Motivation chapter v

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Motivation chapter v

  1. 1. MOTIVATION<br />
  2. 2. WORK MOTIVATION<br /><ul><li>is the set of internal and external forces that cause an employee to choose a course of action and engage in certain behaviors</li></li></ul><li>Three Elements of Work Motivation<br />Direction and Focus of the Behavior<br />Level of effort provided<br />Persistence of the behavior<br />
  3. 3. A MODEL OF MOTIVATION<br />
  4. 4. Environment<br />Needs and Drives<br />
  5. 5. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  6. 6. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  7. 7. Human Needs<br />Primary Needs <br /> - Basic Physical needs<br />Secondary Needs<br /> - Social and Psychological needs<br />
  8. 8. Motivational Drives<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  9. 9. Affiliation
  10. 10. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to accomplish objectives and get ahead<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  11. 11. Affiliation
  12. 12. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to relate people effectively.<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  13. 13. Affiliation
  14. 14. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />A drive to influence people and situations.<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  15. 15. Affiliation
  16. 16. Power</li></li></ul><li>Motivational Drives<br />Institutional power<br />Personalized Power<br /><ul><li>Achievement
  17. 17. Affiliation
  18. 18. Power</li></li></ul><li>Environment<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />
  19. 19. Opportunity<br />Environment<br />Performance<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />Effort<br />Rewards<br />Ability<br />Goals and incentives<br />
  20. 20. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  21. 21. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  22. 22. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  23. 23. Three Major Rewards<br />Fair Treatment<br />Sense of Achievement<br />Camaraderie<br />
  24. 24. Opportunity<br />Environment<br />Performance<br />Needs and Drives<br />Tension<br />Effort<br />Rewards<br />Ability<br />Goals and incentives<br />Need Satisfaction<br />
  25. 25. Maslow’sHierarchyofNeeds<br />
  26. 26. SELF-<br />ACTUALIZATION<br />ESTEEM NEEDS<br />LOVE, AFFECTION, AND<br /> BELONGINGNESS NEEDS<br />SAFETY NEEDS<br />PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS<br />
  27. 27. MASLOW model<br />HERZBERG model<br />ALDERFER model<br />Work itself<br />Achievement<br />Possibility of Growth<br />Responsibility <br />Advancement<br />Recognition<br />Growth Needs<br />Self-actualization and fulfillment needs<br />Motivational Factors<br />Esteem and Status Needs<br />Relatedness needs<br />Status<br />Relations with supervisors<br />Peer relations<br />Relations with subordinates<br />Quality of Supervision<br />Company Policy and administration<br />Job security<br />Working conditions<br />Pay<br />Belonging and Social Needs<br />Safety and Security Needs<br />Maintenance factors<br />Existence Needs<br />Physiological Needs<br />
  28. 28. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br /><ul><li>on the basis of research with engineers and accountants, Frederick Herzberg in the 1950’s developed the Two Factor Model for Motivation</li></li></ul><li>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Maintenance & Motivational Factors<br /><ul><li>Maintenance or Hygiene Factors</li></ul>Their presence generally brings employees only to a neutral state. The factors are not strongly motivating.<br />
  29. 29. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Maintenance & Motivational Factors<br /><ul><li>Motivational Factors</li></ul>Other job conditions operate primarily to build this motivation, but their absence rarely is strongly dissatisfying.<br />
  30. 30. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Effects of Maintenance & Motivational Factors<br />High positive feelings<br />High negative feelings<br />Neutral<br />(Absence) Maintenance Factor (Presence)<br />(Absence) Motivational Factor (Presence)<br />
  31. 31. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Job Contents and Context<br /><ul><li>Job Content</li></ul>These are the motivational factors such as achievement and responsibility are related, for the most par, directly to the job itself. The employees’ performance and the personal recognition and growth that the employee experiences.<br />
  32. 32. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Job Contents and Context<br /><ul><li>Job Context</li></ul> -Maintenance factors are mainly related<br /> -Employees are more related to the environment surrounding the job.<br />
  33. 33. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators<br /><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivators</li></ul>These are internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job.<br />
  34. 34. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators<br /><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivators</li></ul>These are internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job.<br />
  35. 35. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators<br /><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivators</li></ul>These are external rewards that occur apart from the nature of work providing no direct satisfaction at the time the work is performed.<br />
  36. 36. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model<br />Interpreting the Two-Factor Model<br />Herzberg’s model provides a useful distinction between maintenance factor which are necessary but not sufficient and motivational factor which have the potential for improving employee effort.<br />
  37. 37. Alderfer’s E-R-G Model<br /><ul><li>Existence Need</li></ul>Combine physiological and security factors pay, physical working conditions, job security, and firing benefits can also address these needs.<br />
  38. 38. Alderfer’s E-R-G Model<br /><ul><li>Relatedness Needs</li></ul>These involve being understood and accepted by people above, below and around the employee at work and away from it.<br />
  39. 39. Alderfer’s E-R-G Model<br /><ul><li>Growth Needs</li></ul>These involve the desire for both self-esteem and self actualization.<br />
  40. 40. Comparison of the Maslow, Herzberg, and Alderfer’s Model<br />The similarities among the three models of human needs are quite apparent. But there are also important contrasts:Maslow and Alderferfocuses on the internal needs of the employees. “Whereas” Herzberg also identifies and differentiates the conditions (job content or job context) that could be provided for need satisfaction.<br />
  41. 41. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION <br />by: Jacel<br />
  42. 42. Organizational Behavior Modification or OB Mod<br />-> Is the application in organizations of the principles of behavior modification. <br />
  43. 43. Law of Effect<br />-> state that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences (reinforcement) and tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences.<br />
  44. 44. “we learn best under pleasant surroundings”<br /> -learning theory-<br />“internal needs lead to behavior”<br /> -content theory-<br />“external consequences tend to determine behavior”<br /> -OB Mod-<br />
  45. 45. Social Learning<br />also known as vicarious learning.<br />suggest that employees do not always have to learn directly from their own experiences.<br />
  46. 46. ©2005 Prentice Hall<br />Reinforcement Approaches<br />Reinforcement Managerial <br />Approach Action Effect Example<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Provide desirable consequence<br />Increase probability of behavior being repeated<br />Highway construction supervisor receives bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule.<br />Negative reinforcement<br />Remove undesirable consequence<br />Increase probability of behavior being repeated<br />Management stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them.<br />Punishment<br />Provide undesirable consequence<br />Decrease probability of behavior being repeated<br />Habitually tardy crew member is fined the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late to work.<br />Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects<br />
  47. 47. ©2005 Prentice Hall<br />Reinforcement Approaches<br />Reinforcement Managerial <br />Approach Action Effect Example<br />Extinction<br />Remove desirable consequence<br />Decrease probability of behavior being repeated<br />Group member stops making unsolicited suggestions when team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings.<br />Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects<br />
  48. 48. Schedule of Reinforcement<br />Intermittent<br />Continuous<br />Ratio<br />Interval<br />Variable<br />Fixed<br />Variable<br />Fixed<br />
  49. 49. Major Benefit of Behavior modification<br />Makes managers become more conscious motivators.<br />Encourages manager to analyze employee behavior, explore why it occurs and how often.<br />Identify specific consequences that will help change it when those consequences are applied systematically. <br />
  50. 50. Goal setting <br />Prepared by: Jay Daileg<br />
  51. 51. Goal<br />Targets and objectives for future performance<br />Provides a sense of direction and purpose<br />
  52. 52. 2 types of goal<br />attainability<br />0<br />6<br />3<br />5<br />2<br />4<br />1<br />SHORT-TERM GOALS<br />LONG-TERM GOALS<br />
  53. 53. Goal setting<br />Involves establishing specific, measurable and time-targeted objectives<br />Illustrative example:<br />Self-efficacy<br />An internal belief regarding one’s job capabilities and capabilities<br />To extend his business by opening 25 branches of his food chain nationwide for 10 years<br />wants<br />businessman<br />
  54. 54. Elements of a goal setting<br />Goal setting<br />
  55. 55. Elements of a goal setting<br />Goal acceptance<br />Specificity<br />Challenge<br />Performance monitoring and feedback<br />
  56. 56. Aspects for goal setting<br />The S.M.A.R.T. F.O.R. M.E. goal setting process<br />
  57. 57. S-<br />M-<br />A-<br />R-<br />T-<br />F-<br />O-<br />R-<br />M-<br />E-<br />specific<br />measurable<br />attainable<br />realistic<br />timed<br />focused<br />optimistic<br />ready<br />meaningful<br />exciting<br />
  58. 58. End of goal setting<br />Goal setting<br />
  59. 59. Expectancy theory<br />JulyanneErese<br />
  60. 60. Expectancy theory<br />Developed by <br /> Victor H. Vroom<br />Estates, a worker<br /> expects to receive<br />(reward pay) for efforts<br /> produced. The rewards<br />, wages, or incentives are <br />usually agreed upon by employer and <br />employee.<br />
  61. 61. 3 factors of motivation on expectancy theory<br />
  62. 62. 1.valence<br />Refers to the value the individual’s preference on the reward.<br />Strong<br />avoidance<br />Strong<br />preference<br />indifference<br />-1<br />1<br />0<br />
  63. 63. 2.Expectancy<br />Is the strength of belief one’s work related effort will result on the completion of the task.<br />Range expectancy:<br />Low probability<br />Low probability<br />0<br />1<br />
  64. 64. 3 bases <br />Past experience<br />Self-confidence <br />perceived difficulty<br />
  65. 65. 3.instrumentality<br />It is the belief that if one does meet the performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward<br />Low probability<br />Low probability<br />0<br />1<br />
  66. 66. Summary<br />
  67. 67. Advantages of expectancy theory<br />Expectancy is a valuable tool for helping managers think about the mental processes through which motivation occurs.<br />Values human dignity<br />Encourages manager to design the motivational climate that will stimulate appropriate employee behaviour.<br />
  68. 68. End of expectancy theory<br />
  69. 69. THE EQUITY MODEL <br />by: julyanne<br />
  70. 70. THE EQUITY MODEL <br />-> developed on the belief that fair treatment or perception thereof, motivates people to keep such fairness maintained within the relationships of their colleagues and the organization.<br />
  71. 71. Formula…<br />One’s own outcomes = Others’ outcomes<br /> One’s own inputs Others’ inputs<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. Equity Sensitivity<br />-> suggest that individuals have different preference for equity.<br />
  74. 74. Procedural Justice<br />Interpersonal Treatment<br />Clarity of Expectation<br />
  75. 75. Distributive Justice<br />Allocation of reward<br />

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