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Basic overview of Behaviorism

Published in: Education
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  1. 1. Behaviorism
  2. 2. Behaviorism <ul><li>The learning theory dominant in the first half of the 20th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1950s and 60s behaviorism remained influential, although since that time new theories have begun to make substantial inroads in general acceptance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behaviorism <ul><li>Learning that emphasizes observable, objective, measurable behavior (test scores) </li></ul><ul><li>Discounts mental activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a more or less permanent change in behavior </li></ul>
  4. 4. Behaviorism <ul><li>The learner adapts to their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Dog Salivation Experiment&quot; by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Skinner Box&quot; experiment with pigeons by B.F. Skinner </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Key Players Key Players
  6. 6. John B. Watson : <ul><li>In 1913, Watson published &quot;Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Dubbed &quot;Founder of Behaviorism&quot; for view that psychology should be concerned only with the objective behavior </li></ul>
  7. 7. B.F. Skinner : <ul><li>Skinner's approach was to create environments that resulted in new, learned behaviors </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key Features Key Features
  9. 9.  How does learning occur? <ul><li>Learning is a change in observable performance </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior adapts to events and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping: a gradual strengthening of the relationship between cue and behavior </li></ul>
  10. 10.  What is the role of memory? <ul><li>Acquisition of habits: Practicing habits maintains a learner's readiness to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Disuse results in &quot;forgetting&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11.  How does transfer occur? <ul><li>When experiences are similar with recognizable features, the learner can transfer learning to new situations </li></ul>
  12. 12. What types of learning are best explained by this theory? <ul><li>Reinforcement by way of repetition </li></ul><ul><li>instructional cues </li></ul><ul><li>drill and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Goal and objective oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Learning that requires quick reaction with sure response </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relevant behaviorist elements <ul><li>Drill and practice software </li></ul><ul><li>Flash cards </li></ul><ul><li>Goals, objectives, benchmarks, STANDARDS have behaviorist components </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  14. 14. How should learning be evaluated? <ul><li>Evaluation should be based on a predetermined, standardized set of criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Every learner should be evaluated based upon the same set of criteria </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strengths of Behaviorism <ul><li>Clearly stated objectives allow the learner to focus </li></ul><ul><li>Cueing responses allows the learner to react in a predictable way </li></ul><ul><li>In a stressful situation like combat or flying a plane, cued responses can be a very valuable tool </li></ul>
  16. 16. Criticisms of Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism is one dimensional and does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activities of the mind </li></ul>
  17. 17. Criticisms of Behaviorism <ul><li>The learner might find himself in a situation where he needs to respond, but the mental &quot;cues&quot; he has learned to respond to might not exist </li></ul>
  18. 18. Criticisms of Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism does not explain some learning--such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children--for which there is no reinforcement mechanism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criticisms of Behaviorism <ul><li>Animals adapt their habits to new information </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements </li></ul>
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