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Humanistic approaches to
learning :
Abraham Maslow
Theories of SLA
Dr M.Khatib
Maryam Bolouri
The “Third Force”
 The Humanistic approach has emerged in the
late 1960’s, primarily as a reaction to the two
major views of humanity popular at that time
 The Freudian perspective and its emphasis on
unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts
 The behavioral perspective, and its emphasis
on the mechanical nature of responses to stimuli
in the environment. The humanistic perspective,
thus, as been called the “third force”.
Key Elements of the Humanistic
Approach
 personal responsibility
 “here and now”
 phenomenology of the individual
 personal growth
Abraham Maslow
1908-1970
 Abraham Maslow was interested in exploring the
sources of happy, healthy personality.
 His approach was optimistic, regarding human beings
as free-willed individuals, and not as captive by
unconscious drives
 Human nature is basically good, not evil. Normal human
development involves the actualization of this inherent
goodness
 His contribution is in the hierarchy of needs, and in the
study of the psychologically-healthy individuals.
 Much of Maslow’s work was concerned with identifying
the different types of needs that people have, and
explaining why some people make more of their
potential than others.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
 Maslow distinguished between D (deficiency) needs.
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Love and Belongingness needs
4. Esteem needs (you value yourself, and others also value
you)
and 3 being needs (higher order needs): people strive for
more fulfillment
1. Knowing and understanding (academic achievement)
2. Aesthetic appreciation
3. Self actualization
ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL
CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL
UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE
SATISFIED
Self-Actualization- What is it?
 There is more to life than the absence of problems
 The Humanistic perspective maintain that we all have a drive toward
“self-actualization”
 To become that best we can become, in the context of our life (you do
not have to receive the Nobel Prize)
. MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR
SELF ACTUALIZATION
IS
A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S
PRIME MOTIVATION
but we can nearly
all do more than
we think we can
Nobody can do
everything,
There are 4 general approaches to motivation:
1. Behavioral approaches to motivation
Reward, incentives…
2. Humanistic approaches to motivation
inherent needs
3. Cognitive approaches to motivation
intrinsic motivations
4. Sociocultural conceptions of motivation
Identity and interpersonal relations
Humanistic approaches to motivation
 According to Maslow, most theories of motivation are limited because
they mainly deal with basic physiological needs such as hunger and
thirst, or with the need to avoid anxiety. Such theories omit many
important needs relating to personal growth
 Human motivation is more than just fulfilling basic physiological needs
such as reduction of eating, reduction of anxiety etc. There is also a
motivation to grow.
Misconceptions about Maslow Hierarchy
 You do not have to fulfill all the needs in one level to “climb” to the next level
Some people who starve for their loved one, or for their life work
The needs in each level are never fully satisfied. Some of our greatest artists,
writers, philosophers and scientists, far from being contented individuals,
Does this fit with Maslow’s notion that people can only become great if their
deficit needs are met?
 There are cultural differences in the ways the needs are regarded and are
fulfilled. Maslow’s views on people’s needs tie in very closely with the
European and American ideal. But what of other cultures?
 Maslow’s study of the psychologically- healthy people was Not empirically-
based .He examined his friends, whom he judged to be psychologically
healthy, as well as historical figures. His analysis was “holistic” and
subjective
Applications
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been applied into understanding job
satisfaction and vocational choices
Maslow takes an active interest in the area of work. “If you’re
unhappy with your work, you have lost one of the most
important means of self-fulfilment”
(Maslow 1971).
 It helps us understand that intellectual, emotional, and physical
needs are interrelated and if the class is fearful, students are likely to
be concerned more with deficiency needs and less with being ones.
The ideal university would have no formal credits, required
courses, or degrees. It would serve as an educational
retreat where people could explore various subjects,
discover their own true interests and identities, and
appreciate the joys of learning and the preciousness of
life (Maslow, 1971)
Reference:
 Gross, R.D. (1996): Psychology: The Science of Mind
and Behaviour.
 Woolfolk, A. E., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2003).
Educational Psychology (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pearsoon
Education.
 http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/perscontents.html

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  • 1. Humanistic approaches to learning : Abraham Maslow Theories of SLA Dr M.Khatib Maryam Bolouri
  • 2. The “Third Force”  The Humanistic approach has emerged in the late 1960’s, primarily as a reaction to the two major views of humanity popular at that time  The Freudian perspective and its emphasis on unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts  The behavioral perspective, and its emphasis on the mechanical nature of responses to stimuli in the environment. The humanistic perspective, thus, as been called the “third force”.
  • 3. Key Elements of the Humanistic Approach  personal responsibility  “here and now”  phenomenology of the individual  personal growth
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  • 5. Abraham Maslow 1908-1970  Abraham Maslow was interested in exploring the sources of happy, healthy personality.  His approach was optimistic, regarding human beings as free-willed individuals, and not as captive by unconscious drives  Human nature is basically good, not evil. Normal human development involves the actualization of this inherent goodness  His contribution is in the hierarchy of needs, and in the study of the psychologically-healthy individuals.  Much of Maslow’s work was concerned with identifying the different types of needs that people have, and explaining why some people make more of their potential than others.
  • 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Maslow distinguished between D (deficiency) needs. 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Love and Belongingness needs 4. Esteem needs (you value yourself, and others also value you) and 3 being needs (higher order needs): people strive for more fulfillment 1. Knowing and understanding (academic achievement) 2. Aesthetic appreciation 3. Self actualization ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE SATISFIED
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  • 9. Self-Actualization- What is it?  There is more to life than the absence of problems  The Humanistic perspective maintain that we all have a drive toward “self-actualization”  To become that best we can become, in the context of our life (you do not have to receive the Nobel Prize) . MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION
  • 10. but we can nearly all do more than we think we can Nobody can do everything,
  • 11. There are 4 general approaches to motivation: 1. Behavioral approaches to motivation Reward, incentives… 2. Humanistic approaches to motivation inherent needs 3. Cognitive approaches to motivation intrinsic motivations 4. Sociocultural conceptions of motivation Identity and interpersonal relations
  • 12. Humanistic approaches to motivation  According to Maslow, most theories of motivation are limited because they mainly deal with basic physiological needs such as hunger and thirst, or with the need to avoid anxiety. Such theories omit many important needs relating to personal growth  Human motivation is more than just fulfilling basic physiological needs such as reduction of eating, reduction of anxiety etc. There is also a motivation to grow.
  • 13. Misconceptions about Maslow Hierarchy  You do not have to fulfill all the needs in one level to “climb” to the next level Some people who starve for their loved one, or for their life work The needs in each level are never fully satisfied. Some of our greatest artists, writers, philosophers and scientists, far from being contented individuals, Does this fit with Maslow’s notion that people can only become great if their deficit needs are met?  There are cultural differences in the ways the needs are regarded and are fulfilled. Maslow’s views on people’s needs tie in very closely with the European and American ideal. But what of other cultures?  Maslow’s study of the psychologically- healthy people was Not empirically- based .He examined his friends, whom he judged to be psychologically healthy, as well as historical figures. His analysis was “holistic” and subjective
  • 14. Applications  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been applied into understanding job satisfaction and vocational choices Maslow takes an active interest in the area of work. “If you’re unhappy with your work, you have lost one of the most important means of self-fulfilment” (Maslow 1971).  It helps us understand that intellectual, emotional, and physical needs are interrelated and if the class is fearful, students are likely to be concerned more with deficiency needs and less with being ones. The ideal university would have no formal credits, required courses, or degrees. It would serve as an educational retreat where people could explore various subjects, discover their own true interests and identities, and appreciate the joys of learning and the preciousness of life (Maslow, 1971)
  • 15. Reference:  Gross, R.D. (1996): Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour.  Woolfolk, A. E., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2003). Educational Psychology (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pearsoon Education.  http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/perscontents.html