Behaviorism in

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learning theory, behaviorism. classical & operant conditioning

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Behaviorism in

  1. 1. Behaviorism in Education Instructional Objectives: 1.Understand the difference between operant & classical conditioning 2.Be able to identify the differences between negative and positive reinforcement 3.Be able to apply the principles of behaviorist theory to the classroom
  2. 2. The purpose here is to view the things that organisms do as part of their behavior. Actually the main goal is to identify the complex mechanisms that guide a behavior. Goals
  3. 3. Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Definition
  4. 4. Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Involuntary Behaviors A form of learning in which A new, involuntary response a response increases in is acquired as a result of frequency as a result two stimuli being of being followed by presented at the same time reinforcement or punishment Two Types of Learning
  5. 5. SOUR JUICE CAN DISH KEEP HEAD HAND TEN DISH EYE FRANCE ICE FRIEND DISH LAST MIND BUT DISH CRAB DAY DISH CAN PHONE DISH MIND CAN FALL WORD RUG PARK KEEP DRESS PHONE PHONE DISH CAN FIRST CAN CAN THEN DRESS SOFT STAB CAN DISH CRAB MARK BILL GREASE CAN DISH BILL CLUB CAN CAN PHONE CLAP CAN PHONE CALL CAN GREASE DICE MARK TOP DISH SMOKE WORD CAN CAN RAIN RUG PARK PHONE BEAT CAN DISH CAN KEEP CLUB CAN CAN ICE FRIEND FRIEND HAND
  6. 6. Classical conditioning deals with reflexes, or responses that are evoked from a specific stimulus. People can be trained to perform a certain task or response by providing some sort of trigger, which may be a sound, picture, phrase, etc. When you see these: What do you think of? Classical Conditioning
  7. 7. (US) Unconditioned Stimulus (UR) Unconditioned Response (NS) Neutral Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Stimulus (CR) Conditioned Response Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
  8. 8. Pavlov presented food to dogs The dogs’ mouths water
  9. 9. Pavlov rang bell The dogs’ mouths did not water
  10. 10. Pavlov presented food to dogs and rang bell Dogs’ mouths water
  11. 11. Pavlov rang bell without food present Dogs’ mouths water
  12. 12. If the teacher is consistent and repetitive with the stimuli, eventually the students will come to learn to behave properly through classical conditioning. Look at this example: Classical Conditioning in Edu.
  13. 13. If the teacher… During conditioning Counts down from twenty Will not ask questions Tells the class to ask questions Before conditioning Then the students… Will ask questions Tells the class to ask questions and Will ask questions counts down from twenty After conditioning Counts down from twenty The students’ behavior has been conditioned! Will ask questions
  14. 14. A form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by reinforcement or punishment 1. Behavior 2. stimuli 3. response changes a behavior Operant Conditioning
  15. 15. Helping behavior among peers Behavior helping other student Stimulus Teacher praise Response Helping behavior changes Operant Conditioning in Edu.
  16. 16. Principles of Reinforcement A reinforcer is any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. Positive : a stimulus that strengthens an operant response when it is presented after the response. Negative : a stimulus that strengthens an operant response when it is taken away after the response.
  17. 17. Punishment a stimulus that weakens the operant response it follows. Positive: a stimulus that weakens an operant response when it is presented after the response Negative: a stimulus that weakens an operant response when it is taken away after the response
  18. 18. Education example Behavior cheating on a test Stimulus a failing grade Response decrease of cheating behavior Punishment
  19. 19. Ineffective Forms of Punishment for Teachers ( Research Results)  Physical punishment  psychological punishment  Extra class work/homework
  20. 20. Effective Forms of Punishment ( Research Results)  Verbal recommends  Time out  In-school suspension
  21. 21. Summary  What we did cover Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Reinforcement & Punishment - Positive and negative Application to the classroom
  22. 22. Maryam Eskandarjouy Contact: mehraboonn_a192yahoo.com Presented by
  23. 23. Thank You

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