Definition“Motivation means a processof stimulating people to actionto accomplished desiredgoals”William G. Scout
Importance of MotivationHelps in satisfying needs of the EmployeesChange the negative attitude to Positive attitudeReduce labor turnoverReduce absenteeismHelps in introducing changesImproves level of efficiency of employeesCreating friendly and supportive relationship
Motivation ProcessDeterminationof future needUnsatisfiedneedsTensionSatisfiedNeedsSearchBehaviorDrivesReductionof tensionGiverise to
Types of motivationPositive motivation Negative motivationMonetary motivation Non-Monetary motivation
Positive motivation• Positive motivation induces people to do work inthe best possible manner and to improve theirperformance.• Positive motivation is the type of motivation aperson feels when he expects a certain reward.• An example of Positive motivation :when a Boss tells his subordinate , "if you achievethe target on the time I will give you promotion “
Negative motivation• Negative incentives are those whose purpose is tocorrect the mistakes or defaults of employees.• Negative incentive is generally resorted to whenpositive incentive does not works and a psychologicalset back has to be given to employees.• An example of Positive motivation :When a Boss tells his subordinate , "if you do notachieve the target on the time I will give you demotion”
IncentiveIncentives refers to all those measureswhich are used to motivate people forimproving their performance.The need of incentives can be many:-• To increase productivity,• To shape the behavior or outlook of subordinatetowards work,• To inculcate zeal and enthusiasm towards work
Monetary incentives-Those incentives which satisfy the subordinates by providing them rewardsin terms of rupees.Money has been recognized as a chief source of satisfying the needs ofpeople.Money is also helpful to satisfy the social needs by possessing variousmaterial items.Therefore, money not only satisfies psychological needs but also thesecurity and social needs.Therefore, in many factories, various wage plans and bonus schemes areintroduced to motivate and stimulate the people to work.
Non-monetary incentives-Besides the monetary incentives, there are certain non-financialincentives which can satisfy the ego and self- actualization needs ofemployees.The incentives which cannot be measured in terms of money are underthe category of “Non- monetary incentives”.Whenever a manager has to satisfy the psychological needs of thesubordinates, he makes use of non-financial incentives.Non- financial incentives can be of the following types:-• Security of service-• Praise or recognition-• Job enrichment-• Promotion opportunities
MotivationTheoriesTraditional TheoriesFear andPunishment TheoryReward TheoryCarrot and StickTheoryModern TheoriesMaslow’s HierarchyneedsHerzberg hygienetheoryMC. Gregorstheory X and Y‘Z’ TheoryVroom’s ExpectancyTheoryThree need theory
Fear and Punishment Theory• Managers developed a strategyof forcing people to work bythreatening to punish or dismissthem or cut their rewards if theydid not work well.• This philosophy ischaracterized by thinking ofaggressiveness and authoritiesmanagers• Their was a tight control andrigid supervision over workers.
Reward Theory• This theory tried to establisha direct relationshipbetween efforts and rewards.• Bases of Piece rate systemof wages• Based on the standardmanager should decide ondegree of rewards andpenalties
Carrot and Stick Theory• This theory suggest a combination ofboth rewards and penalties for motivation• This is based on the strategy of puttingcarrot in the front of the donkey andhitting it with the stick from behind so ithas to run• Carrot refers to the incentives• Stick refer to the penalties
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation• Abraham Maslow is well renowned forproposing the Hierarchy of NeedsTheory in 1943.• Maslow was of the view that needshave priority, i.e., needs are satisfied inan order.• As soon as the lower level needs aresatisfied. Those on the next higherlevel emerge.• Thus, he considered an individualsmotivation behavior as apredetermined order of needs.Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs TheorySelf-ActualizationneedEsteem NeedsSocial needsSafety needsBasic/ Physiological Needsfood, water, air, shelter, sleep, thirst, etc.security of job and need for a predictable, secure and safeenvironmentreputation, prestige, power, status, recognition and respect ofothers.needs for belongingness, friendship, love, affection, attention andsocial acceptance.desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity andbeing aesthetic
• Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing andshelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.• Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safetyand protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection fromanimals, family security, health security, etc.• Social needs- These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal. Theseneeds become important. Social needs include the need forlove, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship.• Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self-respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteemneeds (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).• Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable ofbecoming / what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth andself-contentment. It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social-service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fullysatiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up tocontinue growing
McGregor :Theory X and Theory Y• In 1960, DouglasMcGregor formulatedTheory X and Theory Ysuggesting two aspects ofhuman behavior at work• According toMcGregor, the perceptionof managers on the natureof individuals is based onvarious assumptions.DOUGLAS MCGREGOR
Assumptions of Theory X• An average employee does not likework and tries to escape it wheneverpossible.• He lacks ambition and dislikesresponsibility• Since the employee does not want towork, he must bepersuaded, compelled, or warnedwith punishment so as to achieveorganizational goals.• A close supervision is required onpart of managers. The managersadopt a more dictatorial style.
Assumptions of Theory y• Employees can perceive their job as relaxingand normal.• Employees not require only threat, externalcontrol and coercion to work, but they canuse self-direction and self-control if they arededicated and sincere to achieve theorganizational objectives.• If the job is rewarding and satisfying, then itwill result in employees’ loyalty andcommitment to organization.• The employees have skills and capabilities.Their logical capabilities should be fullyutilized. In other words, thecreativity, resourcefulness and innovativepotentiality of the employees can be utilizedto solve organizational problems.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory ofMotivation• In 1959, FrederickHerzberg, a behavioralscientist proposed a two-factor theory or themotivator-hygiene theory.• According toHerzberg, there are somejob factors that result insatisfaction while there areother job factors thatprevent dissatisfaction.
Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)Hygiene factorsMotivators
Hygiene factorsHygiene factors are those job factors which areessential for existence of motivation at workplace.These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent / if thesefactors are non-existant at workplace, then theylead to dissatisfaction.Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfies ormaintenance factors as they are required toavoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe thejob environment / scenario.
Hygiene factorsCompany policy and administrationTechnical aspects of supervisionInterpersonal aspects of supervisionInterpersonal relations with peers andsubordinatesWorking conditionsSalaryStatusJob security
• Pay- The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. It must be equal andcompetitive to those in the same industry in the same domain.• Company Policies and administrative policies- The company policies should not be too rigid.They should be fair and clear. It should include flexible working hours, dresscode, breaks, vacation, etc.• Fringe benefits- The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim), benefits forthe family members, employee help programmes, etc.• Physical Working conditions- The working conditions should be safe, clean and hygienic. Thework equipments should be updated and well-maintained.• Status- The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained.• Interpersonal relations-The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors andsubordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no conflict or humiliationelement present.• Job Security- The organization must provide job security to the employees
Motivational factors-The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors motivatethe employees for a superior performance.These factors are called satisfiers.These are factors involved in performing the job. Employees find thesefactors intrinsically rewarding.The motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived asan additional benefit.
• Recognition- The employees should be praised and recognized for theiraccomplishments by the managers.• Sense of achievement- The employees must have a sense of achievement.This depends on the job. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job.• Growth and promotional opportunities- There must be growth andadvancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees toperform well.• Responsibility- The employees must hold themselves responsible for thework. The managers should give them ownership of the work. They shouldminimize control but retain accountability.• Meaningfulness of the work- The work itself should be meaningful, interestingand challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs, Contd.,nAchnPownAff
McClelland’s Theory of NeedsDavid McClelland and his associates proposed McClelland’stheory of Needs / Achievement Motivation Theory.This theory states that human behaviour is affected by threeneeds –Need for achievement is the urge to excel, to accomplish inrelation to a set of standards, to struggle to achieve success.Need for power is the desire to influence other individual’sbehaviour as per your wish. In other words, it is the desire to havecontrol over others and to be influential.Need for affiliation is a need for open and sociable interpersonalrelationships. In other words, it is a desire for relationship basedon co-operation and mutual understanding.
Communication"Communication is the transfer of information from one person toanother person. It is a way of reaching others by transmittingideas, facts, thoughts, feeling sand values.“- Newstrom and Davis._________________________________________________________Communication is the process by which two or more persons cometogether to exchange ideas and understanding amongst themselves.’Koontz and O’Donnell
Why Communication?INDIVIDUALS To share knowledgeand information To present ideas To influence others To buildrelationships To express emotionsGROUPS To achieve common goals To ensure effectivecompletion of a task To reach a commonunderstanding To share common values/systems To build relationships
Why Communication? …Contd.• Organizational Goals• Share Information• Task Directives• Result of Efforts• Decision Making• Achieve• Coordinated• Action
Downward communicationUpward communicationManaging directorFinanceManagerProductionManagerAccounts officerFactoryManagerInternalauditorStoreManagerAccountantforemanAccountantClerksStoreKeeperforemanWorker WorkerAccountantClerksDiagonalcommunicationDownwardcommunicationUpwardcommunicationHorizontal communication
Modes of CommunicationTypes Examples UsefulnessWritten Letters, Memos,Reports, etc.It is relatively permanentand accessible.Oral Conversations,Interviews, Phone calls,Speeches, etc.It is the easiest when oneneeds to communicateurgently.Kinesics Facial expressions,Gestures, Actions,Tone, Posture, etc.Body unconsciously does90% of communication.
Downwards Communication : Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, toassign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer feedback, approval to highlight problems etc.Upwards Communications : It is non directive in nature from down below, to givefeedback, to inform about progress/problems, seekingapprovals.Lateral or Horizontal Communication :Among colleagues, peers at same level forinformation level for information sharing for coordination,to save time.COMMUNICATION NETWORKSFormal Network : Virtually vertical as per chain go command within thehierarchy.Informal Network : Free to move in any direction may skip formal chain ofcommand. Likely to satisfy social and emotional needsand also can facilitate task accomplishment.
FORMALCOMMUNICATION Communication takes place through the formal channels of theorganization structure along the lines of authority established bythe management. Such communications are generally in writing and may take anyof the forms; policy; manuals: Procedures and rule books;memoranda; official meetings; reports, etc.Advantages & Disadvantages of Formal Communication: The advantages of formal communication are: They help in the fixation of responsibility and Maintaining of the authority relationship in an organization. The disadvantages of formal communication are: Generally time consuming, cumbersome Leads to a good deal of distortion at times.
INFORMALCOMMUNICATION Communication arising out of al those channels ofcommunication that fall outside the formal channels isknown as informal communication. Built around the social relationships of members of theorganization. Informal communication does not flow lines of authorityas is the case of formal communication. It arises due to the personal needs of the members of norganization. At times, in informal communication, it is difficult to fixresponsibility about accuracy of information. Suchcommunication is usually oral and may be covered evenby simple glance, gesture or smile or silence.
Formal communication channelsflow in four directions::Downward communicationUpward communicationHorizontal communicationDiagonal communication
Downward Communication : DownwardCommunication Downward communicationinvolves, flow of communication from higher levelto the lower levels. Upward Communication: Upward CommunicationUpward Communication flows from lower levels tothe higher levels of the organization. Horizontal Communication : HorizontalCommunication Horizontal Communication isinformation exchange between departments asmeans of coordinating their activities. It occursacross the same level.
Basis FormalCommunicationInformalCommunication1.Definiation When communication takes placethrough the formal official channelsthen it is known as formalcommunication.Any communication by passing theformal channels can be termed asinformal communication.2.Flexibility Formal communication is not flexible. It is flexible.3.Degree of control Formal communication is totallycontrolled by the management.It cannot be controlled like formalcommunication.4.Evidence It has documentary evidence. It has no documentary evidence.5.Discipline Official discipline is strictly maintainedin formal communication.Official decorum and discipline arenot followed.6.Flow of information In formal communication informationcan flow only upward and downward.But in informal communicationinformation flows freely to alldirection.7.Speed Here speed of communication is slow. Informal channels are very fast;here information can be transmittedinstantly.8.secrecy In case of formal communicationsecrecy can be maintained.Here maintaining secrecy is verydifficult.
9.Rumor There is no scope for creation ofrumor in formal communication.Due to its flexible nature rumorcan be created.10.Distortion Generally information is notdistorted.As official decorum is notfollowed information can bedistorted.11.Time It is time consuming. Less time is taken fortransmitting information.12.Misunderstanding In case of formal communicationcaution, there is almost no chanceof misunderstanding.Due to lack of controlmisunderstanding can takesplace?13.Cost It is expensive. It is less expensive than formalcommunication.14.Mistakes As official discipline is maintainedchance of mistakes is very low.On the other hand, as strict rulesare not followed possibility ofmistakes is very high
How to be effective incommunicationWho to communicateWhat to communicateWhen to communicateWhom to communicateMedia for communication
Communication ProcessSENDEREncoding DecodingRECEIVERMediaMessageFeedback ResponseNoise
Barriers to communicationo OrganizationalBarriero PsychologicalBarriersSemanticBarriersPhysicalBarrierPersonalBarrier
PsychologicalBarriers• Prematureevaluation• Lack of attention• Loss bytransmission andpoor retention• DistrustSemantic Barriers• Badly ExpressedMessage• Symbols withdifferentmeanings• Faulty translation• Unclarifiedassumption• Technical Jargon• Body Languageand gesturesdecodingPersonal Barrier• Fear of challengeto authority• Lack ofconfidence bysuperior in hissubordinate• Unwilling tocommunicate• Lack of properincentiveOrganizational Barrier• OrganizationalPolicy• Rules andregulation• Status• Complexity inorganizationstructure• Organizationalfacilities
The American Management Association Inc. have outlinedthe following Ten Commandments of good communication :1. Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating2. Examine the true purpose of each communication3. Consider the total physical and human setting wheneveryou communicate4. Consult with others, where appropriate, in planningcommunications5. Be mindful, while you communicate, of the overtones aswell as the basic content of your message6. Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey somethingof help or value to the receiver7. Follow up your communication8. Communicate for tomorrow as well as today9. Be sure your actions support your communication10. Seek not only to be understood but to understand – be agood listener.
Communicate Effectively1. Identify you subjects2. Arouse listener interest3. Use words commonly understood4. Avoid talking in general terms – be specific – use:A. ExamplesB. IllustrationsC. Specific instancesD. Explain technical terms / specific slang termsRemember – Your tone of voice and your actionor lack of them also conveymessages.
Barriers in Communication1. Difference in experience and background2. Failure to convey what the receiver needs and canunderstand3. Stereotypes and beliefs4. Emotional state of mind5. Suspecting communicator’s motivation6. Failure to evaluate meaning behind what we read7. Words mean different things to different people8. Reference group effect9. Nonverbal communication10. Lack of time11. Lack of training12. Lack of action
Essentials of GoodCommunicationEssential Quality ofCommunicationABC -Accuracy, Brevity, ClarityKISS - Keep it short and simple
The ABC of CommunicationA – AccuracyAll information must be checked and double checked, Wronginformation not only negates the purpose of the communication butalso casts severe doubt on the credibility of the sender.B – BrevityTime is far too valuable to waste on unnecessary words. Brevity willencourage the receiver to read / listen quickly and will help himunderstand it better.C - ClarityClarity is achieved by using the right language, that is, the words andconstructions that the receiver will understand and by carefullystructuring the communication so that the argument follows a logicalsequence which leads the receiver naturally to the point being made.
5 Cs of GoodCommunication ConcisenessSend the message in as few words as possible CompletenessEnsure that all the information needed by thereceiver to respond or act is included CourtesyShow consideration for the receiver ClarityMessage should be clear CorrectnessCheck for accuracy of all statements and details
Disadvantages of BadCommunicationCan be MisunderstoodMay not be taken seriouslyReduced effectivenessCan lead to Conflicts
Always think ahead about what you are going to say.Use simple words and phrases that are understood by every body.Increase your knowledge on all subjects you are required to speak.Speak clearly and audibly.Check twice with the listener whether you have been understood accuratelyor notIn case of an interruption, always do a little recap of what has been alreadysaid.Always pay undivided attention to the speaker while listening.While listening, always make notes of important points.Always ask for clarification if you have failed to grasp other’s point of view.Repeat what the speaker has said to check whether you have understoodaccurately.ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATIONDo’s
ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATIONDON’TsDo not instantly react and mutter something in anger.Do not use technical terms & terminologies not understood bymajority of people.Do not speak too fast or too slow.Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’t be heard.Do not assume that every body understands you.While listening do not glance here and there as it might distractthe speaker.Do not interrupt the speaker.Do not jump to the conclusion that you have understood everything.