning
Groups of Motivational Theories Internal Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Process Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment Example: Expectancy theory External Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior Example: Two-factor theory
Early Theories of Motivation Content Theories: Emphasis on what motivates individuals. Maslow’s need Hierarchy Macgregors Theories X & Y Herzberg’s two factors theory
Process Theories of Motivation Emphasis on actual process of motivation. Three needs Theory ( McClelland) Goal-setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Designing Motivating theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory Needs were categories as five levels of lower- higher-order needs. Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.
POTENCY of NEEDSThe needs are INNATE, but they are not ofequal potency (strength). They are arranged ina hierarchy of potency.AN INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED BY HER/HISMOST POTENT UNSATISFIED NEED
HIERARCHY and SEQUENCEWhat Is a Hierarchy?You must successfully complete (resolve,equilibrate one stage before you go to thenext.)How Is Hierarchy Related To Sequence?All hierarchical theories are sequential, butnot all sequential theories are hierarchical.
Hierarchy of Needs Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-actualization Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs
McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X Assume that workers have little ambition,dislike work, avoid responsibility,and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self- direction,desire, responsibility, and like to work. Assumption Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.
Motivational Theories X & Y SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Social order needs Theory X - a set ofSafety & Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors. Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction.
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation• Company policy & Motivation factors administration increase job satisfaction• Supervision• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement recognition• Status • Work itself• Security • Responsibility • Advancement • GrowthHygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Salary?
Alderfer’s ERG Theory SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) RelatednessSafety & Security Existence Physiological
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement( nAch)The desire to excel andsucceed
McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for PowerNeed for Power – ( nPow )The need to influence thebehavior of others.
McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation – ( nAff )The desire for interpersonalrelationship
Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Growth Need forHigher Esteem AchievementOrder self Need forNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness Need for AffiliationLower Safety & SecurityOrder interpersonal physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
Adams’s Theory of InequityInequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
Motivational Theory of Social Exchange Person Comparison otherEquity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs InputsNegative Outcomes < Outcomes Inequity Inputs InputsPositive Outcomes > Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs
Strategies for Resolution of Inequity Alter the person’s outcomes Alter the person’s inputs Alter the comparison other’s outputs Alter the comparison other’s inputs Change who is used as a comparison other Rationalize the inequity Leave the organizational situation
New Perspectives on Equity TheoryEquity Sensitive I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other
New Perspectives on Equity TheoryBenevolent I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other
New Perspectives on Equity TheoryEntitled I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other
Expectancy Theory of Motivation: KeyConstructs Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards
Expectancy Model of Motivation Effort Effort Performance Reward Perceived effort– Perceived Perceived performance performance– value of reward probability reward probability“If I work hard, “What rewards “What rewardswill I get the job will I get when do I value?”done?” the job is well done?”