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Philosophy and theology terms dante vocabulary colorized


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Vocabulary words in preparation for reading Dante.

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Philosophy and theology terms dante vocabulary colorized

  1. 1. A PHILOSOPHICAL/THEOLOGICAL VOCABULARY PHILOSOPHY -- Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline. The investigation of causes and laws underlying reality. SYNCRETISM -- The attempt or tendency to combine or reconcile differing beliefs, as in philosophy or religion. EPICUREANISM -- The art of making life happy, with intellectual pleasure or serenity the only good. Taught that physical pleasure was good, but in moderation. Denies the existence of the gods. Rejects the afterlife. Fond of good food, good books, appreciation of music and the arts. "Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die." THEOLOGY -- The study of the nature of God and religious truth; rational inquiry into religious questions, especially those posed by Christianity. An organized often formalized body of opinions concerning God and Man's relationship to God. METAPHYSICS -- branch of philosophy that tries to discover and explain reality and knowledge CATHOLICISM -- of or pertaining to the universal Christian church; or pertaining to the ancient, undivided Christian church SOPHISTRY -- A plausible but misleading or fallacious argument. Plausible but fallacious argumentation; faulty reasoning. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH -- The Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. ANTINOMY -- Opposition; contradiction. Contradiction between inferences or principles that seem equally necessary and reasonable. Can God make a rock so big he can't lift it? SKEPTICISM -- attitude of not believing easily; doubt; The philosophical doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible and that inquiry must be a process of doubting in order to acquire approximate or relative certainty. 2. Doubt or disbelief of the tenets of Christianity. REFORMATION -- The effort in the 16th century (led by Martin Luther) to reconstitute the life and teaching of Western Christendom, resulting in the separation of the Protestant churches from the Roman Catholic Church. PROTESTANT -- Any Christian that seceded from the Church of Rome at the time of the Reformation. One of those who adhered to the doctrine of Luther and in 1529 protested against the decree of the Diet of Spires commanding submission to the authority of Rome. DEISM -- the belief that god created the universe then abandoned it assuming no control or responsibility over life. A group of rationalists of the 17th and 18th centuries who rejected formal religion and supernatural revelation, but argued that the course of nature demonstrates the existence of God. There were deistic elements in the thinking of Voltaire, Rousseau, Franklin, and Jefferson. The religious orthodox called them freethinkers. LUTHERAN -- Of or relating to Martin Luther or his religious teachings and especially to the doctrine of justification by faith alone instead of by sacraments and mediation of Church; placed man in direct communication with God; insistence on reading the Bible placed on the individual greater responsibility for his own salvation; of or relating to the branch of the Protestant Church adhering to the views of Martin Luther. EXISTENTIALISM -- philosophy which holds that reality consists of living and that human beings make themselves what they are and are responsible to themselves alone; the belief that man is adrift in a godless, hostile or at least indifferent universe; anguish is an emotion common to men confronting life's problems; and morality demands participation. Denies God and stresses man's absolute freedom to choose, with resulting anguish and despair. PRESBYTERIAN -- Of or pertaining to ecclesiastical government by presbyters (church elders); traditionally Calvinist in doctrine. ETHICS -- The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by the individual in his relationship with others; the philosophy of morals. Also called "moral philosophy." CALVINISM -- The religious doctrines of John Calvin, the greatest theologian of the Reformation, which emphasize the supremacy of the Scriptures in the revelation of truth, the omnipotence of God, the sinfulness of man, the salvation of the elect by God's grace alone, and a rigid moral code. FUNDAMENTALISM -- belief in the bible as factual historical record and incontrovertible prophecy, including such doctrines as the Genesis, the Virgin Birth, the Second coming, and Armageddon EPISCOPALISM -- (Protestant) The belief that the power to govern the church should rest with an episcopal (bishop) or pastoral body, rather than with any supreme individual. PANTHEISM -- the doctrine identifying God with the various forces and workings of nature; belief that God is not separate from the universe and God is the universe 2. belief in and worship of all gods. BAPTIST -- a Christian believing that the sacrament of baptism should be given only to adult members upon profession of faith and usually by immersion. 1
  2. 2. ANABAPTIST -- A member of one of the radical movements of the Reformation of the 16th century that insisted that only adult baptism was valid and held that true Christians should not bear arms, use force, or hold government office. JUDAISM -- The monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, tracing its origins to Abraham, having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Bible and the Talmud (The collection of ancient Rabbinic writings consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara, constituting the basis of religious authority for traditional Judaism). MENNONITE -- (Protestant) A member of an Evangelical Protestant Christian sect opposed to taking oaths, holding public office, or performing military service. ZION -- The Jewish people; Israel; the Jewish homeland as a symbol of Judaism; a place or religious community regarded as sacredly devoted to God; a city of God; an idealized harmonious community; a utopia AMISH -- An orthodox Anabaptist sect that separated from the Mennonites in the late 17th century and exists today primarily in southeastern Pennsylvania. ZIONISM -- A plan or movement of the Jewish people to return from the diaspora to Palestine; a movement originally aimed at the re-establishment of a Jewish national homeland and state in Palestine and now concerned with development of Israel. GOSPEL -- The teachings of Jesus and the Apostles. One of the first four books of the New Testament, describing the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. BAR MITZVAH -- A 13-year-old Jewish male, considered an adult and thenceforth responsible for his moral and religious duties; the ceremony conferring and celebrating this status. MORMON -- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 at Fayette, New York. Accepts the Book of Mormon (An American prophet, warrior, historian of the fourth century, author of sacred history of the Americas, engraved on golden tablets) as the word of God. BAT MITZVAH -- A girl who reaches the age of Jewish duty and responsibility, usually between twelve and fourteen years. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES -- A religious sect founded in the United States during the late 19th century, the followers of which practice active evangelism, preach the imminent approach of the millennium, and are strongly opposed to war and to the authority of organized government in matters of conscience. ISLAM -- A religion based upon the teachings of the prophet Mohammed, believing in one God (Allah) and in Paradise and Hell, and having a body of law put forth in the Koran (Allah's revelations to Mohammed) and the Sunna (the body of traditional Moslem law, based on teachings of Mohammed); the Moslem religion. JEHOVAH -- God, especially in Christian translations of the Old Testament. HINDUISM -- A Western term for religious beliefs and practices of most of the people of India. Innumerable sects and no well-defined ecclesiastical organization characterized by beliefs in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils. Hold cows and snakes as sacred. Trinity - Brahman, Shiva, Vishnu MILLENNIUM -- A thousand-year period of holiness during which Christ is to rule on earth. Revelation 20:1-5; a hoped-for period of joy, serenity, prosperity, and justice. ADVENTS -- Christians that believe Christ's second coming and the end of the world are near at hand. ORTHODOX -- Adhering to the accepted or traditional and established faith, especially in religion. BRAHMAN -- The remote diety who created the universe; the essential divine reality of the universe; the eternal spirit from which all being originates and to which all returns. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE -- The church and the religious system founded by Mary Baker Eddy, emphasizing healing through spiritual means as an important element of Christianity, and teaching pure divine goodness as underlying the scientific reality of existence. SHIVA -- The destroyer. God of destruction and reproduction, a member of the Hindu triad. VISHNU -- The preserver. The chief diety worshipped by the Vaishnava, and second member of the trinity including Brahma and Shiva. PURITANISM -- A composite of social, political, ethical, and theological ideas in English and American Protestantism. The early settlements in New England were Puritan in origin. Their ideal of society was a theocracy, with powerful ministers and absolute control of individual conduct. The family was the fortress of godliness, and life was to be lived in strict obedience to detailed laws of God as read in the Bible. 2
  3. 3. BUDDHISM -- The doctrine, attributed to Gautama Buddha, that suffering is inseparable from existence but that inward extinction of the self and of the senses culminates in a state of illumination beyond both suffering and existence. The belief that the nature of man may reach perfection through his own efforts without divine aid. The belief that Jesus was mortal rather than divine. AESTHETICISM -- the belief in beauty as the basic standard of value in the human life ZEN BUDDHISM -- A Chinese and Japanese school of Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can be attained through meditation, self-contemplation, and intuition rather than through the scriptures. EMPIRICISM -- use of methods based on experiment and observation. UTILITARIANISM: The doctrine or belief that the greatest good of the greatest number should be the purpose of human conduct; the doctrine or belief that actions are good if they are useful. SATORI -- A state of spiritual enlightenment sought in Zen Buddhism (Japanese for "insight"). MYSTICISM -- A spiritual discipline aiming at union with the divine through deep meditation or trancelike contemplation; any belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual or intellectual apprehension but central to being and directly accessible by intuition. MATERIALISM -- The philosophical opinion that physical matter in its movements and modifications is the only reality and that everything in the universe, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of physical laws. The theory or doctrine that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life. HEDONISM -- Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure; the ethical doctrine that only that which is pleasant or has pleasant consequences is intrinsically good. 2. Psychology -- that human behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. SCIENTOLOGY - a body of beliefs Created by L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), starting in 1952, as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. People are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. Practitioners can be spiritually rehabilitated through a process known as auditing. Through counseling, people deal with traumatic memories and get past their limiting effects. ANIMALISM -- A state of enjoying sound health and the wholesome satisfaction of physical drives. A state of brutish indifference to all but the physical appetites. The doctrine that man is purely animal with no spiritual nature. IDEALISM -- (opposite of materialism) The theory that the object of external perception, in itself or as perceived, consists of ideas. ANIMISM -- The primitive belief that all things animate and inanimate are held to possess an innate soul. SECULARISM -- The view that the consideration of the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil affairs or public education. SECULAR - of or pertaining to the temporal rather than to the spiritual. NOMINALISM -- The doctrine that abstract concepts, general terms, or universals have no objective reference but exist only as names. ECLECTICISM -- Free selection and borrowing, as of ideas or styles, from diverse sources. HUMANISM -- A philosophy or attitude that is concerned with human beings, their achievements and interests, rather than with the abstract beings and problems of theology. An interest in man and his capabilities, the humanities. NIHILISM -- entire rejection of the established beliefs of religion, morals, gov't, laws, etc. SOLIPSISM -- The theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and verified. The theory or view that the self is the only reality HUMANITARIANISM -- The ideas, principles, or methods of charity, philanthropy. The belief that man's sole moral obligation is to work for the improved welfare of humanity. 3