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  1. 1. By Hosam Dahb and Mahmoud Ibrahim
  2. 2. Motivation is the Secret of Synergy People will be more engaged when they do things they really like 2
  3. 3. What Is Motivation? Motivation  Is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal.  Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals. 3
  4. 4. A Simple Model of Motivation NEED-Creates desire to fulfill needs (food, friendship, recognition, achievement). BEHAVIOR-Results in actions to fulfill needs. REWARDS-Satisfy needs; intrinsic or extrinsic rewards. FEEDBACK-Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again. 4
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  6. 6. Motivation Theories Content Theories Process Theories A group of theories that emphasize A group of theories that explain the needs that motivate people. how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful. Hierarchy of Needs Theory Equity Theory ERG Theory Expectancy Theory Two-Factor Theory Reinforcement Theory Acquired Needs Theory 6
  7. 7. Early Theories of Motivation  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higherorder needs.   Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.   Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. Hierarchy of needs  Lower-order (external): physiological, safety  Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization 7
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory SelfActualization Needs represent the need for self-fulfillment Esteem Needs desire for a positive self-image and to receive attention Belongingness Needs desire to be accepted by one’s peers Safety Needs safe and secure physical and emotional environment Physiological Needs most basic human physical needs 8
  9. 9. Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d)  McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X   Theory Y   Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. Assumption:  Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations. 9
  10. 10. ERG Theory Growth Needs human potential, personal growth, and increased competence Relatedness Needs the need for satisfactory relationships with others Existence Needs the needs for physical well-being 10
  11. 11. Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d)  Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory  Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.    Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not necessarily result in increased performance.  The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. 11
  12. 12. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Area of Satisfaction Highly Satisfied Motivators Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work Personal growth Area of Satisfaction Motivators influence level of satisfaction. Neither Satisfied nor Area of Dissatisfaction Dissatisfied Hygiene Factors Highly Dissatisfied Working conditions Pay and security Company policies Supervisors Interpersonal relationships Hygiene factors influence level of dissatisfaction. 12
  13. 13. Motivation and Needs Three-Needs (Acquired Needs) Theory (McClelland)  There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work.  Need for achievement (nAch)   Need for power (nPow)   The drive to excel and succeed The need to influence the behavior of others Need of affiliation (nAff)  The desire for interpersonal relationships 13
  14. 14. Process Theories A group of theories that explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful. Equity Theory  Focuses on individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others.  Motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance. 14
  15. 15. Motivation and Perception (cont’d)  Equity Theory (cont’d)  Employee responses to perceived inequities:   Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes.  Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards).  Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self).   Distort own or others’ ratios. Quit their job. Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards. 15
  16. 16. Exhibit 16–8 Equity Theory 16
  17. 17. Process Theories (contd.) Expectancy Theory  Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.  Concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards.  Based on the effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes. 17
  18. 18. Motivation and Behavior  Expectancy Theory (Vroom)  States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.  Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards.  Effort: employee abilities and training/development  Performance: valid appraisal systems  Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs 18
  19. 19. Simplified Expectancy Model 19
  20. 20. Major Elements of Expectancy Theory 20
  21. 21. Motivation and Behavior  Reinforcement Theory  Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of its consequences, is externally caused, and if reinforced, is likely to be repeated.  Positive reinforcement is preferred for its longterm effects on performance  Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors. 21
  22. 22. Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation Positive reinforcement in the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence. Avoidance learning is the removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior. Reinforcement Tools Punishment is the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee. Extinction is the withdrawal of a positive reward; behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future. 22
  23. 23. Changing Behavior With Reinforcement daft figure 12.6.CLP 23
  24. 24. Motivation and Goals  Goal-Setting Theory   Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and challenging yet achievable will result in higher performance than having no or easy goals. Benefits of Participation in Goal-Setting  Increases the acceptance of goals.  Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals.  Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that guides behavior and motivates performance (self-efficacy). 24
  25. 25. Designing Motivating Jobs  Job Design  The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete jobs.  Factors influencing job design:   The organization’s technology   Changing organizational environment/structure Employees’ skill, abilities, and preferences Job enlargement   Increasing the job’s scope (number and frequency of tasks) ”horizontal”. Job enrichment  Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job ”Vertical”. 25
  26. 26. Types of Job Design Job Simplification Worker A Worker B Task 1 Task 2 Job Enlargement Job Rotation Worker C Worker C Worker A Worker B Task 3 Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Worker A Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 26
  27. 27. Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d)  Job Characteristics Model (JCM)  A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees’ growth needs.  Five primary job characteristics:  Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed?  Task identity: does the job produce a complete work?  Task significance: how important is the job?  Autonomy: how much independence does the jobholder have?  Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing? 27
  28. 28. Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 28
  29. 29. Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d)  Suggestions for Using the JCM  Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more meaningful work.  Create natural work units to make employees’ work important and whole.  Establish external and internal client relationships to provide feedback.  Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving employees more autonomy.  Open feedback channels to let employees know how well they are doing. 29
  30. 30. A Continuum of Empowerment daft figure 12.11.CLP 30
  31. 31. Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 31