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Master TEFL & ICT
Educational Psychology
Dr. Abdallah GHAICHA
  Dr Youssef TAMER




        Prepared by:          AmalBAKKALI
                         Mohamed AKHARRAZ
                         Mohamed AKKLOUCH

                            December 28th, 2012
OUTLINE
DEFINITION
THE ORIGIN OF BEHAVIORISM
LEADERS OF BEHAVIORISM
DEFINITION
“A school of psychology that
 confines itself to the study of
 observable     and    quantifiable
 aspects of behavior and excludes
 subjective phenomena, such as
 emotions or motives.”
The Origins of Behaviorism
Behaviorism traces its roots to the
 early part of the 20th century, a time
 when many psychologists and
 researchers like Ivan Pavlov and John
 B. Watson began to develop a
 framework       which     emphasized
 observable processes (enviromental
 stimuli and behavioral responses).
LEADERS of BEHAVIORISM
IVAN PAVLOV
John Broadus Watson
Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner
 KINNER
IVAN PAVLOV
Born Sept 14, 1849
Died Feb 27, 1936
born in Ryazan, Russia
physiologist, psychologist, and
 physician
awarded the Nobel Prize in
 Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for
 research on the digestive system
E.L. Thorndike




      1874 - 1949
E.L. Thorndike
First scientific theory of learning- Theory of
Connectionism

Comprehensive analogy of human learning- Three
volume work, Educational Psychology ( 1913a,
1913b, 1914 )

Initial work with animal learning in laboratory
setting- cat in box experiment”
E.L. Thorndike




      1874 - 1949
He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encourage to
  escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside. Thorndike
  would put a cat into the box and time how long it took to
  escape. The cats experimented with different ways to escape
  the puzzle box and reach the fish.
Eventually they would stumble upon the lever which opened
  the cage. When it had escaped it was put in again, and once
  more the time it took to escape was noted. In successive
  trials the cats would learn that pressing the lever would have
  favorable consequences and they would adopt this behavior,
  becoming increasingly quick at pressing the lever (see Fig 1).
Edward Thorndike put forward a “Law of effect” which
  stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant
  consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior
  followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be
  stopped.
What happened ?




 Schunk (2000)
The Cat Learned !!!

Behavior Change = Learning
Thorndike’s Theory of Connectionism
                   Law of Effect

If Situation + Response is followed by a positive
consequence then the connection between the
Situation + Response is strengthened.

If Situation + Response is followed by a negative
consequence then the connection between the
Situation + Response is weakened.
The Cat Learned !!!

Behavior Change = Learning
Thorndike’s Theory of Connectionism
                       Law of Effect
 
    If Situation + Response is followed by a positive 
    consequence then the connection between the 
    Situation + Response is strengthened.
 
    If Situation + Response is followed by a negative 
    consequence then the connection between the 
    Situation + Response is weakened.
Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner
Born March 20, 1904  
Died August 18, 1990
Born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania
An American  psychologist, behaviorist, author, 
 inventor, and social philosopher 
what is learning
Once you have learned how to drive a car, you 
 don’t have to learn all over again. Thus, learning 
 can be defined as a relatively permanent influence 
 on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills that 
 comes about through experience. Not everything 
 we know is learned. We inherit some capacities—
 they are inborn, or innate, not learned. 
For example, we don’t have to be taught to swallow, to 
  flinch at loud noises, or to blink when an object 
  comes too close to our eyes.
The scope of learning is broad (Domjan, 2010; Klein, 
  2009). It involves academic behaviors and 
  nonacademic behaviors. It occurs in schools and 
  everywhere else that children experience their world.
For the behaviorist, behavior is everything that we do, 
  both verbal and nonverbal, that can be directly seen 
  or heard: a child creating a poster, a teacher 
  explaining something to a child, one student picking 
  on another student, and so on.
 Mental processes are defined by psychologists as the 
  thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us 
  experiences but that cannot be observed by others. 
  Although we cannot directly see thoughts, feelings, 
  and motives, they are no less real. Mental processes 
  include children thinking about ways to create the 
  best poster, a teacher feeling good about children’s 
  efforts, and children’s inner motivation to control 
  their behavior. 
As is shown in the experiment in the picture above, 
 Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (bell) just before 
 an unconditioned stimulus (food). The neutral 
 stimulus became a conditioned stimulus by being 
 paired with the unconditioned stimulus. 
 Subsequently, the conditioned stimulus (bell) by itself 
 was able to elicit the dog’s salivation.
behavioral approach to learning (classical and
operant conditions)

The behavioral approach emphasizes the importance of 
 children making connections between experiences 
 and behavior. It includes two views: 

                classical conditioning
                          and 
                operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an 
  organism learns to connect, or associate, stimuli so 
  that a neutral stimulus (such as the sight of a person) 
  becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus (such 
  as food) and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar 
  response. Classical conditioning was the brainchild of 
  Ivan Pavlov (1927).
In classical conditioning, there are two types of stimuli 
  and two types of responses: 

               unconditioned stimulus (UCS),
              unconditioned response (UCR)
                  conditioned stimulus (CS)
                conditioned response (CR). 


                   (click here to see  the figure above)
Classical conditioning can be involved in both positive 
  and negative experiences of children in the classroom. 
  Among the things in the child’s schooling that 
  produce pleasure because they have become 
  classically conditioned are a favorite song and feelings 
  that the classroom is a safe and fun place to be. For 
  example, a song could be neutral for the child until he 
  joins in with other classmates to sing it with 
  accompanying positive feelings. 
Other examples:
exam             anxiety
criticism           fear
Some children’s health problems also might involve
  classical conditioning (Chance, 2009). Certain
  physical complaints—asthma, headaches, and high
  blood pressure—might be partly due to classical
  conditioning. So, often, teacher’s heavy criticism, are
  conditioned stimuli for physiological responses like
  headaches, muscle tension, or stress.
Generalization, Discrimination, and
Extinction

In studying a dog’s responses to various stimuli, Pavlov
 rang a bell before giving meat powder to the dog. By
 being paired with the UCS (meat), the bell became a
 CS and elicited the dog’s salivation. After a time,
 Pavlov found that the dog also responded to other
 sounds, such as a whistle. The more bell-like the
 noise, the stronger was the dog’s response.
A student is criticized for poor performance on a
  biology test. When the student begins to prepare for a
  chemistry test, she also becomes very nervous
  because these two subjects are closely related in the
  sciences. This is generalization.
Discrimination in classical conditioning occurs when
 the organism responds to certain stimuli but not
 others. To produce discrimination, Pavlov gave food
 to the dog only after ringing the bell, not after any
 other sounds. Subsequently, the dog responded only
 to the bell. In the case of the student taking tests in
 different classes, he/she doesn’t become nearly as
 nervous about taking an English test or a history test
 because they are very different subject areas.
Extinction in classical conditioning involves the
 weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the
 absence of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). In one
 session, Pavlov rang the bell repeatedly but did not
 give the dog any food. Eventually the dog stopped
 salivating at the sound of the bell. Similarly, if a
 student who gets nervous while taking tests begins to
 do much better on tests, his anxiety will fade.
Reinforcement and Punishment

A reinforcement (reward)is a consequence that
  increases the probability that a behavior will occur. In
  contrast, punishment is a consequence that
  decreases the probability a behavior will occur.
For example, you might tell one of your students,
   “Congratulations. I’m really proud of the story that you
   wrote.”
If the student works harder and writes an even better
   story the next time, your positive comments are said
   to reinforce, or reward, the student’s writing behavior.
   If you frown at a student for talking in class and the
   student’s talking decreases, your frown is said to
   punish the student’s talking.
To reinforce behavior means to strengthen the
 behavior (Domjan, 2010). Two forms of
 reinforcement are positive reinforcement and
 negative reinforcement. In positive
 reinforcement, the frequency of a response
 increases because it is followed by a rewarding
 stimulus, as in the example in which the
 teacher’s positive comments increased the
 student’s writing behavior. Similarly,
 complimenting parents on being at a parent-
 teacher conference might encourage them to
 come back again.
Conversely, in negative reinforcement, the frequency
 of a response increases because it is followed by the
 removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus. For
 example, a father nags at his son to do his homework.
 He keeps nagging. Finally, the son gets tired of
 hearing the nagging and does his homework. The
 son’s response (doing his homework) removed the
 unpleasant stimulus (nagging).
The processes of generalization, discrimination and
 extinction also are important dimensions of operant
 conditioning (Chance, 2009).
SOME BASIC DIFFERENCES


 Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning


First described by Ivan Pavlov, a   First described by B. F. Skinner, an
Russian physiologist                American psychologist

Involves placing a neutral signal   Involves applying reinforcement or
before a reflex                     punishment after a behavior

Focuses on involuntary, automatic   Focuses on strengthening or
behaviors                           weakening voluntary behaviors
Applied Behavior Analysis in Education

 What is applied behavior analysis?


 Increasing Desirable Behaviors.


 Decreasing Desirable Behaviors.


 Evaluating Operant Conditioning and Applied Behavior


  Analysis.
What is Applied Behavior Analysis?


• Applied behavior analysis involves applying the
 operant conditioning to change human behavior.
 When it comes to education, two uses of applied
 behavior analysis are essential:
• Increasing desirable behaviors.

• Decreasing undesirable behviors.
• A – Increasing desirable behavior.


• There are six operant conditioning strategies that
  can be exploited to increase a child’s desirable
  behaviors:
• 1- choose effective reinforcers.

• 2-make reinforcers contingent and timely.

• 3- select the best schedule of reinforcement.

• 4-consider contracting.

• 5- use negative reinforcement negatively.

• 6- use prompts and shaping.
1- choose effective reinforcers.
Not all reinforcers are the same for every child.

Teachers should individualize the use of particular reinforcers.

Teachers should know more about the child’s past life

   ( reinforcement history).
Teachers might ask the child about what they like best.

To avoid boredom, teachers should consider novel reinforcers.

Natural reinforcers ( praise and privileges) are generally

  recommened over material rewards ( candy, money …etc)
2-Make reinforcers contingent and timely.

For a reinforcer to be effective, the teacher must give it

  only after the child performs a particular behaviour. For
  example, teachers may use « if …then » statement.
Reinforcers are more effective when they are given in a

  timely way as soon as possible the child performs the target
  behaviour.
( if the teacher gives the reinforcer before the child

  performs the behavior, she/he might have trouble
  making the contingency connection)
3- select the best schedule of reinforcement.
There are four main schedules of reinforcements:
a - On a fixed-ratio schedule:
A behaviour is reinforced after a set number of
 answers/responses. ( e.g.after every three answers)
b – On a variable-ratio schedule:
A behavior is reinforced after an average number of
 times, but on an unpredictable basis. ( e.g. After
 every fifth response, then it might be after fouth, third
 …etc)
Interval schedules are determined by the
 amount of time elapsed since the last behavior
 was reinforced.
c- On a fixed-interval schedule:
After a fixed amount of time the first appropriate
 response is reinforced. ( e.g. two minutes after the
 child comes up with a right answer)
d- variable-interval schedule:
A response is reinforced after a variable amount of
 time elapsed. ( e.g. after four minutes, then after six
 minutes, two minutes …etc)
NB. By and large, the use of these schedule
 reinforcements is so beneficial to students in that it
 produces greater persistence and greater resistence
 to extinction than continous reinforcement does.
consider contracting.
In contracting, reinforcement contingencies are put in
  writing. If problems arise, the teacher can refer the
  children to the contract they agreed to. Classroom
  contracts have «if …then » statement.
use negative reinforcement negatively.
In negative reinforcement, the frequency of the response
  increases because the response removes an avertive
  ( unpleasant) stimulus. (e.g. a teacher who says « James,
  you have to stay in your seat and finish writing your story
  before you join the other students in making a poster » is
  using NR. The condition of being left in his seat while the
  others are doing (sth) enjoyable will be removed if James
  finishes the story he should have completed earlier.
 Use prompts and shaping.


prompts: is an added stimulus or cue that is given just

  before a response that increases the likelihood that the
  response will occur.
shaping: when teachers use prompts and fail to get the

  desired response performed, shaping is required. It means
  that teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive
  approximations to a specified target behavior.
• B- Decreasing undesirable behaviors.
• When teachers want to decrease children’s
    undesirable behaviors (such as teasing, hogging a
    class discussion, or smarting off to the teacher …
    etc), they are recommended to use the following
    steps in order:
•   1 – use differential reinforcement.
•   2 – terminate reinforcement ( extinction)
•   3 – remove desirable stimuli.
•   4 – present aversive stimuli ( punishment)
use differential reinforcement.
The teacher reinforces behavior that is more desired and
  different than what the child is doing. ( e.g. the teacher
  might reinforce a child for doing learning activities rather
  than playing computer games).
terminate reinforcement ( extinction)
Simply means withdrawing positive reinforcement from a
 child’s inappropriate behavior. (e.g. attention to the
 inappropriate behavior by yelling, criticising, threatening
 …etc)
remove desirable stimuli. The third option, if the two
 previous options haven’t worked, is to remove desirable
 stimuli from the student: to do this, there are two
 strategies:
Time-out: take students away from positive

 reinforcement.
Response cost: take a positive reinforcer away from a
 student, as when the student loses certain privileges. ( e.g.
 teachers may take away 10 minutes of recess time or the
 privilege of being a class monitor.
Present aversive stimuli ( punishment)
 Most people associate the presentation of aversive stimuli with

  punishment ( teacher’s yelling at a student or when a parent spanks a
  child)
 An aversive stimuli is punishment only if it decreases the undesirable

  behavior.
 Reprimands are more effective when they are given immediately after

  unwanted behavior and when they are short and to the point.
 It is highly recommended to take the student aside and reprimand him in

  private.

NB. Numerous problems are associated with using aversive

  stimuli: it instills fear, rage, avoidance + students might be
  out of control + anxiety…etc.
Evaluating Operant Conditioning and
Applied Behavior Analysis.
Used effectively, behavioral techniques can help you
 manage your classroom.
Critics of operant conditioning and applied behavior
 analysis argue that the whole approach stresses external
 control of students’ behaviors + Instead, it should help
 students learn to control their own behaviors and become
 internally motivated + it is not the reward or punishment
 that changes behavior, but, rather, the belief that certain
 actions will be rewarded or punished + ethical problems
 might emerge if operant conditioning is used
 inappropriately + while applying behavior analysis,
 teachers might focus too much on student conduct and
 not enough on academic learning.
BEHAVIORISM VS MENTALISM


  Behaviourism claims that environment is responsible for learning.
 the Behaviorist theory works according to the Habit Formation process.
 the learner is presented with stimuli on which he makes a specific response to
  each, and every time the learner is presented with this stimulus he responds
  with the same response until it becomes a habit.

 The Mentalist theory came as a reaction to the Behaviourist theory. It
  opposed the claim that the environment is responsible for learning by proving
  that the mind is responsible for it. Chomsky said that the human being is
  endowed since birth with a biological device called the Language
  Acquisition Devise and it develops like any organ.
 When applied to teaching , Mentalism means that the learner should use his
  cognitive abilities in order to learn. This enhances critical thinking and goes
  hand in hand with the Constructivist theory proving that the learner builds
  knowledge through time relying on his cognitive strategies.
 nowadays both theories ( mentalist and constructivist) are widely used
Activity
Thank You

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Behaviorism

  • 1. Master TEFL & ICT Educational Psychology Dr. Abdallah GHAICHA Dr Youssef TAMER Prepared by: AmalBAKKALI Mohamed AKHARRAZ Mohamed AKKLOUCH December 28th, 2012
  • 2. OUTLINE DEFINITION THE ORIGIN OF BEHAVIORISM LEADERS OF BEHAVIORISM
  • 3. DEFINITION “A school of psychology that confines itself to the study of observable and quantifiable aspects of behavior and excludes subjective phenomena, such as emotions or motives.”
  • 4. The Origins of Behaviorism Behaviorism traces its roots to the early part of the 20th century, a time when many psychologists and researchers like Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson began to develop a framework which emphasized observable processes (enviromental stimuli and behavioral responses).
  • 5. LEADERS of BEHAVIORISM IVAN PAVLOV John Broadus Watson Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner KINNER
  • 7. Born Sept 14, 1849 Died Feb 27, 1936 born in Ryazan, Russia physiologist, psychologist, and physician awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research on the digestive system
  • 8. E.L. Thorndike 1874 - 1949
  • 9. E.L. Thorndike First scientific theory of learning- Theory of Connectionism Comprehensive analogy of human learning- Three volume work, Educational Psychology ( 1913a, 1913b, 1914 ) Initial work with animal learning in laboratory setting- cat in box experiment”
  • 10. E.L. Thorndike 1874 - 1949
  • 11. He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encourage to escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside. Thorndike would put a cat into the box and time how long it took to escape. The cats experimented with different ways to escape the puzzle box and reach the fish. Eventually they would stumble upon the lever which opened the cage. When it had escaped it was put in again, and once more the time it took to escape was noted. In successive trials the cats would learn that pressing the lever would have favorable consequences and they would adopt this behavior, becoming increasingly quick at pressing the lever (see Fig 1). Edward Thorndike put forward a “Law of effect” which stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.
  • 12. What happened ? Schunk (2000)
  • 13. The Cat Learned !!! Behavior Change = Learning
  • 14. Thorndike’s Theory of Connectionism Law of Effect If Situation + Response is followed by a positive consequence then the connection between the Situation + Response is strengthened. If Situation + Response is followed by a negative consequence then the connection between the Situation + Response is weakened.
  • 15. The Cat Learned !!! Behavior Change = Learning
  • 16. Thorndike’s Theory of Connectionism Law of Effect   If Situation + Response is followed by a positive  consequence then the connection between the  Situation + Response is strengthened.   If Situation + Response is followed by a negative  consequence then the connection between the  Situation + Response is weakened.
  • 17. Burrhus Frederic "B. F." Skinner
  • 19. what is learning Once you have learned how to drive a car, you  don’t have to learn all over again. Thus, learning  can be defined as a relatively permanent influence  on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills that  comes about through experience. Not everything  we know is learned. We inherit some capacities— they are inborn, or innate, not learned. 
  • 20. For example, we don’t have to be taught to swallow, to  flinch at loud noises, or to blink when an object  comes too close to our eyes. The scope of learning is broad (Domjan, 2010; Klein,  2009). It involves academic behaviors and  nonacademic behaviors. It occurs in schools and  everywhere else that children experience their world.
  • 21.
  • 22. For the behaviorist, behavior is everything that we do,  both verbal and nonverbal, that can be directly seen  or heard: a child creating a poster, a teacher  explaining something to a child, one student picking  on another student, and so on.
  • 23.  Mental processes are defined by psychologists as the  thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us  experiences but that cannot be observed by others.  Although we cannot directly see thoughts, feelings,  and motives, they are no less real. Mental processes  include children thinking about ways to create the  best poster, a teacher feeling good about children’s  efforts, and children’s inner motivation to control  their behavior. 
  • 24.
  • 25. As is shown in the experiment in the picture above,  Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (bell) just before  an unconditioned stimulus (food). The neutral  stimulus became a conditioned stimulus by being  paired with the unconditioned stimulus.  Subsequently, the conditioned stimulus (bell) by itself  was able to elicit the dog’s salivation.
  • 26. behavioral approach to learning (classical and operant conditions) The behavioral approach emphasizes the importance of  children making connections between experiences  and behavior. It includes two views:  classical conditioning and  operant conditioning.
  • 27.
  • 28. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an  organism learns to connect, or associate, stimuli so  that a neutral stimulus (such as the sight of a person)  becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus (such  as food) and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar  response. Classical conditioning was the brainchild of  Ivan Pavlov (1927).
  • 29. In classical conditioning, there are two types of stimuli  and two types of responses:     unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR)  conditioned stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR).  (click here to see  the figure above)
  • 30. Classical conditioning can be involved in both positive  and negative experiences of children in the classroom.  Among the things in the child’s schooling that  produce pleasure because they have become  classically conditioned are a favorite song and feelings  that the classroom is a safe and fun place to be. For  example, a song could be neutral for the child until he  joins in with other classmates to sing it with  accompanying positive feelings. 
  • 31. Other examples: exam anxiety criticism fear Some children’s health problems also might involve classical conditioning (Chance, 2009). Certain physical complaints—asthma, headaches, and high blood pressure—might be partly due to classical conditioning. So, often, teacher’s heavy criticism, are conditioned stimuli for physiological responses like headaches, muscle tension, or stress.
  • 32. Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction In studying a dog’s responses to various stimuli, Pavlov rang a bell before giving meat powder to the dog. By being paired with the UCS (meat), the bell became a CS and elicited the dog’s salivation. After a time, Pavlov found that the dog also responded to other sounds, such as a whistle. The more bell-like the noise, the stronger was the dog’s response.
  • 33. A student is criticized for poor performance on a biology test. When the student begins to prepare for a chemistry test, she also becomes very nervous because these two subjects are closely related in the sciences. This is generalization.
  • 34. Discrimination in classical conditioning occurs when the organism responds to certain stimuli but not others. To produce discrimination, Pavlov gave food to the dog only after ringing the bell, not after any other sounds. Subsequently, the dog responded only to the bell. In the case of the student taking tests in different classes, he/she doesn’t become nearly as nervous about taking an English test or a history test because they are very different subject areas.
  • 35. Extinction in classical conditioning involves the weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). In one session, Pavlov rang the bell repeatedly but did not give the dog any food. Eventually the dog stopped salivating at the sound of the bell. Similarly, if a student who gets nervous while taking tests begins to do much better on tests, his anxiety will fade.
  • 36.
  • 37. Reinforcement and Punishment A reinforcement (reward)is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur. In contrast, punishment is a consequence that decreases the probability a behavior will occur.
  • 38. For example, you might tell one of your students, “Congratulations. I’m really proud of the story that you wrote.” If the student works harder and writes an even better story the next time, your positive comments are said to reinforce, or reward, the student’s writing behavior. If you frown at a student for talking in class and the student’s talking decreases, your frown is said to punish the student’s talking.
  • 39. To reinforce behavior means to strengthen the behavior (Domjan, 2010). Two forms of reinforcement are positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. In positive reinforcement, the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus, as in the example in which the teacher’s positive comments increased the student’s writing behavior. Similarly, complimenting parents on being at a parent- teacher conference might encourage them to come back again.
  • 40. Conversely, in negative reinforcement, the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus. For example, a father nags at his son to do his homework. He keeps nagging. Finally, the son gets tired of hearing the nagging and does his homework. The son’s response (doing his homework) removed the unpleasant stimulus (nagging).
  • 41.
  • 42. The processes of generalization, discrimination and extinction also are important dimensions of operant conditioning (Chance, 2009).
  • 43. SOME BASIC DIFFERENCES Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning First described by Ivan Pavlov, a First described by B. F. Skinner, an Russian physiologist American psychologist Involves placing a neutral signal Involves applying reinforcement or before a reflex punishment after a behavior Focuses on involuntary, automatic Focuses on strengthening or behaviors weakening voluntary behaviors
  • 44. Applied Behavior Analysis in Education  What is applied behavior analysis?  Increasing Desirable Behaviors.  Decreasing Desirable Behaviors.  Evaluating Operant Conditioning and Applied Behavior Analysis.
  • 45. What is Applied Behavior Analysis? • Applied behavior analysis involves applying the operant conditioning to change human behavior. When it comes to education, two uses of applied behavior analysis are essential: • Increasing desirable behaviors. • Decreasing undesirable behviors.
  • 46. • A – Increasing desirable behavior. • There are six operant conditioning strategies that can be exploited to increase a child’s desirable behaviors: • 1- choose effective reinforcers. • 2-make reinforcers contingent and timely. • 3- select the best schedule of reinforcement. • 4-consider contracting. • 5- use negative reinforcement negatively. • 6- use prompts and shaping.
  • 47. 1- choose effective reinforcers. Not all reinforcers are the same for every child. Teachers should individualize the use of particular reinforcers. Teachers should know more about the child’s past life ( reinforcement history). Teachers might ask the child about what they like best. To avoid boredom, teachers should consider novel reinforcers. Natural reinforcers ( praise and privileges) are generally recommened over material rewards ( candy, money …etc)
  • 48. 2-Make reinforcers contingent and timely. For a reinforcer to be effective, the teacher must give it only after the child performs a particular behaviour. For example, teachers may use « if …then » statement. Reinforcers are more effective when they are given in a timely way as soon as possible the child performs the target behaviour. ( if the teacher gives the reinforcer before the child performs the behavior, she/he might have trouble making the contingency connection)
  • 49. 3- select the best schedule of reinforcement. There are four main schedules of reinforcements: a - On a fixed-ratio schedule: A behaviour is reinforced after a set number of answers/responses. ( e.g.after every three answers) b – On a variable-ratio schedule: A behavior is reinforced after an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis. ( e.g. After every fifth response, then it might be after fouth, third …etc) Interval schedules are determined by the amount of time elapsed since the last behavior was reinforced.
  • 50. c- On a fixed-interval schedule: After a fixed amount of time the first appropriate response is reinforced. ( e.g. two minutes after the child comes up with a right answer) d- variable-interval schedule: A response is reinforced after a variable amount of time elapsed. ( e.g. after four minutes, then after six minutes, two minutes …etc) NB. By and large, the use of these schedule reinforcements is so beneficial to students in that it produces greater persistence and greater resistence to extinction than continous reinforcement does.
  • 51. consider contracting. In contracting, reinforcement contingencies are put in writing. If problems arise, the teacher can refer the children to the contract they agreed to. Classroom contracts have «if …then » statement. use negative reinforcement negatively. In negative reinforcement, the frequency of the response increases because the response removes an avertive ( unpleasant) stimulus. (e.g. a teacher who says « James, you have to stay in your seat and finish writing your story before you join the other students in making a poster » is using NR. The condition of being left in his seat while the others are doing (sth) enjoyable will be removed if James finishes the story he should have completed earlier.
  • 52.  Use prompts and shaping. prompts: is an added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response that increases the likelihood that the response will occur. shaping: when teachers use prompts and fail to get the desired response performed, shaping is required. It means that teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to a specified target behavior.
  • 53. • B- Decreasing undesirable behaviors. • When teachers want to decrease children’s undesirable behaviors (such as teasing, hogging a class discussion, or smarting off to the teacher … etc), they are recommended to use the following steps in order: • 1 – use differential reinforcement. • 2 – terminate reinforcement ( extinction) • 3 – remove desirable stimuli. • 4 – present aversive stimuli ( punishment)
  • 54. use differential reinforcement. The teacher reinforces behavior that is more desired and different than what the child is doing. ( e.g. the teacher might reinforce a child for doing learning activities rather than playing computer games). terminate reinforcement ( extinction) Simply means withdrawing positive reinforcement from a child’s inappropriate behavior. (e.g. attention to the inappropriate behavior by yelling, criticising, threatening …etc) remove desirable stimuli. The third option, if the two previous options haven’t worked, is to remove desirable stimuli from the student: to do this, there are two strategies:
  • 55. Time-out: take students away from positive reinforcement. Response cost: take a positive reinforcer away from a student, as when the student loses certain privileges. ( e.g. teachers may take away 10 minutes of recess time or the privilege of being a class monitor.
  • 56. Present aversive stimuli ( punishment)  Most people associate the presentation of aversive stimuli with punishment ( teacher’s yelling at a student or when a parent spanks a child)  An aversive stimuli is punishment only if it decreases the undesirable behavior.  Reprimands are more effective when they are given immediately after unwanted behavior and when they are short and to the point.  It is highly recommended to take the student aside and reprimand him in private. NB. Numerous problems are associated with using aversive stimuli: it instills fear, rage, avoidance + students might be out of control + anxiety…etc.
  • 57. Evaluating Operant Conditioning and Applied Behavior Analysis. Used effectively, behavioral techniques can help you manage your classroom. Critics of operant conditioning and applied behavior analysis argue that the whole approach stresses external control of students’ behaviors + Instead, it should help students learn to control their own behaviors and become internally motivated + it is not the reward or punishment that changes behavior, but, rather, the belief that certain actions will be rewarded or punished + ethical problems might emerge if operant conditioning is used inappropriately + while applying behavior analysis, teachers might focus too much on student conduct and not enough on academic learning.
  • 58. BEHAVIORISM VS MENTALISM  Behaviourism claims that environment is responsible for learning.  the Behaviorist theory works according to the Habit Formation process.  the learner is presented with stimuli on which he makes a specific response to each, and every time the learner is presented with this stimulus he responds with the same response until it becomes a habit.  The Mentalist theory came as a reaction to the Behaviourist theory. It opposed the claim that the environment is responsible for learning by proving that the mind is responsible for it. Chomsky said that the human being is endowed since birth with a biological device called the Language Acquisition Devise and it develops like any organ.  When applied to teaching , Mentalism means that the learner should use his cognitive abilities in order to learn. This enhances critical thinking and goes hand in hand with the Constructivist theory proving that the learner builds knowledge through time relying on his cognitive strategies.  nowadays both theories ( mentalist and constructivist) are widely used