Behavioristic theories

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Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors

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Behavioristic theories

  1. 1. Behaviorist theories Personality Theories
  2. 2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations.
  3. 3. SAMSAMANTHA Learned Behavior Previous aggressive behavior rewarded
  4. 4. Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
  5. 5. a. Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. b. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors. c. The school of behaviorism emerged in the 1910s, led by John B. Watson. d. Unlike psychodynamic theorists, behaviorists study only observable behavior. e. Their explanations of personality focus on learning. f. Skinner, Bandura, and Walter Mischel all proposed important behaviourist theories. Behaviourist Theories
  6. 6. 1. Learning occurs through interactions with the environment. 2. The environment shapes behavior and 3. Taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. Assumptions of behaviorism
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov was a noted Russian physiologist who went on to win the 1904 Nobel Prize for his work studying digestive processes. It was while studying digestion in dogs that Pavlov noted an interesting occurrence – his canine subjects would begin to salivate whenever an assistant entered the room.
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning 1. The Unconditioned Stimulus - The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. 2. The Unconditioned Response - The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. 3. The Conditioned Stimulus - The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. 4. The Conditioned Response - The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with classical conditioning. 1. Acquisition - Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened. 2. Extinction - Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. 3. Spontaneous Recovery - Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. 4. Stimulus Generalization - Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. 5. Discrimination - Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning was coined by behaviourist B.F. Skinner. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
  11. 11. "The consequences of behavior determine the probability that the behavior will occur again" -B. F. Skinner
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning 1. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences.” 2. Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers: a. Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. b. Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.
  13. 13. Operant Conditioning 1. Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment: a. Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. b. Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
  14. 14. Operant Conditioning 1. In operant conditioning, schedules of reinforcement are an important component of the learning process. When and how often we reinforce a behavior can have a dramatic impact on the strength and rate of the response. a. Continuous Reinforcement - In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule. b. Partial Reinforcement - In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction.
  15. 15. Operant Conditioning There are four schedules of partial reinforcement: 1. Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer. 2. Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule. 3. Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer. 4. Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of
  16. 16. Techniques in behaviorism Some of the techniques used by behavior analysts include: 1. Chaining: This behavior techniques involves breaking a task down into smaller components. The simplest or first task in the process is taught first. Once that task has been learned, the next task can be taught. This continues until the entire sequence is successfully chained together. 2. Prompting: This approach involves using some type of prompt to trigger a desired response. This might involve issues a verbal cue, such as telling the person what to do, or a visual cue, such as displaying a picture designed to cue the response. 3. Shaping: This strategy involves gradually altering a behavior, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
  17. 17. Stages to behavioural change
  18. 18. Stages to behavioural change
  19. 19. Stages to behavioural change
  20. 20. Stages to behavioural change
  21. 21. Stages to behavioural change
  22. 22. Stages to behavioural change
  23. 23. 1. Behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior and that behavioural theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts and feelings. 2. Behaviorism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs without the use of reinforcement and punishment. 3. People and animals are able to adapt their behavior when new information is introduced, even if a previous behavior pattern has been established through reinforcement. 4. Behaviourist researchers often do animal studies of behavior and then generalize their results to human beings. Generalizing results in this way can be misleading, since humans have complex thought processes that affect behavior. 5. Behaviourists often underestimate the importance of biological factors. 6. By emphasizing the situational influences on personality, some social-cognitive theorists underestimate the importance of personality traits. Criticisms of behaviorism
  24. 24. Other TA topics available on slideshare 1. Strokes - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/strokes-24081607. 2. Games People Play - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/psychological- games-people-play. 3. Structural Analysis - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/the-ego-state-model. 4. What is TA? - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/what-ta-is 5. Cycles of Development - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/cycles-of- developement-pamela-levin-transactional-analysis. 6. Stages of Cure - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/stages-of-cure. 7. Transactions - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/transactions-33677298. 8. Time Structuring - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/time-structuring. 9. Life Position - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/life-position. 10. Autonomy - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/autonomy-33690557. 11. Structural Pathology - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/structural-pathology. 12. Game Analysis - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/game-analysis-33725636. 13. Integrated Adult - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/integrated-adult. 14. Stroke Economy - http://www.slideshare.net/manumjoy/stroke-economy- 33826702.

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