Picture reference: Pennisetum procerum from NARO, Uganda collecting project
Development of use strategies: Expert consultations completed to date: potato, beans, sunflower, cereals, eggplant, sweetpotato, alfalfa, lentil, banana, apple and cowpea. Strategies for all genepools developed by end 2013. Meeting on ‘CWR Genomics: A key to unlocking diversity’ planned for December 2013: In collaboration with high-level team of scientific advisors co-funding from the US National Science Foundation as well as several Canadian Genome programmes.
Programme report-Global System and CWR
Programme Report 2012 Work Plan 2013 Tim Krupnick, CIMMYT
Climate change Likelihood (in percent) that the summer average temperature in 2090 will exceed the highest summer temperature ever observed (1900-2006). Source: Battisti, D.S., and R.L. Naylor. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science, 323, 240- 244.
Threats to diversitySource: Valls J F M (2010) What specific changes in the current way genebanks and breeders to business and interact will be necessary to increase useof Crop Wild Relatives? Presentation for ‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9 September 2010.Photo adapted from Tollefson J (2010) Nature 466: 554-556.
Impact of climate change on CWR Arachis (peanut, groundnut) - wild species distributions 2055 CurrentSource: Jarvis, A., Ferguson, M., Williams, D., Guarino, L., Jones, P.,Stalker, H., Valls, J., Pittman, R., Simpson, C. & Bramel, P. 2003.Biogeography of Wild Arachis: Assessing Conservation Status andSetting Future Priorities. Crop Science 43, 1100-1108.
State of ex situ conservation • over 1700 facilities • holding 7.4m accessions • some are ‘state of the art’
State of ex situ conservation• some are in a poor state
Phillippine national genebankTyphoon Xangsane, 2006
Phillippine National GenebankFire, 28 January 2012
Global SystemRescue and Ensure conservationsafeguard important and availabilitycrop diversity in perpetuity
Global System Project Regeneration Duplication Conservation Research Information systems Evaluation
Regeneration projects Accessions in National Institutes • 22 crops • 95,000 accessions • 246 collections • 86 institutes • 77 countries • 9 networks Source: Direct communication between Trust and national partners
Results of the regeneration• 74,410 regenerated• 3,675 put in vitro• 12,255 not viable
Safety duplication • 37,218 accessions • 41 countries • 12 not Treaty Party • in process 10,000 accessions
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault• holds 747,141 samples• 558,000 Trust funded• 25,000 samples this month
Transferring samples • 6 shipments / 1105 accessions destroyed or returned • many still in quarantine
Evaluation projects • 43 projects • 59 collections • 20 crops • 143 traits • 58 NARS • 8 CGIAR • 43 countriesPhotos International Rice Research Institute (IRRI); Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). 2009.
Some resultsCrop Country ResultsSweet CIP & 20 varieties performed very well (32 tons per hectare) inpotato Argentina sandy, saline soils. Developed a method for screening in vitro cultures for salinity tolerance.Maize Brazil 5 genotypes with tolerance to drought. Populations with resistance to Phaeosphaeria leaf spot and rust.Banana India 4 genotypes with drought toleranceWheat, Pakistan 127 wheat accessions resistant to yellow rust and potentiallychickpea 25 tolerant to drought. 5 chickpea accessions highly resistant to Aschochyta blight.Sweet PNG 32 accessions resistant to scab disease (Elsinoe batatas)potato and 7 with cold tolerance
Genesys National NationalInternational Eurisco USDA collections
Pest & disease resistance from CWR Musa acuminata- black sigatoga resistance Manihot glaziovii- cassava mosaic Aegilops disease (CMD) tauschii- hessian resistance fly resistanceSource: Okogbenin E (2010) The Use and Challenges of CWR in Breeding. Presentation for‘Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: The Need for Crop Wild Relatives’, Bellagio, 7-9September 2010.
Research: gap analysis Gather Gather taxonomic data occurrence Georeferencing data Make collecting Determine gaps Model recommendations in collections distributionsSource: concept and images from Jarvis et al. 2009. Value of a Coordinate: geographic analysis of agricultural biodiversity. Presentation for BiodiversityInformation Standards (TDWG), November 2009.
Gap analysis: progress so far • CWR inventory of 92 genera • http://www.cwrdiversit y.org/checklist/ • global dataset of CWR geographic distributions • 4 million records from 76 sources, including 20 herbaria • generation of maps under way
Collecting CWR: the road ahead• collecting targets identified • gap analysis results due end November• discussions on collecting initiated with Myanmar, Mozambique, Israel, Azerbaijan• collecting starts
Using CWR Figure out what Pick the most diversity is diversity present Figure out if its Cross, cross, good cross Make it available
Using CWR: strategies and case studies• expert consultations• ‘CWR Genomics: a key to unlocking diversity’ in Dec. 2012• case studies on sunflower and rice Group of experts on the use of potato CWR CIP, Lima February 2012