Training plant breeders at WACCI to accelerate the Green Revolution in West and Central Africa


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Presented by Eric Y. Danquah at the CCAFS Workshop on Developing Climate-Smart Crops for a 2030 World, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-8 December 2011.

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Training plant breeders at WACCI to accelerate the Green Revolution in West and Central Africa

  1. 1. Training Plant Breeders at WACCI to accelerate the Green Revolution in West and Central Africa Eric Y. Danquah Director, WACCI“Developing Climate-Smart Crops for a 2030 World” Workshop, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-8 December 2011
  2. 2. Greetings from the University of Ghana Ghana’s Premier University Founded 1948
  3. 3. Outline Context  The challenge The Promise The West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI)  Conception & Establishment  Vision  Programme Structure  Our Students & Facilities Looking Ahead  Linkages, Networking & Sustainability
  4. 4. The Challenge • Land & Cultural Issues• No. of breeders below • Low Yielding Varieties critical level • High Cost of Production• Poor Institutional Structures • Biotic & Abiotic stresses• Brain Drain • Climate Change Low Breeding Low Productivity Capacity Food Insecurity
  5. 5. What do we need in Africa? Doubly Green Revolution - The aim is to repeat the success of the Green Revolution in Africa for many diverse localities Increased productivity on the same land with a reduced footprint e.g. high yielding hybrid maize varieties (7+ t/ha) with tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses
  6. 6. “The Green Revolution in Africa need not be amirage” Gibesa Ejeta, October, 16, 2009“Local solutions, not "blueprints" of ideasfrom outsiders, are needed if Africa is going toexperience a green revolution” Sir Gordon Conway April 15, 2010
  7. 7. Yield increases in some food crops in Ghana following investments t/haFood Crops Development Project (2001-2007)Root and Tuber Improvement Programme (1999-2003)
  8. 8. Sorghum Hybrid Quadruple Yields in Mali Average Yields of Sorghum in Mali (t/ha)Sorghum hybrids developed in Mali to quadruple harvests following support from AGRASource:
  9. 9. Number of Plant Breeders in selected countries in West AfricaSource: GIPB (
  10. 10. Average farm size and yields of eight major crops in northern Ghana (Quaye, 2008) 2.995 0.93 1.024 0.79 0.79 0.75 0.7 0.587 0.494 0.71 0.437 0.59 0.734 0.53 0.456 0.46 Sorghum Maize Millet Rice Yam Groundnut Cowpea Soyabean Farm Size (Ha) Average Yield (t/ha) Number of plant breeders at CSIR, GhanaSource: MIS, CSIR, 2011
  11. 11. A new generation of plant breeders trained in West & Central Africa New varieties AnAfrican Green Revolution
  12. 12. The Genesis of the Promise Scoping Study (Rockefeller Foundation), Dr. Eugene Terry, Inception Director-General, WARDA (August 2006) -to identify universities in West and Central Africa with potentials to become the nucleus of an Africa-wide plant breeding capacity program at the MSc. and PhD levels Recommended a Centre for Plant Breeding at the University of Ghana as the ACCI for W. & C. Africa (EACI - PASS, AGRA funding)
  13. 13. Rockefeller Assessment Mission (January 2007)- Dr. Eugene Terry, International Consultant- Prof. Ronnie Coffman, Cornell University- Prof. Vern Gracen, Cornell University- Prof. Mark Laing, ACCI, UKZN, SA- Mr. Stefan Einarson, Cornell University- Prof. Eric Danquah, University of Ghana- Prof. Samuel K. Offei, University of Ghana
  14. 14. West Africa Centre for Crop UG Improvement Establishedin June, 2007 to train 40 plant breeders over a 10-year period (AGRA-PASS grant); additional GCP grant to train 4 students (2008) Inauguration of WACCI, 12th March 2008
  15. 15. VisionTo become the foremost Centre for the training of Plant Breeders for Africa
  16. 16. THE WACCI PROGRAMME An innovative 5-year PhD programme First yearFoundation courses in plant breeding and related courses at the University of Ghana
  17. 17. Pre- Enrollment English Proficiency Coursefor Francophone Students Listening and Speaking/Presentation skills class Reading and Academic Writing class
  18. 18. Year 2 - Visiting Scientists (Advanced Modules) 12 53 4 11 16 12 6 8 10 13 7 9 14 15
  19. 19. Cornell Faculty participate in proposalpresentations as reviewers via Video Conferencing
  20. 20. Years III-V Relocation of students to their home institutions for PhD research work Students return to the WACCI 3-6 months before the end of 5th year to complete write-up, submit and defend thesis
  21. 21. Crop focus  Cereals - Maize, Sorghum, Millet & Rice  Roots and tubers - Cassava & Sweet potato  Legumes - Cowpea & Groundnuts  Vegetables - Tomato & Pepper Cereals Roots and tubers Legumes Vegetables
  22. 22. Enrollment: 36 PhD students 8 students to enroll in Jan., 2012 Kenya12 Female (33%)18 Francophone (50%)18 Anglophone (50%)
  23. 23. AGRA-sponsoredstudents in the field
  24. 24. Mamadou Coulibaly, Drought tolerance in hybrid maize (IER) Oumarou Goita,Alkalinity tolerance in rice (IER)
  25. 25. Mamadou Aissata, Hybrid Sorghum (INRAN) Adama Mamadou Coulibaly, Issaka Early maturity and drought Ahmadou, Hybrid tolerance in groundnut Pearl Millet resistant to (INRAN) downy mildew (INRAN)Laouali Nasser Mahamane Drought tolerant tropical Oumarou Souleymane yellow maize Salinity tolerance in rice (INRAN) (INRAN)
  26. 26. Ndubuisi D. Njoku, Alhassan Usman, Beatrice Okororogri Molecular characterisation & Enhanced beta carotene in Rosette virus resistance low soil N and striga cassava (NRCRI) in groundnut tolerance in maize inbreds (ABU) IITAMoses A. Adebayo,Drought tolerance in Lawan Muhammad hybrid maize Umar Chizoba Uzoma (IITA) Genetic analysis of grain Okechukwu, Drought tolerance in maize quality traits of cowpea (NIHORT) (ABU)
  27. 27. Valentin Edgar Traore, Abdalla Dao, Yellow mottle virus resistance Earliness and drought tolerance in in rice maize hybrids (INERA) (INERA) Some Koussao,Genetic improvement of sweet potatofor beta carotene and yield (INERA)
  28. 28. Maxwell Asante, Solomon G. Ansah, Grain Quality in rice Phosphorus use efficiency in (CRI) cowpea (MoFA) Vivian Oduro, Inheritance of sweetness in sweet potato (BNARI) Ernest Baafi Selection gain in end-user traits of sweet potato (CRI) Allen Oppong,Resistance to MSV in hybrid maize (CRI)
  29. 29. Hortense Mafouasson Low soil nitrogen tolerance in maize (IRAD) Lilian Tandzi Aluminium tolerance in maize hybrids (IRAD)
  30. 30. KENYAAlice KosgeiDrought Tolerance inChickpeaEmbu AgriculturalStaff Training College
  31. 31. GCP-Sponsored Students Joseph Batieno Sako Dramane Drought tolerance and M. phaseolina QTL analysis of yield resistance in cowpea components & paniclearchitecture in sorghum (IER) Ruth N. A. Thompson Post-harvest PhysiologicalJoseph Adjabeng-Danquah Deterioration in CassavaDrought tolerance in cassava (CRI) (SARI)
  32. 32. Partnership with 15 Institutions GAEC – BNARI, Ghana Crop Services, Ghana CSIR- CRI, Ghana CSIR- PGRRI, Ghana CSIR – SARI, Ghana INERA, Burkina Faso INRAN, Niger IER, Mali ABU, Nigeria NRCRI, Nigeria IITA, Nigeria LAUT, Nigeria IRAD, Cameroon NIHORT, Nigeria Embu Agricultural Staff Training College, Kenya
  33. 33. Supervisory visits(Research supervision by in-country and WACCI supervisors)
  34. 34. Mentoring Dr. Jeffrey D. Ehlers, Joseph Batieno Cowpea Breeder/Geneticist, GCP Sponsored Student, WACCIUniversity of California, Riverside. Jefffrey and Joseph have met face-to-face at WACCI on two occasions
  35. 35. Platform for Networking Maxwell Asante ,Ghana Oppong 1st (Rice) Allen, Ghana 2ndCohort (Maize) Cohort Mamadou Coulibaly Edgar Traore, Burkina Faso (Maize) (Rice)
  36. 36. Facilities High speed internet access and a video conferencing facility Access to electronic resources (TEEAL & AGORA) and the Mann Library, Cornell University Access to the Biotechnology Centre, CA&CS, UG
  37. 37. Maize breeding programme • 1,750 hybrids under evaluation • Arrangement with Seed Co, Zimbabwe to test hybrid varieties in multi- locational trials Ghana & Nigeria)
  38. 38. Looking Ahead Exploring opportunities for win-win linkagesNARIs & other AIs Partnership with CCAFS?
  39. 39. WACCI PHASE II AGRA is committed to: 80% of see-out budget for 32 PhD students (First cohort to complete in December 2012) Funding to admit 15 additional students in three cohorts from July 2013 but we need to maintain class sizesWe need to urgently diversify our sources of fundingto sustain WACCI.
  40. 40. Advisory Board Dr. Eugene Terry, Senior Technical Advisor, TransFarm Africa, Washington DC (Chairman) Prof. S. K. Offei Prof. M. Laing Dr. R. MadakadzeProf. E.Y. Prof. R. Coffman Prof. V. Gracen Member ACCI Rep. AGRA Rep.Danquah Member MemberMember 40
  41. 41. Management & Senior StaffEric Danquah Sam Offei Vern Gracen Director Associate Director Associate Director (Research) (Teaching & Curriculum Development) Naalamle Amissah Charles The Martin Yeboah Programme Plant Breeder Plant Breeder
  42. 42. Associate Faculty Essie Blay (Plant Genetics & Frank Kumaga Jonathan Ayertey Breeding) (Plant Physiology) (Entomology) Kwadwo Asante Edmund Darkwa Kwadwo Ofori(Plant Genetics) (Plant Pathology) (Plant Breeding)
  43. 43. Administrators & Support staff Mr. Yaw Brako Osei-Tutu Mr. Edward Salakpi Finance Officer Administrative Officer Ms. Rita Ayirebi Mr. Ebenezer Addo Mr. Richmond Kyei Mr. Philip AmegadzieAdministrative Assistant Driver Messenger / Cleaner Driver
  44. 44. The inescapable conclusionworking with farmers and seedenterprises to develop improvedvarieties to spark a Green Revolution inWest and Central Africa
  45. 45. Our first cohort, March 12, 2008 Completion deadline, November 2012Without these human resources, W & C Africa will have little or no capacity to adapt to climate change Thank you