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B. Mishra
(Former Vice Chancellor,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of
Jammu, J&K and Former Director, Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal and Directorate of
Rice research, Hyderabad)
Email---- b9mishra@gmail.com
Why Pulses ?
 Pulses are rich in nutrients
Important for ecological sustainability
 Important for sustainability in crop production systems
Important for nutritional security
Reduction of malnutrition

Pulses are poor man’s meat to meet their
protein requirement and very important for
people dependent of vegetarian diet
Pulses Production Scenario
Total Pulses Area
India
34%

Total Pulses Production
India
25%

Others
66%

World: 76.00 m ha
India : 26.20 m ha

Others
75%

World: 67.71 m t
India : 17.11 m t
Share of Different States in Pulse
Production (2011-12)
3%

3%

3%

2% 2%

Madhya Pradesh

0%
3%

Rajasthan
21%

Maharashtra

4%

Uttar Pradesh
Karnataka

8%

Andhra Pradesh
18%

10%

Gujarat
Chhattisgarh

10%

13%

Orissa
Tamil Nadu
Bihar
Jharkhand
Others
Area, Production and Productivity trends of pulses over last five decades
30

800

700

Area and Production

600

20

500

400

15

300

10
200

5

100

Area (mha)

Production (mt)

Productivity (kg/ha)

Productivity (Kg/ha)

25
Area, production, yield of major pulses
and their share in total production in India
2011-12
Crops

Area
(mha)

2012-13

Production Productivit % share of
(mt)
y (kg/ha)
total
production
7.58
912
44.35

Chickpea

8.32

Pigeonpea

4.04

2.65

656

Mungbean

3.43

1.71

Urdbean

3.30

Lentil
Total Pulses

Area
(mha)

Production
(mt)

Producti % share of
vity
total
(kg/ha)
production
48.13
1020

8.7

8.88

15.51

3.8

3.07

806

16.64

498

10.01

2.75

1.2

436

6.50

1.83

555

10.71

3.19

1.9

595

10.30

1.60

0.95

594

5.56

1.41

1.08

765

5.85

24.46

17.09

699

-

23.47

18.45

786
Global Status of Pulses Production
2010 (2009-10)
Area
(m. ha)

Production
(m.ton)

Yield
(Kg/ha)

Beans (Dry)

29.88

23.23

777

Chickpea

11.99

10.94

913

Cowpeas (Dry)

10.56

5.57

527

Peas (Dry)

6.31

10.20

1616

Pigeonpea

4.75

3.68

774

Lentil

4.18

4.64

1110

Others

8.33

9.45

1134

76.00

67.71

891

Crops

Total
Global Status of Major Pulses Producing
Countries 2010 (2009-10)
Countries

India
Myanmar
Brazil
China
Canada
Australia
USA
Others
Total

Area
(m. ha)

Production
(m.ton)

Yield
(Kg/ha)

26.20

17.11

654

3.80
3.50
2.80
2.90
1.75
1.40
33.65
76.00

4.40
3.23
4.51
5.20
1.90
2.63
28.73
67.71

1161
921
1605
1814
1089
1856
854
891
Shift in pulse growing states in India

Area (Million hectares)

20.00

14.50

15.00

13.60

14.47

15.01

11.34
10.00

10.83
9.24

8.16

8.41
7.21

5.00

0.00
1971-75

1981-85

North India (mha)

1991-95

2001-05

Central and South India (mha)

2006-10
Varieties developed under different pulses in
India
Trend of breeder seed production (2008-12) in
major rabi pulses in India
Trend of breeder seed production (200812) in major kharif pulses in India
All India Coordinated Research Project
(AICRP)-Centre
State –wise area, production and productivity of
Chickpea in India during 2010-11
Area (M
tons)

Production (M
tons)

Productivit
y (Kg/ha)

Madhya Pradesh

3.11 (33.84)

2.69 (32.73)

865

Rajasthan

1.78 (19.37)

1.60 (19.46)

899

Maharashtra

1.44 (15.67)

1.30 ( 15.82)

903

Uttar Pradesh

0.57 (6.20)

0.53 (6.45)

930

Andhra Pradesh

0.58 (6.31)

0.72 (8.76)

1241

Karnataka

0.96 (10.45)

0.63 (7.66)

656

Gujarat

0.18 (1.96)

0.20 (2.43)

1111

Chhattisgarh

0.25 (2.72)

0.24 (2.92)

960

Haryana

0.11 (1.20)

0.11 (1.34)

1000

Bihar

0.05 (0.54)

0.06 (0.73)

1200

Odisha

0.04 (0.44)

0.03 (0.36)

750

West Bengal

0.02 (0.22)

0.02 ( 0.24)

1000

Others

0.10 ( 1.09)

0.09 (1.09)

-

S.No.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

State

9.19 (100.00)
8.22 (100.00)
895
India
Figure in parentheses is the percentage of total
Source: Directorate of economics and Statistics, Dept. of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, 2012.
Area, Production and Productivity Trends of
Chickpea Over Last Six Decades
Chickpea
 The third important grain legume in the world after dry beans and dry peas.
 Cultivated
mainly
in
India, Pakistan, Turkey, Canada, Mexico, Iran, Australia, Tanzania, Ethopia, Myan
mar, Syria, Bangladesh and Spain.
 Asia contributed about 90% of the global area and production.

 Globally, chickpea is cultivated on about 13.20 million ha with production of
11.62 million tons and productivity of 880 Kg/ha.
 India stands first in terms of area (68%) and production (70%). It is grown in
9.21million ha producing 8.88 million tons of grain with productivity of 995
kg/ha which is less than Mexico (1536 Kg/ha), Canada (1340 kg/ha) and Turkey
(1046 kg/ha). Chickpea occupies 36% national pulse average with 48%
production.
 India is the largest consumer as well as importer of chickpea in the world.
 M.P. , Maharashtra, Rajasthan, U.P., A.P., Karnataka, and Gujarat are the major
chickpea productivity states sharing over 80% of the area.

 A.P. registered the highest productivity (1448 kg/ha) followed by Bihar (984
kg/ha), Gujarat (977 kg/ha), M.P (850 Kg/ha), Maharashtra (825 kg/ha), U.P. 745
kg/ha), Karnataka (607 kg/ha) and Rajasthan (466 kg/ha).
 Development of short duration varieties like ICCV 2, JG 74, Vijay, JG 11, JG 16, JAKI
9218 and KAK 2 were the major catalyst for the expansion chickpea area in
southern and central India. In spite of reduction of duration the yield remained
unaffected.
 A salt tolerant variety CSG 8962 ( Karnal Chana 1) has been developed for
cultivation in moderate salinity stress soil (irrigated areas).
 Drought tolerant varieties (ICCV 10, Phule G 5, RSG 888, Vijay etc, have been
evolved).
 Many high yielding kabuli varieties such as KAK 2, BG 1003, BG 1053, Phule G
95311, IPCK 2002-29 etc , have been developed.
 During the last 5 years breeder seed production has been doubled ( 5512.16 in
the year 2005-06 to 11717.90 in the year 2010-11) as chickpea area increased
from 6.93 mha ( 2005-06) to 9.21mha (2010-11). The seed replacement rate
increased to 25% from 5%.
 Efficient
cropping
systems,
fertilizer
management
including
Zn, B, Mo, Fe, Rhyzobium inoculation ,herbicides application etc. for different
parts the country have been developed.
 Good work has been accomplished on crop protection for insects, nematodes
and diseases as well as host plant resistance.
State Wise Promising Varieties of Chickpea
State
Andhra Pradesh
Bihar
Chhattisgarh
Gujarat
Haryana
Jharkhand

Varieties
JG 11, KAK 2, JAKI 9218, MNK-1, ICCV 37
Gujarat Gram 4, Pant G 186, HK 05-169, Pusa 372
Digvijay, JG 6, JAKI 9218, JG 14, JG 63, IPCK 2002-29, Vaibhav
JG 16. Gujarat Gram 1, Gujarat Junagadh Gram 3, JSC 55 (Raj Vijay
Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203)
Haryana Chana-3, Haryana Chana-5, HK-1
KPG 59, BG 1003, Pant G 114, KWR 108, Pusa 372, HK 05-169

Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh

ICCV 37, JAKI 9218, JG 11, MNK-1, Phule G 0517
JG 130, JG 322, JG 63, JG 16, JG 14, JAKI 9218, JGK 2, JG 315, JGK-1,
Vijay, JSC 55 (Raj Vijay Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203), Raj
Vijay Kabuli 101, Raj Vijay 201, Phule G 0517, PKV Kabuli 4

Maharashtra

Vijay, Digvijay, JAKI 9218, Vishal, Virat, KAK 2, Phule G 0517, JSC 55
(Raj Vijay Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203), PKV Kabuli 4
cont’d. State Wise Promising Varieties of Chickpea
State
Punjab
Rajasthan

Tamil Nadu

Varieties
GPF 2, L 551
GNG 1581, RSG 888, Pratap Chana-1, GNG 1488, GNG
1499, GNG 663, GNG 469, RSG 973, RSG 963, CSJD 884
JG 11, Co4

Uttar Pradesh

KPG 59, KGD 1168, KWR 108, HK 05-169, Pusa 372

Uttarakhand

Pant G 186, Pant G 114, DCP 92-3, Pant Kabuli 1

West Bengal

Anuradha, Mahamaya-1, Mahamaya-2
Chickpea breeder seed production trends

92

12000

90

10000

88

8000

86

6000

84

4000

82

2000

80

0

78
2007-08

2008-09

varieties

2009-10

2010-11

Production (qt)

2011-12

No. of Varieties

Production against DAC indent

14000
Pigeonpea
Major Pigeonpea Growing
Countries

2004-05 to 2008-09
Pigeonpea in India
Area
(m. ha)

Production
(m.ton)

Yield
(Kg/ha)

2005-06

3.58

2.74

765

2006-07

3.56

2.31

650

2007-08

3.73

3.08

826

2008-09

3.38

2.27

671

2009-10

3.53

2.46

697

2010-11

4.42

2.89

655

2012-13

3.8

3.07

806

Year
Issues for increasing production
of Pigeonpea
1. Population management

2. Provision of life saving irrigation
3. Management of pod borer and pod fly
4. Promotion of pigeonpea in inter cropping system
5. Promotion of pigeonpea in non-traditional areas
like hills, backyards, bunds of wet land etc.
Popular Pigeonpea Varieties
Yield potentiality
(q/ha)

Area of adaptation

UPAS 120

11-15

NWPZ & NEPZ

Pusa 992

14-18

NWPZ

Manak

18-20

NWPZ

AL 201

15-16

Punjab

Paras

15-20

Haryana

Durga

10-12

A.P.

CORG 9701

11-12

Tamil Nadu

Variety
Early duration
Popular Pigeonpea Varieties
Yield potentiality
(q/ha)
Medium duration
Variety

Area of adaptation

MA 3

20-22

CZ

Asha

16-18

CZ & SZ

Jawahar

18-20

CZ

LRG 30

17-19

SZ

LRG 41

17-19

SZ

BDN 2

10-12

Maharashtra

Maruti

10-12

Karnataka & A.P.

Abhaya

18-20

A.P.

BSMR 736

12-14

Maharashtra

CO 6

17-19

Tamil Nadu
Popular Pigeonpea Varieties
Yield potentiality
(q/ha)

Area of adaptation

Bahar

20-25

NEPZ

MAL 13

22-24

NEPZ

Pusa 9

22-26

NEPZ

MA 6

20-25

NEPZ

Amar

16-20

U.P.

NDA 1

20-22

U.P.

Variety
Long duration
Disease Resistant Varieties of
Pigeonpea
Wilt

:

Maruthi, Asha, BDN 2, BSMR 736,
MA 6

SMD

:

Bahar, BSMR 736, Asha, Sharad,
Pusa 9

Wilt and :
SMD

Asha, BSMR 736, BSMR 853
Area, Production and Productivity Trends of
Pigeonpea Over Last Five Decades
Status of hybrid pigeonpea in
India work on development
In India systematic research

of
pigeonpea got momentum in the year 1988-

hybrids in
89 on wards.
In 1988-89 ICAR, launched an ad-hoc project on
development of genetic male sterility based pigeonpea
hybrid.
This resulted in development and release of six GMS`based
hybrids.
Hybrid
Year of development Source Institution
ICPH 8

1991

ICRISAT, Hyderabad

PPH 4

1994

PAU, Ludhiana

COPH 1

1994

TNAU, Coimbatore

COPH 2

1997

TNAU, Coimbatore

AKPH 410

1997

PDKV, Akola

AKPH 2022

1998

PDKV, Akola
Areas of Biotechnological
Research
in Pigeonpea
• Development of genetic resources
- Mapping populations/Core sets/Mini-core sets
• Development of genomic resources
- High density linkage maps/Genomic libraries/
Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) lbraries
• Application of genomic tools for breeding
- Identification of markers associated with
disease/pest
resistance, root traits and nutrient use
efficiency
- Identification of candidate genes and allele
mining
- Pyramiding of genes into elite varieties
• Development of transgenics for tolerance to biotic and
abiotic stresses
Greengram and
Blackgram
Major researchable issues






Insect pests: defoliators, hairy caterpillars, semilooper, thrips
Diseases: MYMV, Leaf crinkle, CLS, PM
Limited number of HYVs
Population management
Development of suitable varieties for rice fallow areas
Popular Greengram Varieties
Variety

Yield potentiality
Area of
(q/ha)
adaptation

PDM 11

8-10

CZ

PDM 54

8-10

NEPZ

PDM 139 (Samrat)

10-12

UP

IPM 99-125 (Meha)

12-15

NEPZ

IPM 02-3 (Diksha)

12-14

NEPZ, SZ

IPM 02-14 (Shreya)

12-14

UP state , SZ

Pant Mung 2

10-12

NEPZ, NWPZ
Contd........
Greengram varieties suitable for
specific situation
Specific Situations

Varieties

Short duration
varieties for
spring/summer
Resistant to PM for
rabi season

IPM 02-3, Meha, Samrat, TMB 37,
HUM 16, HUM 1, Pusa Vishal,
OUM 11-5, Pant M 5, SML 668
TARM 18, TM 96-2, Vamban 2,
Vamban 4, TARM 2, TARM 1

MYMV resistant

Pant M 4, Pant M 6, KM 2241,
Sattya, NDM 1, HUM 1, Ganga 8,
Samrat, Meha HUM 12, IPM 02-3
Pant M 5, Pusa Vishal, SML 668,
HUM 16, TMB 37, IPM 02-3

Large Seeded
(5 g/100 seeds)
Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for
Different States and Seasons
State

Andhra Pradesh

Assam

Growing season

Kharif
Rabi

Kharif
Spring/ Summer

Kharif
Bihar & Jharkhand
Spring/ Summer

Varieties
PKV AKM 4, IPM 02-14,
COGG 912, OUM 11-5,
Warangal-2, LGG 407, LGG
450, Madhira 295
Pusa 9072, LGG 460, TM
96-2, WGG-2
SG 1 (Pratap), Pant moong
2, Pant Moong 4, Narendra
moong 1, IPM 2-3
PDM 139, Pusha Vishal,
Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB
37, HUM-16, HUM 12
Pant moong 2, Pant Moong
4, Narendra moong 1,
Sunaina, PDM139,MH2-15,
HUM-1, IPM 2-3
PDM 139, Pusha Vishal,
Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB
37, HUM-16, HUM 12
cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons
State
Delhi

Growing season
Kharif

Kharif
Gujarat
Spring/summer

Kharif
Haryana
Spring/Summer

Himachal Pradesh & J&K

Karnataka

Kharif

Kharif

Varieties
IPM 2-3, , Pant Moong 3,
ML 337, MUM 2, Ganga 8,
MH 02-15
PKV AKM 4, BM 4, Gujarat
Moong 3, Pant moong 2,
PIMS 4 (Sabarmati),
GujratMoong 2,
GujratMoong 4
Gujarat moong 2, PDM 139
MUM 2, Pusa Vishal, Ganga
8, MH 2-15, IPM 2-3,
Muskan
Pusa Vishal, SML 668, Pant
Mung-5
Pant Moong 2, Pant Moong
6, KM 2241, Shalimar
moong 1, Pusa 0672
IPM 02-14, PKV AKM 4,
COGG 912, HUM 1, China
Moong, KKM 3
cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons
State

Madhya Pradesh &
Chhattisgarh

Growing season
Kharif

Spring/Summer

Kharif
Maharashtra

Kharif
Orissa

Rabi

Kharif

Varieties
Pant Moong 3, ML 337,
BM 4, JM 721, Jawahar 45,
HUM-1, Meha, TJM 3
HUM 1, Pusa 9531, PDM
139, Meha
PKV AKM 4, Kopergaon, ML
131, BM 4, Phule M 2,
TARM 1, TARM 18, TARM 2,
BM 200-1, HUM 1
OUM 11-5, COGG 912, PKV
AKM 4, TARM 1, PDM 139
Pusa 9072, Sujata (Hyb 24), TARM-1, OBGG-52, LGG460, PDM 139
MUM 2, ML 613, Ganga 8,
MH 2-15, IPM 2-3

Punjab

Spring/Summer

Pusha Vishal, Pant moong
2, SML 668, Pant Mung-5
cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons
State

Growing season
Kharif

Rajasthan
Spring/Summer

Uttar Pradesh &
Uttaranchal

Kharif
Spring/Summer

Tamil Nadu

Kharif
Rabi

West Bengal

Kharif
Spring/Summer

Varieties
Ganga 8, RMG 268, MUM 2, SML
668, RM 492, IPM 2-3, MH 2-15
RMG 268, SML 668, PDM-139,
Meha
Pant Moong 2, Pant Moong 3,
Narendra Moong 1, Pant Moong 4,
Pant Moong 5.
PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha,
Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16,
HUM 12
Paiyur 1, Vamban 1, ADT 3, CO 5,
TM 96-2, COGG 912, OUM 11-5
Pusa 9072, Sujata (Hyb 12-4), ADT3,
Narendra Moong 1, Pant Moong 4,
Pant Moong 5, MH 2-15, Srekumar
PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha,
Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16
Breeder Seed production trends of mungbean
63

1200

62

1000

61

800

60

600

59

400

58

200

57

0

56
2008-09

2009-10

Indent

2010-11

Production(qt)

2011-12

2012-13

Varieties

No. of Varieties

DAC Indents and production (Q)

1400
Popular Blackgram Varieties

PDU1 (Basant Bahar)

Yield
potentiality
(q/ha)
9-10

NWPZ

IPU 94-1 (Uttara)

12-14

NWPZ, NEPZ

IPU 2-43
WBU 108

10-11
10-12

SZ
NWPZ, NEPZ, SZ

Narendra Urd 1

10-12

UP

Pant U 19
Pant U 30

12-15
12-15

NEPZ
CZ, SZ

Variety

Area of
adaptation

Contd........
Pant U 40

Yield
potentiality
(q/ha)
10-12

West UP, UK

KU 92-2 (Azad Urd 1)

10-11

NEPZ

KU 300 (Shekhar 2)

10-12

NWPZ

WBU 109 (Sujata)

10-12

NEPZ

Pant U 35

10-12

UP

KU 91 (Azad urd 2)

8-9

UP

Variety

Area of
adaptation
Blackgram varieties suitable for
specific situation
Specific Situations

Varieties

Short duration
varieties for
spring/summer
Resistant to
Powdery mildew

WBU 109, Azad Urd 1, KU 300, Pant
Urd 31, PDU 1, KU 92-1
LBG 625, LBG 685, LBG 623, LBG 20,
WBG 26, LBG 709, LBG 645, VBN 4,

Resistant for MYMV WBU 108, Pant U 30, Pant U 31, Pant
U 40, Azad U 1, Azad U 2, Sekhar 2,
Sekhar 3, IPU 02-43, Uttara, NDU 1,
KU 96-3, Mash 1008, WBU 109
Resistant to MYMV IPU 02-43, LBG 625, LBG 685
and PM
Recommended varieties of urdbean for different
states and seasons
State
Andhra Pradesh

Growing season
Kharif

Rabi

Varieties
WBG 26, KU 301 (Shekhar -1),WBU 108, LBG
648, Pant U 31, IPU 2-43, LBG 685, LBG 625,
LBG 752, IPU 07-3, VBG 04-008, LU 391
TU 94-2, LBG 611, LBG 20, LBG 402, LBG
623, LBG-709, WBG-26,

Assam

Kharif

Pant U 30, WBU 108, IPU 94-1 (Uttara),
WBU 108

Bihar & Jharkhand

Kharif

IPU 94-1 (Uttara), BirsaUrd 1, Pant U 30,
Pant U 31, WBU 108

Spring
KU 92-1 (Azad Urd 1), WBU-109, Pant U 31
Gujarat

Kharif

KU 96-3, TPU 4, AKU 4, WBU 108, GU 1
cont’d. Recommended varieties of urdbean for different states and
seasons
State

Growing season

Varieties

Haryana

Kharif

Mash 338, Pant U 19, KU 300 (Shekhar 2),
WBU 108, IPU 94-1 (Uttara)

Himachal Pradesh

Kharif

Pant U 19, Pant U 31, Pant U 40

Karnataka

Kharif

KU 301, WBG 26, WBU 108, LBG 402, LBG
Manikya, 1, TU 94-2, LU 391, IPU 07-3,
VBG 04-008, IPU 2-43

Madhya Pradesh &
Chattisgarh

Kharif

KU 96-3, TPU 4, JawaharUrd 2,
JawaharUrd 3, Khargone 3, Pant U 30
Pant U 31

Spring
Maharashtra

Kharif

TPU 4, Pant U 30, TAU 1, TAU 2, AKU 4
(Melghat), AKU 15, KU 96-3
cont’d. Recommended varieties of urdbean for different states and seasons
State

Growing season

Varieties

Odisha

Kharif
Spring

KU 301, WBG 26, WBU 108, Sarla, IPU 2-43
TU 94-2, LBG 402, OBG 17, B-3-8-8, Mash 338

Punjab

Kharif
Spring

IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Krishna, Mash 414
KU 300 (Shekhar – 2), KUG 479

Rajasthan

Kharif

IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Pant U 31, KU 300

Spring

KU 300, KUG 479

Kharif

IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Narendra Urd 1, Pant
U 35, Pant U 31, Pant U 40
KU 92-2 (Azad Urd 1), KU 300 (Shekhar 2),
Narendra Urd 1, WBU 109, KUG 479

Uttar Pradesh
&Uttrakhand

Spring

Tamil Nadu

Kharif

Rice-fallow

West Bengal

Kharif
Spring

ADT 3, ADT 5, Vamban 2, WBU-108, KU 301
(Shekhar 1), Vamban-3, ADT 4,Vamban-4, ADT 5,
IPU 07-3, IPU 2-43, VBG 04-008
WBG-26, Vamban-3, TU 94-2, VBN-5, IPU 2-43.
KBU 512, Vamban 2
IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Pant U 31
KU 92-1 (Azad urd 1), WBU 109, Pant U 31
Breeder seed production trends of urdbean

45

800

40

700

35

600

30

500

25

400

20

300

15

200

10

100

5

0

0

2008-09

2009-10

Indent

2010-11

Production(qt)

2011-12

2012-13

Varieties

No. of Varieties

50

900
DAC Indents and production (Q)

1000
State wise promising varieties of Lentil and
fieldpea
State

Varieties

Uttar Pradesh

HUL 57, DPL 62 (Sheri), IPL 81 (Noori), Narendra Masoor 1, IPL 406,

Bihar

HUL 57, WBL 77, Arun (PL 77-12)

Madhya Pradesh
Haryana

IPL 81 (Noori), JL 3, IPL 406
DPL 62 (Sheri), IPL 406

Punjab

DPL 62 (Sheri), Pant L 4, LH 84-8, LL 147

Delhi
Gujarat

DPL 62 (Sheri), LH 84-8
IPL 81, JL 3

Himachal Pradesh
J&K

HUL 57, VL 507
HUL 57, VL 507, Shalimar Masoor 1

West Bengal

HUL 57, WBL 77 KLS 218, Ranjan (B 256), Asha (B 77), ,

NEH Region

HUL 57, DPL 62

Maharashtra
Assam
Orissa
Rajasthan

IPL 81 (Noori), JL 3
HUL 57, WBL 77, KLS 218, Asha (B 77)
HUL 57, WBL 77, B 77 (Asha)
IPL 406, DPL 62
State wise promising varieties of Lentil and
fieldpea
State

Varieties

Fieldpea
Uttar Pradesh

KPMR 400, Prakash,Vikas, HUDP 15, Adarsh,

Bihar
West Bengal

HUDP 15, DDR 23, VL 42, DantiwadaFieldpea 1
HUDP 15, VL 42, DantiwadaFieldpea 1

Delhi

KPMR 522, Aman, DDR 27, Hariyal,

Maharashtra
Himachal Pradesh

KPMR 400, Prakash, Vikas, Adarsh, Ambika,
Prakash, VL Matar 3, HFP 9426, VL 45

Punjab
Haryana

KPMR 522, Aman,DDR 27, HFP 529
KPMR 522, Hariyal, ,DDR 27, HFP 9426, HFP 529

Rajasthan

KPMR 522, Aman, Hariyal, DMR 7, DDR 27, HFP 529

Madhya Pradesh

KPMR 400, Prakash, Vikas, Adarsh, Ambika

Jammu & Kashmir
Assam

HUDP 15, Prakash, IPFD 1-10
Malviya Matar 15, IPFD 1-10
State wise promising varieties of Arid Legumes
States/Crop

Varieties

Guar
Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat
Haryana

Early maturing varieties like RGM-112,RGC-936,HG-563 and HG365are getting popular in Rayalseemaregion of A.P.
GG-1 , GG-2
HG-365 , HG-563 ,HG-870 , HG-884 ,HG-867 , HG-2-20

Madhya Pradesh

HG-563 , HG-365

Maharashtra (Marathwada HG-563 , HG-365 , RGC-936 early types are sought after in
and Vidarbha)
nontraditional areas of Yavatmal and Parbhani
Punjab
AG-112 and early varieties from Haryana state
Rajasthan

Uttar Pradesh

RGC-1033,RGC-1066, RGC-1055 , RGC-1038 , RGC-1031 , RGC1017 , RGC-1003 , RGC-1002 , RGM-112 , RGC-986 ,RGC-936 ,RGC197 ,
HG-563 , HG-365 and early varieties

Mothbean

Gujarat

GMO-1 ,GMO-2

Haryana
Maharashtra
Rajasthan

Early var of Raj
Early maturing var from Rajasthan
RMO-257 , RMO-435 , RMO-2004 (RMB-25) , RMO-225 , RMO-40,
CZM-1, CZM-2, CZM-3
cont’d. State wise promising varieties of Arid
Legumes
States/Crop

Varieties

Cowpea
Gujarat

GC-2 , GC-3 , GC-4 , GC-5

Karnataka

KBC-2.DCS-47-1,Vamban-1

Kerala
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu

Subra , Hridya, Kankamony, Krishnamony
VCM-8
RC-101 , RC-19
Co (CP)-7 ,Vamban-1

Uttarakhand
Horse gram

Pant-lobia-1 , Pant lobia -2 , Pant lobia-3

A.P
Gujarat
Karnataka
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttarakhand
Maharashtra

CRIDA R1-18, CRHG-19 , PHG-9,Palem-1 , Palem-2
GHG-5 ( Dantiwada Gujarat Horse gram-1)
PHG-9 ,BJPL-1,BGM-1
AK-21 , AK-42 , AK-53
CRHG-19
VLG-8 , VLG-10 , VLG-15 , VLG-19
D 40-1
Area under prevalent cropping systems and their
contribution to the national food basket
Cropping system

Area (m ha)

Contribution (%)

Rice-wheat

9.77

25

Rice-rice

2.12

5

Cotton-wheat

1.39

2.36

Pearl millet-sorghum

1.35

1.68

Maize-wheat

1.29

2.25

Pearl millet-wheat

1.03

1.72

Sorghum-sorghum

0.74

1.65

Rice-chickpea

0.59

0.8

Sugarcane-wheat

0.54

0.86

Maize-chickpea

0.54

0.65

Source :Yadav (1996)
Predominant cropping systems
Cropping systems

Area ( m. ha)

Rice-wheat

9.85

Rice-rice

5.89

Pearlmillet-wheat

2.26

Soybean-wheat

2.23

Maize-wheat

1.86

Rice-vegetables

1.24

Cotton-wheat

1.09

Rice-groundnut

1.02

Sugarcane-wheat

0.97

Rice-fallow

4.42

Source : Yadav and Rao (2001)
Nitrogen economy due to inclusion of pulses in prevalent
cropping systems
Preceding legume Following cereal
Chickpea
Pigeonpea
Lentil
Peas
Green gram
Lathyrus
Cowpea
Pigeonpea
Chickpea
Rajmash
Fodder cowpea
Mungbean

Fertilizer Nequivalent (kg n /ha)

Maize

60-70

Pearl millet
Wheat
Maize
Pearl millet
Pearl millet
Maize
Pearl millet
Maize
Pearl millet
Maize
Pearl millet
Rice
Wheat
Sorghum
Rice
Rice
Rice
Rice

40
40
20-49
30
40
18-30
40
20-32
30
36-48
60
40
13
51
40
40
40
40

References
Subbarao (1988);
Lee and Wani
(1989)

Ali (1948-87)
Possible new niches for pulses
Cropping system

Pigeonpea-wheat

Maize-rabi pigeonpea

Possible niches
Haryana, Punjab,
North-west, U.P,
and North
Rajasthan
Central and
Eastern U.P,
North Bihar,
West Bengal,
Assam

MaizePunjab,
potato/mustard+mungbea
Haryana and
n/urdbean
west U.P.
Spring
sugarcane+mungbean /
urdbean

Source : Ali (2004)

East U.P., Bihar,
west Bengal

Expected
area

Suitable varieties of
pulse crops

1

UPAS 120, Manak, Pusa, 33,
AL 15, AL 201

0.3

Pusa 9, Sharad

1

Mungbean: Pant Mung 2,
PDM 11, HUM 2, SML 668,
Pusa Vishal
Urdbean: PDU 1, Narendra
Urd 1, Uttara

0.15

Mungbean: Pant Mung 2,
PDM 11, Narendra mung 1,
Urdbean: PDU 1, Pant U, 19
TARM 1, Pusa 9072
Possible new niches for pulses
Cropping system

Possible niches Expected area

Suitable varieties of
pulse crops

Rice-mungbean

Orissa, parts of
Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, A.P.

0.35

TARM 1, Pusa 9072

Rice-urdbean

Coastal areas of
A.P. , Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu

0.35

LBG 17, LBG 402

Rice-wheat-mungbean

Western U.P.,
Haryana, Punjab

0.1

Pant Mung 2, Narendra,
Mung 1, PDM 139, HUM 2

Maize-rajmashmungbean

Central and
Eastern U.P.,
North Bihar

0.07

Mungbean: Pant Mung 2,
PDM 11, HUM 2
Rajmash: HUR 137, HUR
15,PDR 14, Amber

Rajmash + Potato

Eastern and
Central U.P.

0.03

Source : Ali (2004)

PDR 14, Amber
Effective IPM against major pests
Pulses being rich in protein suffer heavy losses due to insect pests and
diseases (25-40%)

• Gram pod borer (Pigeonpea and chickpea)
Popularization of bio-intensive IPM modules (intercrops, NPV, NSKE,
birdperches, etc.)
• Fusarium wilt (chickpea, lentil, pigeonpea)
Integrated management of wilt ( HPR, intercrops, seed dressing with
fungiside, trichoderma)
• Weeds (All pulses)
Integrated weed management (tillage practices, intercrops, preemergence use
of pendimethalin)

Containing the menace of blue bull
Crop-specific strategies
• Popularization of zero till and raised bed planting for chickpea
and lentil after rice in northern plains.
• Ridge furrow planting of pigeonpea in north east plains
• Foliar sprayof 2% urea at flowering/pod formation stage in
rabipulses in rainfed areas of central and south India
• Popularization of bio-intensive IPM against pod borer in
chickpea and pigeonpea
• Development and popularization of region specific varieties
- Extra large seeded kabuli varieties for north and central india
- Short duration pigeonpea varieties ( 130+ 10 days ) with 2 tons yield
per ha for sequential cropping with wheat in north India and 160-170
days varieties with combined resistance to wilt and SMD in central
and south zones
- Short duration varieties of urdbean and mungbean for
spring/summeras catch crop
- Urdbean and mungbean varieties with combined resistance to PM
and YMV for rabi planting in coastal peninsula
- Short duration varieties of lentil and fieldpea with resistance to rust
and PM
Nutritive value of major pulses grown in India
Source: NIN, Hyderabad, ICMR

Pulses

Protein
(%)

Fat (%) Carbohydr Minerals
ates (%)
(%)

Fibre
(%)

Energy
Kcal

Red Gram

22.3

1.7

57.6

3.5

3.5

335

Chickpea

17.1

5.3

60.9

3.0

3.9

360

Green gram

24.0

1.3

56.7

3.5

4.1

334

Black gram

23.9

1.4

59.6

3.2

3.1

347

Lentil

25.1

0.7

59.0

2.1

0.7

343

Peas

19.7

1.1

56.5

2.2

4.5

315

Month bean

23.6

1.1

56.4

3.5

4.5

330

Field bean

24.9

0.8

60.1

3.2

1.4

347

Cowpea

24.0

1.0

54.5

3.2

3.8

323
Protein range of different pulses
Mineral content mg/100g protein
Amino acid content (mg/ 100 g)
Vitamin content (mg/100 g)
Consumption Pattern of pulses in India
Reducing Post-harvest Losses
• Modernization of conventional dal mills
• Safe storage
Total number of conventional dal mills ( large and medium)
Number of modern dal mills
Average dal recovery from conventional dal mills
Average dal recovery from modern dal mills
Expected increase in dal recovery due to modernization
Safe storage

: 5500
: 103
: 72%
: 83%
: 0.90 mt
: 0.25 mt
Generic issues
• Quality seeds
• Balanced plant – Nutrition
• Water management
• Resource conservation (including energy)
• Biotic and abiotic stresses
• Farm produce and product diversification
• Post-harvest management
• Marketing and Trade
SWOT Analysis
Strength
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Largest research network with multidisciplinary team.
Wide adoptability across the agro-ecological zones and regions.
Diversified use for consumption.
Short duration with high productivity/day (early mungbean, urdbean and pigeonpea).
Fixing atmospheric nitrogen and enhanced soil fertility.
Befitting early maturing mung and urd crop duration between two non – pulse crops.
Widening of genetic variability.
Crossability among wild and cultivated Vigna species.
Good research base/infrastructure.

Weaknesses
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Poor plant type
Narrow variability
Non-synchronous maturity in many pulses.
Pre-harvest sprouting of grains in kharif season in case of mungbean and urdbean.
Prevalent of more diseases during kharif season.
Non-availability of improved seeds and low seed replacement rate.
Market and Trade
Limited varieties for spring and summer cultivation (mungbean and urdbean).
Photo thermo sensitivity and post – harvest losses during storage.
Poor research on quality, nutrition and value addition.
Opportunity
•
•
•
•
•
•

Horizontal expansion to new niches (rice-fallows in coastal regions of Orissa, AP, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu).
Diversification in rice- wheat system through short duration mungbean and bean varieties and intercropping in
sugarcane pigeonpea and cereals.
Development of suitable plant type (synchronous maturity) for intercropping.
Development of resistant mungbean and urdbean varieties against powdery mildew to stabilize the production and
productivity in winter season (rice- fallows).
Popularization of Hybrid Pigeonpea.
Molecular breeding – products awaited.

Threat
•
•
•
•

Erratic weather viz. temperature extremes, heavy rains and drought.
New emerging pests such as thrips, jassids, leaf crinkle, leaf curl, pod borer etc.
Narrow genetic base of released varieties.
Future target fixed for cereals--negative impact on pulses.
Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Reasons for decline in Area of Pulses in Indo -Gangetic Plains (IGP)
Low Genetic Yield Potential
low realized yield and instability in production
Climate change
poor seed replacement
Post-Harvest Losses
Wide Fluctuation in Prices
Poor Availability of critical Inputs in Productivity Zone
Poor Transfer of Technology
Strategies
Road map for enhanced productivity and production
• Bringing additional area under pulses
• Increasing productivity
Bringing Additional Area under Pulses (3.0 mha)
• Diversification of rice-wheat system in IGP through popularization of short duration pigeonpea, kabuli chickpea, fieldpea
and summer mungbean
• Utilization of rice- fallow through urdbean/ mungbean in coastal peninsular and lentil in NEPZ and Chhattisgarh
• Promotion of pulses under intercropping like mungbean/urdbean with spring sugarcane and chickpea with
mustard/linseed, pigeonpea with groundnut/soybean/millets, short duration and thermo-insensitive varieties of
mungbean and urdbean as summer season crops after harvest of wheat in Indo -Gangetic plains
• Development and popularization of urdbean/mungbean for late planting (mid Aug-early Sept in north India)
Improving Productivity and yield stability
• Development of new and efficient plant type
• Development of high yielding short duration having multiple and multi-racial resistance to diseases
• Gene pyramiding for stable resistance
• Exploitation of hybrid vigour in pigeonpea
• Utilization of gene pools from unexplored areas
• Exploitation of wild relatives for transfer of genes of interest
• Development of saturated linkage map for gene mining, gene cloning and gene mapping
• Development of transgenic against drought and gram pod borer
• Promoting short duration varieties in drought prone areas
• Development of input use efficient genotypes
• Popularization of improved crop management practices-major concern
• Efficient water management in rain-fed area
• Rainwater harvesting and recycling through farm ponds and community reservoirs
• Promoting micro irrigation system
• Adoption of moisture conservation practices
Development of resilient pulse crops to climatic adversities
• Development of resilient /smart pulse crops and technologies
• Critical monitoring of diseases and pest dynamics with reference to climate change
Production and Supply of Quality Seeds
• Active involvement of private sector, NGOs, and farmers help groups in production of quality seeds
• Mandatory target to Public Sector Seed Corporations
• Popularization of seed village concept with buyback system
• More incentive on production of seeds of new varieties
• Promotion of farmers to farmer's exchange of seeds
Reducing Post Harvest Losses
• Development and popularization of harvesters, threshers and graders
• Modernization of existing dal mills
• Establishment of processing units in the production zones
• Development and popularization of low cost safe storage structures
Ensuring Attractive Price to Producers
• Announcement of MSP well in advance
• Creation of procurement centres in production zone
• Popularization of mini dal mills among farmers at village level
• Development of organized market for pulses
• Linking farmers with markets/ trade
• Promotion of export of pulses like lentil and kabuli chickpea
• Production of value added products
Ensuring Timely Availability of Critical Inputs
• Advanced forewarning and forecasting system
• Promotion of IPM technologies against Helicoverpa
• Ensuring timely availability of bio-pesticides- HaNPV, Trichoderma & herbicides e.g. Pendimethalin
• Seed dressing with fungicides for controlling seed borne diseases
• Providing safe storage structures like Pusa Bins and Ware house facility
• Creation of production units of quality bio-fertilizers
and bio-pesticides
• Fortification of fertilizers with specific nutrients like S, Fe, Zn, B etc., in specific regions
• Popularization of sprinkler in rain-fed areas
• Establishment of single window input supply centres for cluster of villages
Efficient Transfer of Technology (FLDs)
• Farmers training and exposure visits
• Popularization of improved technologies through mass media
• Close interaction of research organizations, state departments of agriculture and private agencies
Way forward
*Breaking yield plateau and enhancing productivity
1. Harnessing potential of Biotechnology: Gene characterizatuion for yield determining
traits using biparental populations, MAGIC populations and association mapping and
development of functional markers for the genes. New tools of Bioinformatics and
statistical genetics should be used extensively as new genetic informatuion is
generated very fast.
2. Widening of genetic base/ gene pool: Prebreeding utilizing wild relatives of pulses
3. Hybrid technology: Development of hybrid with suitable level of heterosis
*Quality pulse: Quality data should be generated and Due consideration to
quality traits should be given at the time of identification of the varieties for release.

* Quality seed: Production of Quality seed utilizing effectively the chain
from breeder seeds to foundation and certified seeds.
Way Forward Continue
*Resource Management
• Increasing input use efficiency of nutrients and water and work out the
nutrients both micro and micro for different pulses and across
environments
• Increasing efficiency of symbiotic process for enhanced nitrogen fixation
by Rhizobia
• Pulses are largely grown in the rain-fed areas where P deficiency often
occurs. More work is required on microorganisms like phosphate
solubilizing bacteria/fungi and VAM which are capable of solubilizing
non-available P to available form and help in P uptake by pulse crops.
• Pest surveillance and forecasting methods need to be developed
encompassing GIS and remote sensing technologies for better
management of diseases pests
Way Forward Continue
*Social Sciences and Trade
•
•

•
•

•

Developing a data warehouse covering global, national, state and district-wide
information on area, production, productivity, prices, trade, and improved
varieties and resource management technologies.
To document various market outlooks (such as FAO, ACIAR, USDA, etc.) for
Pulses and develop a synthesis for government to take informed decision on
prices, procurement and trade and develop expertise on modelling pulses
outlook on a regular basis.
To document and analyze existing and innovative value chains for different
pulses and propose strategies for up-scaling and/or out-scaling best practices
to improve the value addition and marketing efficiencies.
To bridge the large gaps that exist between yields of different pulses at
research farm and the farmers’ field as well as at farms within the same area.
To study assessment of initially a few improved varieties and resource
management technologies and later this be part of regular strategy.

Production, processing, value addition and trade of pulses will be the
guiding factor for future of pulses in India.
Thanks

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IFPRI -tecnological innovation and their potential niches

  • 1. B. Mishra (Former Vice Chancellor,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, J&K and Former Director, Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal and Directorate of Rice research, Hyderabad) Email---- b9mishra@gmail.com
  • 2. Why Pulses ?  Pulses are rich in nutrients Important for ecological sustainability  Important for sustainability in crop production systems Important for nutritional security Reduction of malnutrition Pulses are poor man’s meat to meet their protein requirement and very important for people dependent of vegetarian diet
  • 3.
  • 4. Pulses Production Scenario Total Pulses Area India 34% Total Pulses Production India 25% Others 66% World: 76.00 m ha India : 26.20 m ha Others 75% World: 67.71 m t India : 17.11 m t
  • 5. Share of Different States in Pulse Production (2011-12) 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% Madhya Pradesh 0% 3% Rajasthan 21% Maharashtra 4% Uttar Pradesh Karnataka 8% Andhra Pradesh 18% 10% Gujarat Chhattisgarh 10% 13% Orissa Tamil Nadu Bihar Jharkhand Others
  • 6. Area, Production and Productivity trends of pulses over last five decades 30 800 700 Area and Production 600 20 500 400 15 300 10 200 5 100 Area (mha) Production (mt) Productivity (kg/ha) Productivity (Kg/ha) 25
  • 7. Area, production, yield of major pulses and their share in total production in India 2011-12 Crops Area (mha) 2012-13 Production Productivit % share of (mt) y (kg/ha) total production 7.58 912 44.35 Chickpea 8.32 Pigeonpea 4.04 2.65 656 Mungbean 3.43 1.71 Urdbean 3.30 Lentil Total Pulses Area (mha) Production (mt) Producti % share of vity total (kg/ha) production 48.13 1020 8.7 8.88 15.51 3.8 3.07 806 16.64 498 10.01 2.75 1.2 436 6.50 1.83 555 10.71 3.19 1.9 595 10.30 1.60 0.95 594 5.56 1.41 1.08 765 5.85 24.46 17.09 699 - 23.47 18.45 786
  • 8. Global Status of Pulses Production 2010 (2009-10) Area (m. ha) Production (m.ton) Yield (Kg/ha) Beans (Dry) 29.88 23.23 777 Chickpea 11.99 10.94 913 Cowpeas (Dry) 10.56 5.57 527 Peas (Dry) 6.31 10.20 1616 Pigeonpea 4.75 3.68 774 Lentil 4.18 4.64 1110 Others 8.33 9.45 1134 76.00 67.71 891 Crops Total
  • 9. Global Status of Major Pulses Producing Countries 2010 (2009-10) Countries India Myanmar Brazil China Canada Australia USA Others Total Area (m. ha) Production (m.ton) Yield (Kg/ha) 26.20 17.11 654 3.80 3.50 2.80 2.90 1.75 1.40 33.65 76.00 4.40 3.23 4.51 5.20 1.90 2.63 28.73 67.71 1161 921 1605 1814 1089 1856 854 891
  • 10.
  • 11. Shift in pulse growing states in India Area (Million hectares) 20.00 14.50 15.00 13.60 14.47 15.01 11.34 10.00 10.83 9.24 8.16 8.41 7.21 5.00 0.00 1971-75 1981-85 North India (mha) 1991-95 2001-05 Central and South India (mha) 2006-10
  • 12. Varieties developed under different pulses in India
  • 13. Trend of breeder seed production (2008-12) in major rabi pulses in India
  • 14. Trend of breeder seed production (200812) in major kharif pulses in India
  • 15. All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP)-Centre
  • 16. State –wise area, production and productivity of Chickpea in India during 2010-11 Area (M tons) Production (M tons) Productivit y (Kg/ha) Madhya Pradesh 3.11 (33.84) 2.69 (32.73) 865 Rajasthan 1.78 (19.37) 1.60 (19.46) 899 Maharashtra 1.44 (15.67) 1.30 ( 15.82) 903 Uttar Pradesh 0.57 (6.20) 0.53 (6.45) 930 Andhra Pradesh 0.58 (6.31) 0.72 (8.76) 1241 Karnataka 0.96 (10.45) 0.63 (7.66) 656 Gujarat 0.18 (1.96) 0.20 (2.43) 1111 Chhattisgarh 0.25 (2.72) 0.24 (2.92) 960 Haryana 0.11 (1.20) 0.11 (1.34) 1000 Bihar 0.05 (0.54) 0.06 (0.73) 1200 Odisha 0.04 (0.44) 0.03 (0.36) 750 West Bengal 0.02 (0.22) 0.02 ( 0.24) 1000 Others 0.10 ( 1.09) 0.09 (1.09) - S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. State 9.19 (100.00) 8.22 (100.00) 895 India Figure in parentheses is the percentage of total Source: Directorate of economics and Statistics, Dept. of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, 2012.
  • 17. Area, Production and Productivity Trends of Chickpea Over Last Six Decades
  • 18. Chickpea  The third important grain legume in the world after dry beans and dry peas.  Cultivated mainly in India, Pakistan, Turkey, Canada, Mexico, Iran, Australia, Tanzania, Ethopia, Myan mar, Syria, Bangladesh and Spain.  Asia contributed about 90% of the global area and production.  Globally, chickpea is cultivated on about 13.20 million ha with production of 11.62 million tons and productivity of 880 Kg/ha.  India stands first in terms of area (68%) and production (70%). It is grown in 9.21million ha producing 8.88 million tons of grain with productivity of 995 kg/ha which is less than Mexico (1536 Kg/ha), Canada (1340 kg/ha) and Turkey (1046 kg/ha). Chickpea occupies 36% national pulse average with 48% production.
  • 19.  India is the largest consumer as well as importer of chickpea in the world.  M.P. , Maharashtra, Rajasthan, U.P., A.P., Karnataka, and Gujarat are the major chickpea productivity states sharing over 80% of the area.  A.P. registered the highest productivity (1448 kg/ha) followed by Bihar (984 kg/ha), Gujarat (977 kg/ha), M.P (850 Kg/ha), Maharashtra (825 kg/ha), U.P. 745 kg/ha), Karnataka (607 kg/ha) and Rajasthan (466 kg/ha).  Development of short duration varieties like ICCV 2, JG 74, Vijay, JG 11, JG 16, JAKI 9218 and KAK 2 were the major catalyst for the expansion chickpea area in southern and central India. In spite of reduction of duration the yield remained unaffected.  A salt tolerant variety CSG 8962 ( Karnal Chana 1) has been developed for cultivation in moderate salinity stress soil (irrigated areas).  Drought tolerant varieties (ICCV 10, Phule G 5, RSG 888, Vijay etc, have been evolved).
  • 20.  Many high yielding kabuli varieties such as KAK 2, BG 1003, BG 1053, Phule G 95311, IPCK 2002-29 etc , have been developed.  During the last 5 years breeder seed production has been doubled ( 5512.16 in the year 2005-06 to 11717.90 in the year 2010-11) as chickpea area increased from 6.93 mha ( 2005-06) to 9.21mha (2010-11). The seed replacement rate increased to 25% from 5%.  Efficient cropping systems, fertilizer management including Zn, B, Mo, Fe, Rhyzobium inoculation ,herbicides application etc. for different parts the country have been developed.  Good work has been accomplished on crop protection for insects, nematodes and diseases as well as host plant resistance.
  • 21. State Wise Promising Varieties of Chickpea State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Varieties JG 11, KAK 2, JAKI 9218, MNK-1, ICCV 37 Gujarat Gram 4, Pant G 186, HK 05-169, Pusa 372 Digvijay, JG 6, JAKI 9218, JG 14, JG 63, IPCK 2002-29, Vaibhav JG 16. Gujarat Gram 1, Gujarat Junagadh Gram 3, JSC 55 (Raj Vijay Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203) Haryana Chana-3, Haryana Chana-5, HK-1 KPG 59, BG 1003, Pant G 114, KWR 108, Pusa 372, HK 05-169 Karnataka Madhya Pradesh ICCV 37, JAKI 9218, JG 11, MNK-1, Phule G 0517 JG 130, JG 322, JG 63, JG 16, JG 14, JAKI 9218, JGK 2, JG 315, JGK-1, Vijay, JSC 55 (Raj Vijay Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203), Raj Vijay Kabuli 101, Raj Vijay 201, Phule G 0517, PKV Kabuli 4 Maharashtra Vijay, Digvijay, JAKI 9218, Vishal, Virat, KAK 2, Phule G 0517, JSC 55 (Raj Vijay Gram 202), JSC 56 (Raj Vijay Gram 203), PKV Kabuli 4
  • 22. cont’d. State Wise Promising Varieties of Chickpea State Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Varieties GPF 2, L 551 GNG 1581, RSG 888, Pratap Chana-1, GNG 1488, GNG 1499, GNG 663, GNG 469, RSG 973, RSG 963, CSJD 884 JG 11, Co4 Uttar Pradesh KPG 59, KGD 1168, KWR 108, HK 05-169, Pusa 372 Uttarakhand Pant G 186, Pant G 114, DCP 92-3, Pant Kabuli 1 West Bengal Anuradha, Mahamaya-1, Mahamaya-2
  • 23. Chickpea breeder seed production trends 92 12000 90 10000 88 8000 86 6000 84 4000 82 2000 80 0 78 2007-08 2008-09 varieties 2009-10 2010-11 Production (qt) 2011-12 No. of Varieties Production against DAC indent 14000
  • 26. Pigeonpea in India Area (m. ha) Production (m.ton) Yield (Kg/ha) 2005-06 3.58 2.74 765 2006-07 3.56 2.31 650 2007-08 3.73 3.08 826 2008-09 3.38 2.27 671 2009-10 3.53 2.46 697 2010-11 4.42 2.89 655 2012-13 3.8 3.07 806 Year
  • 27. Issues for increasing production of Pigeonpea 1. Population management 2. Provision of life saving irrigation 3. Management of pod borer and pod fly 4. Promotion of pigeonpea in inter cropping system 5. Promotion of pigeonpea in non-traditional areas like hills, backyards, bunds of wet land etc.
  • 28. Popular Pigeonpea Varieties Yield potentiality (q/ha) Area of adaptation UPAS 120 11-15 NWPZ & NEPZ Pusa 992 14-18 NWPZ Manak 18-20 NWPZ AL 201 15-16 Punjab Paras 15-20 Haryana Durga 10-12 A.P. CORG 9701 11-12 Tamil Nadu Variety Early duration
  • 29. Popular Pigeonpea Varieties Yield potentiality (q/ha) Medium duration Variety Area of adaptation MA 3 20-22 CZ Asha 16-18 CZ & SZ Jawahar 18-20 CZ LRG 30 17-19 SZ LRG 41 17-19 SZ BDN 2 10-12 Maharashtra Maruti 10-12 Karnataka & A.P. Abhaya 18-20 A.P. BSMR 736 12-14 Maharashtra CO 6 17-19 Tamil Nadu
  • 30. Popular Pigeonpea Varieties Yield potentiality (q/ha) Area of adaptation Bahar 20-25 NEPZ MAL 13 22-24 NEPZ Pusa 9 22-26 NEPZ MA 6 20-25 NEPZ Amar 16-20 U.P. NDA 1 20-22 U.P. Variety Long duration
  • 31. Disease Resistant Varieties of Pigeonpea Wilt : Maruthi, Asha, BDN 2, BSMR 736, MA 6 SMD : Bahar, BSMR 736, Asha, Sharad, Pusa 9 Wilt and : SMD Asha, BSMR 736, BSMR 853
  • 32. Area, Production and Productivity Trends of Pigeonpea Over Last Five Decades
  • 33. Status of hybrid pigeonpea in India work on development In India systematic research of pigeonpea got momentum in the year 1988- hybrids in 89 on wards. In 1988-89 ICAR, launched an ad-hoc project on development of genetic male sterility based pigeonpea hybrid. This resulted in development and release of six GMS`based hybrids. Hybrid Year of development Source Institution ICPH 8 1991 ICRISAT, Hyderabad PPH 4 1994 PAU, Ludhiana COPH 1 1994 TNAU, Coimbatore COPH 2 1997 TNAU, Coimbatore AKPH 410 1997 PDKV, Akola AKPH 2022 1998 PDKV, Akola
  • 34. Areas of Biotechnological Research in Pigeonpea • Development of genetic resources - Mapping populations/Core sets/Mini-core sets • Development of genomic resources - High density linkage maps/Genomic libraries/ Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) lbraries • Application of genomic tools for breeding - Identification of markers associated with disease/pest resistance, root traits and nutrient use efficiency - Identification of candidate genes and allele mining - Pyramiding of genes into elite varieties • Development of transgenics for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses
  • 36. Major researchable issues      Insect pests: defoliators, hairy caterpillars, semilooper, thrips Diseases: MYMV, Leaf crinkle, CLS, PM Limited number of HYVs Population management Development of suitable varieties for rice fallow areas
  • 37. Popular Greengram Varieties Variety Yield potentiality Area of (q/ha) adaptation PDM 11 8-10 CZ PDM 54 8-10 NEPZ PDM 139 (Samrat) 10-12 UP IPM 99-125 (Meha) 12-15 NEPZ IPM 02-3 (Diksha) 12-14 NEPZ, SZ IPM 02-14 (Shreya) 12-14 UP state , SZ Pant Mung 2 10-12 NEPZ, NWPZ Contd........
  • 38. Greengram varieties suitable for specific situation Specific Situations Varieties Short duration varieties for spring/summer Resistant to PM for rabi season IPM 02-3, Meha, Samrat, TMB 37, HUM 16, HUM 1, Pusa Vishal, OUM 11-5, Pant M 5, SML 668 TARM 18, TM 96-2, Vamban 2, Vamban 4, TARM 2, TARM 1 MYMV resistant Pant M 4, Pant M 6, KM 2241, Sattya, NDM 1, HUM 1, Ganga 8, Samrat, Meha HUM 12, IPM 02-3 Pant M 5, Pusa Vishal, SML 668, HUM 16, TMB 37, IPM 02-3 Large Seeded (5 g/100 seeds)
  • 39. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons State Andhra Pradesh Assam Growing season Kharif Rabi Kharif Spring/ Summer Kharif Bihar & Jharkhand Spring/ Summer Varieties PKV AKM 4, IPM 02-14, COGG 912, OUM 11-5, Warangal-2, LGG 407, LGG 450, Madhira 295 Pusa 9072, LGG 460, TM 96-2, WGG-2 SG 1 (Pratap), Pant moong 2, Pant Moong 4, Narendra moong 1, IPM 2-3 PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16, HUM 12 Pant moong 2, Pant Moong 4, Narendra moong 1, Sunaina, PDM139,MH2-15, HUM-1, IPM 2-3 PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16, HUM 12
  • 40. cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons State Delhi Growing season Kharif Kharif Gujarat Spring/summer Kharif Haryana Spring/Summer Himachal Pradesh & J&K Karnataka Kharif Kharif Varieties IPM 2-3, , Pant Moong 3, ML 337, MUM 2, Ganga 8, MH 02-15 PKV AKM 4, BM 4, Gujarat Moong 3, Pant moong 2, PIMS 4 (Sabarmati), GujratMoong 2, GujratMoong 4 Gujarat moong 2, PDM 139 MUM 2, Pusa Vishal, Ganga 8, MH 2-15, IPM 2-3, Muskan Pusa Vishal, SML 668, Pant Mung-5 Pant Moong 2, Pant Moong 6, KM 2241, Shalimar moong 1, Pusa 0672 IPM 02-14, PKV AKM 4, COGG 912, HUM 1, China Moong, KKM 3
  • 41. cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons State Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh Growing season Kharif Spring/Summer Kharif Maharashtra Kharif Orissa Rabi Kharif Varieties Pant Moong 3, ML 337, BM 4, JM 721, Jawahar 45, HUM-1, Meha, TJM 3 HUM 1, Pusa 9531, PDM 139, Meha PKV AKM 4, Kopergaon, ML 131, BM 4, Phule M 2, TARM 1, TARM 18, TARM 2, BM 200-1, HUM 1 OUM 11-5, COGG 912, PKV AKM 4, TARM 1, PDM 139 Pusa 9072, Sujata (Hyb 24), TARM-1, OBGG-52, LGG460, PDM 139 MUM 2, ML 613, Ganga 8, MH 2-15, IPM 2-3 Punjab Spring/Summer Pusha Vishal, Pant moong 2, SML 668, Pant Mung-5
  • 42. cont’d. Recommended Varieties of Mungbean for Different States and Seasons State Growing season Kharif Rajasthan Spring/Summer Uttar Pradesh & Uttaranchal Kharif Spring/Summer Tamil Nadu Kharif Rabi West Bengal Kharif Spring/Summer Varieties Ganga 8, RMG 268, MUM 2, SML 668, RM 492, IPM 2-3, MH 2-15 RMG 268, SML 668, PDM-139, Meha Pant Moong 2, Pant Moong 3, Narendra Moong 1, Pant Moong 4, Pant Moong 5. PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16, HUM 12 Paiyur 1, Vamban 1, ADT 3, CO 5, TM 96-2, COGG 912, OUM 11-5 Pusa 9072, Sujata (Hyb 12-4), ADT3, Narendra Moong 1, Pant Moong 4, Pant Moong 5, MH 2-15, Srekumar PDM 139, Pusha Vishal, Meha, Pant moong 5, TMB 37, HUM-16
  • 43. Breeder Seed production trends of mungbean 63 1200 62 1000 61 800 60 600 59 400 58 200 57 0 56 2008-09 2009-10 Indent 2010-11 Production(qt) 2011-12 2012-13 Varieties No. of Varieties DAC Indents and production (Q) 1400
  • 44. Popular Blackgram Varieties PDU1 (Basant Bahar) Yield potentiality (q/ha) 9-10 NWPZ IPU 94-1 (Uttara) 12-14 NWPZ, NEPZ IPU 2-43 WBU 108 10-11 10-12 SZ NWPZ, NEPZ, SZ Narendra Urd 1 10-12 UP Pant U 19 Pant U 30 12-15 12-15 NEPZ CZ, SZ Variety Area of adaptation Contd........
  • 45. Pant U 40 Yield potentiality (q/ha) 10-12 West UP, UK KU 92-2 (Azad Urd 1) 10-11 NEPZ KU 300 (Shekhar 2) 10-12 NWPZ WBU 109 (Sujata) 10-12 NEPZ Pant U 35 10-12 UP KU 91 (Azad urd 2) 8-9 UP Variety Area of adaptation
  • 46. Blackgram varieties suitable for specific situation Specific Situations Varieties Short duration varieties for spring/summer Resistant to Powdery mildew WBU 109, Azad Urd 1, KU 300, Pant Urd 31, PDU 1, KU 92-1 LBG 625, LBG 685, LBG 623, LBG 20, WBG 26, LBG 709, LBG 645, VBN 4, Resistant for MYMV WBU 108, Pant U 30, Pant U 31, Pant U 40, Azad U 1, Azad U 2, Sekhar 2, Sekhar 3, IPU 02-43, Uttara, NDU 1, KU 96-3, Mash 1008, WBU 109 Resistant to MYMV IPU 02-43, LBG 625, LBG 685 and PM
  • 47. Recommended varieties of urdbean for different states and seasons State Andhra Pradesh Growing season Kharif Rabi Varieties WBG 26, KU 301 (Shekhar -1),WBU 108, LBG 648, Pant U 31, IPU 2-43, LBG 685, LBG 625, LBG 752, IPU 07-3, VBG 04-008, LU 391 TU 94-2, LBG 611, LBG 20, LBG 402, LBG 623, LBG-709, WBG-26, Assam Kharif Pant U 30, WBU 108, IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108 Bihar & Jharkhand Kharif IPU 94-1 (Uttara), BirsaUrd 1, Pant U 30, Pant U 31, WBU 108 Spring KU 92-1 (Azad Urd 1), WBU-109, Pant U 31 Gujarat Kharif KU 96-3, TPU 4, AKU 4, WBU 108, GU 1
  • 48. cont’d. Recommended varieties of urdbean for different states and seasons State Growing season Varieties Haryana Kharif Mash 338, Pant U 19, KU 300 (Shekhar 2), WBU 108, IPU 94-1 (Uttara) Himachal Pradesh Kharif Pant U 19, Pant U 31, Pant U 40 Karnataka Kharif KU 301, WBG 26, WBU 108, LBG 402, LBG Manikya, 1, TU 94-2, LU 391, IPU 07-3, VBG 04-008, IPU 2-43 Madhya Pradesh & Chattisgarh Kharif KU 96-3, TPU 4, JawaharUrd 2, JawaharUrd 3, Khargone 3, Pant U 30 Pant U 31 Spring Maharashtra Kharif TPU 4, Pant U 30, TAU 1, TAU 2, AKU 4 (Melghat), AKU 15, KU 96-3
  • 49. cont’d. Recommended varieties of urdbean for different states and seasons State Growing season Varieties Odisha Kharif Spring KU 301, WBG 26, WBU 108, Sarla, IPU 2-43 TU 94-2, LBG 402, OBG 17, B-3-8-8, Mash 338 Punjab Kharif Spring IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Krishna, Mash 414 KU 300 (Shekhar – 2), KUG 479 Rajasthan Kharif IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Pant U 31, KU 300 Spring KU 300, KUG 479 Kharif IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Narendra Urd 1, Pant U 35, Pant U 31, Pant U 40 KU 92-2 (Azad Urd 1), KU 300 (Shekhar 2), Narendra Urd 1, WBU 109, KUG 479 Uttar Pradesh &Uttrakhand Spring Tamil Nadu Kharif Rice-fallow West Bengal Kharif Spring ADT 3, ADT 5, Vamban 2, WBU-108, KU 301 (Shekhar 1), Vamban-3, ADT 4,Vamban-4, ADT 5, IPU 07-3, IPU 2-43, VBG 04-008 WBG-26, Vamban-3, TU 94-2, VBN-5, IPU 2-43. KBU 512, Vamban 2 IPU 94-1 (Uttara), WBU 108, Pant U 31 KU 92-1 (Azad urd 1), WBU 109, Pant U 31
  • 50. Breeder seed production trends of urdbean 45 800 40 700 35 600 30 500 25 400 20 300 15 200 10 100 5 0 0 2008-09 2009-10 Indent 2010-11 Production(qt) 2011-12 2012-13 Varieties No. of Varieties 50 900 DAC Indents and production (Q) 1000
  • 51. State wise promising varieties of Lentil and fieldpea State Varieties Uttar Pradesh HUL 57, DPL 62 (Sheri), IPL 81 (Noori), Narendra Masoor 1, IPL 406, Bihar HUL 57, WBL 77, Arun (PL 77-12) Madhya Pradesh Haryana IPL 81 (Noori), JL 3, IPL 406 DPL 62 (Sheri), IPL 406 Punjab DPL 62 (Sheri), Pant L 4, LH 84-8, LL 147 Delhi Gujarat DPL 62 (Sheri), LH 84-8 IPL 81, JL 3 Himachal Pradesh J&K HUL 57, VL 507 HUL 57, VL 507, Shalimar Masoor 1 West Bengal HUL 57, WBL 77 KLS 218, Ranjan (B 256), Asha (B 77), , NEH Region HUL 57, DPL 62 Maharashtra Assam Orissa Rajasthan IPL 81 (Noori), JL 3 HUL 57, WBL 77, KLS 218, Asha (B 77) HUL 57, WBL 77, B 77 (Asha) IPL 406, DPL 62
  • 52. State wise promising varieties of Lentil and fieldpea State Varieties Fieldpea Uttar Pradesh KPMR 400, Prakash,Vikas, HUDP 15, Adarsh, Bihar West Bengal HUDP 15, DDR 23, VL 42, DantiwadaFieldpea 1 HUDP 15, VL 42, DantiwadaFieldpea 1 Delhi KPMR 522, Aman, DDR 27, Hariyal, Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh KPMR 400, Prakash, Vikas, Adarsh, Ambika, Prakash, VL Matar 3, HFP 9426, VL 45 Punjab Haryana KPMR 522, Aman,DDR 27, HFP 529 KPMR 522, Hariyal, ,DDR 27, HFP 9426, HFP 529 Rajasthan KPMR 522, Aman, Hariyal, DMR 7, DDR 27, HFP 529 Madhya Pradesh KPMR 400, Prakash, Vikas, Adarsh, Ambika Jammu & Kashmir Assam HUDP 15, Prakash, IPFD 1-10 Malviya Matar 15, IPFD 1-10
  • 53. State wise promising varieties of Arid Legumes States/Crop Varieties Guar Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Haryana Early maturing varieties like RGM-112,RGC-936,HG-563 and HG365are getting popular in Rayalseemaregion of A.P. GG-1 , GG-2 HG-365 , HG-563 ,HG-870 , HG-884 ,HG-867 , HG-2-20 Madhya Pradesh HG-563 , HG-365 Maharashtra (Marathwada HG-563 , HG-365 , RGC-936 early types are sought after in and Vidarbha) nontraditional areas of Yavatmal and Parbhani Punjab AG-112 and early varieties from Haryana state Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh RGC-1033,RGC-1066, RGC-1055 , RGC-1038 , RGC-1031 , RGC1017 , RGC-1003 , RGC-1002 , RGM-112 , RGC-986 ,RGC-936 ,RGC197 , HG-563 , HG-365 and early varieties Mothbean Gujarat GMO-1 ,GMO-2 Haryana Maharashtra Rajasthan Early var of Raj Early maturing var from Rajasthan RMO-257 , RMO-435 , RMO-2004 (RMB-25) , RMO-225 , RMO-40, CZM-1, CZM-2, CZM-3
  • 54. cont’d. State wise promising varieties of Arid Legumes States/Crop Varieties Cowpea Gujarat GC-2 , GC-3 , GC-4 , GC-5 Karnataka KBC-2.DCS-47-1,Vamban-1 Kerala Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Subra , Hridya, Kankamony, Krishnamony VCM-8 RC-101 , RC-19 Co (CP)-7 ,Vamban-1 Uttarakhand Horse gram Pant-lobia-1 , Pant lobia -2 , Pant lobia-3 A.P Gujarat Karnataka Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttarakhand Maharashtra CRIDA R1-18, CRHG-19 , PHG-9,Palem-1 , Palem-2 GHG-5 ( Dantiwada Gujarat Horse gram-1) PHG-9 ,BJPL-1,BGM-1 AK-21 , AK-42 , AK-53 CRHG-19 VLG-8 , VLG-10 , VLG-15 , VLG-19 D 40-1
  • 55. Area under prevalent cropping systems and their contribution to the national food basket Cropping system Area (m ha) Contribution (%) Rice-wheat 9.77 25 Rice-rice 2.12 5 Cotton-wheat 1.39 2.36 Pearl millet-sorghum 1.35 1.68 Maize-wheat 1.29 2.25 Pearl millet-wheat 1.03 1.72 Sorghum-sorghum 0.74 1.65 Rice-chickpea 0.59 0.8 Sugarcane-wheat 0.54 0.86 Maize-chickpea 0.54 0.65 Source :Yadav (1996)
  • 56. Predominant cropping systems Cropping systems Area ( m. ha) Rice-wheat 9.85 Rice-rice 5.89 Pearlmillet-wheat 2.26 Soybean-wheat 2.23 Maize-wheat 1.86 Rice-vegetables 1.24 Cotton-wheat 1.09 Rice-groundnut 1.02 Sugarcane-wheat 0.97 Rice-fallow 4.42 Source : Yadav and Rao (2001)
  • 57. Nitrogen economy due to inclusion of pulses in prevalent cropping systems Preceding legume Following cereal Chickpea Pigeonpea Lentil Peas Green gram Lathyrus Cowpea Pigeonpea Chickpea Rajmash Fodder cowpea Mungbean Fertilizer Nequivalent (kg n /ha) Maize 60-70 Pearl millet Wheat Maize Pearl millet Pearl millet Maize Pearl millet Maize Pearl millet Maize Pearl millet Rice Wheat Sorghum Rice Rice Rice Rice 40 40 20-49 30 40 18-30 40 20-32 30 36-48 60 40 13 51 40 40 40 40 References Subbarao (1988); Lee and Wani (1989) Ali (1948-87)
  • 58. Possible new niches for pulses Cropping system Pigeonpea-wheat Maize-rabi pigeonpea Possible niches Haryana, Punjab, North-west, U.P, and North Rajasthan Central and Eastern U.P, North Bihar, West Bengal, Assam MaizePunjab, potato/mustard+mungbea Haryana and n/urdbean west U.P. Spring sugarcane+mungbean / urdbean Source : Ali (2004) East U.P., Bihar, west Bengal Expected area Suitable varieties of pulse crops 1 UPAS 120, Manak, Pusa, 33, AL 15, AL 201 0.3 Pusa 9, Sharad 1 Mungbean: Pant Mung 2, PDM 11, HUM 2, SML 668, Pusa Vishal Urdbean: PDU 1, Narendra Urd 1, Uttara 0.15 Mungbean: Pant Mung 2, PDM 11, Narendra mung 1, Urdbean: PDU 1, Pant U, 19 TARM 1, Pusa 9072
  • 59. Possible new niches for pulses Cropping system Possible niches Expected area Suitable varieties of pulse crops Rice-mungbean Orissa, parts of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, A.P. 0.35 TARM 1, Pusa 9072 Rice-urdbean Coastal areas of A.P. , Karnataka, Tamil Nadu 0.35 LBG 17, LBG 402 Rice-wheat-mungbean Western U.P., Haryana, Punjab 0.1 Pant Mung 2, Narendra, Mung 1, PDM 139, HUM 2 Maize-rajmashmungbean Central and Eastern U.P., North Bihar 0.07 Mungbean: Pant Mung 2, PDM 11, HUM 2 Rajmash: HUR 137, HUR 15,PDR 14, Amber Rajmash + Potato Eastern and Central U.P. 0.03 Source : Ali (2004) PDR 14, Amber
  • 60. Effective IPM against major pests Pulses being rich in protein suffer heavy losses due to insect pests and diseases (25-40%) • Gram pod borer (Pigeonpea and chickpea) Popularization of bio-intensive IPM modules (intercrops, NPV, NSKE, birdperches, etc.) • Fusarium wilt (chickpea, lentil, pigeonpea) Integrated management of wilt ( HPR, intercrops, seed dressing with fungiside, trichoderma) • Weeds (All pulses) Integrated weed management (tillage practices, intercrops, preemergence use of pendimethalin) Containing the menace of blue bull
  • 61. Crop-specific strategies • Popularization of zero till and raised bed planting for chickpea and lentil after rice in northern plains. • Ridge furrow planting of pigeonpea in north east plains • Foliar sprayof 2% urea at flowering/pod formation stage in rabipulses in rainfed areas of central and south India • Popularization of bio-intensive IPM against pod borer in chickpea and pigeonpea
  • 62. • Development and popularization of region specific varieties - Extra large seeded kabuli varieties for north and central india - Short duration pigeonpea varieties ( 130+ 10 days ) with 2 tons yield per ha for sequential cropping with wheat in north India and 160-170 days varieties with combined resistance to wilt and SMD in central and south zones - Short duration varieties of urdbean and mungbean for spring/summeras catch crop - Urdbean and mungbean varieties with combined resistance to PM and YMV for rabi planting in coastal peninsula - Short duration varieties of lentil and fieldpea with resistance to rust and PM
  • 63. Nutritive value of major pulses grown in India Source: NIN, Hyderabad, ICMR Pulses Protein (%) Fat (%) Carbohydr Minerals ates (%) (%) Fibre (%) Energy Kcal Red Gram 22.3 1.7 57.6 3.5 3.5 335 Chickpea 17.1 5.3 60.9 3.0 3.9 360 Green gram 24.0 1.3 56.7 3.5 4.1 334 Black gram 23.9 1.4 59.6 3.2 3.1 347 Lentil 25.1 0.7 59.0 2.1 0.7 343 Peas 19.7 1.1 56.5 2.2 4.5 315 Month bean 23.6 1.1 56.4 3.5 4.5 330 Field bean 24.9 0.8 60.1 3.2 1.4 347 Cowpea 24.0 1.0 54.5 3.2 3.8 323
  • 64. Protein range of different pulses
  • 66. Amino acid content (mg/ 100 g)
  • 68. Consumption Pattern of pulses in India
  • 69. Reducing Post-harvest Losses • Modernization of conventional dal mills • Safe storage Total number of conventional dal mills ( large and medium) Number of modern dal mills Average dal recovery from conventional dal mills Average dal recovery from modern dal mills Expected increase in dal recovery due to modernization Safe storage : 5500 : 103 : 72% : 83% : 0.90 mt : 0.25 mt
  • 70. Generic issues • Quality seeds • Balanced plant – Nutrition • Water management • Resource conservation (including energy) • Biotic and abiotic stresses • Farm produce and product diversification • Post-harvest management • Marketing and Trade
  • 71. SWOT Analysis Strength • • • • • • • • • Largest research network with multidisciplinary team. Wide adoptability across the agro-ecological zones and regions. Diversified use for consumption. Short duration with high productivity/day (early mungbean, urdbean and pigeonpea). Fixing atmospheric nitrogen and enhanced soil fertility. Befitting early maturing mung and urd crop duration between two non – pulse crops. Widening of genetic variability. Crossability among wild and cultivated Vigna species. Good research base/infrastructure. Weaknesses • • • • • • • • • • Poor plant type Narrow variability Non-synchronous maturity in many pulses. Pre-harvest sprouting of grains in kharif season in case of mungbean and urdbean. Prevalent of more diseases during kharif season. Non-availability of improved seeds and low seed replacement rate. Market and Trade Limited varieties for spring and summer cultivation (mungbean and urdbean). Photo thermo sensitivity and post – harvest losses during storage. Poor research on quality, nutrition and value addition.
  • 72. Opportunity • • • • • • Horizontal expansion to new niches (rice-fallows in coastal regions of Orissa, AP, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). Diversification in rice- wheat system through short duration mungbean and bean varieties and intercropping in sugarcane pigeonpea and cereals. Development of suitable plant type (synchronous maturity) for intercropping. Development of resistant mungbean and urdbean varieties against powdery mildew to stabilize the production and productivity in winter season (rice- fallows). Popularization of Hybrid Pigeonpea. Molecular breeding – products awaited. Threat • • • • Erratic weather viz. temperature extremes, heavy rains and drought. New emerging pests such as thrips, jassids, leaf crinkle, leaf curl, pod borer etc. Narrow genetic base of released varieties. Future target fixed for cereals--negative impact on pulses.
  • 73. Issues • • • • • • • • • Reasons for decline in Area of Pulses in Indo -Gangetic Plains (IGP) Low Genetic Yield Potential low realized yield and instability in production Climate change poor seed replacement Post-Harvest Losses Wide Fluctuation in Prices Poor Availability of critical Inputs in Productivity Zone Poor Transfer of Technology
  • 74. Strategies Road map for enhanced productivity and production • Bringing additional area under pulses • Increasing productivity Bringing Additional Area under Pulses (3.0 mha) • Diversification of rice-wheat system in IGP through popularization of short duration pigeonpea, kabuli chickpea, fieldpea and summer mungbean • Utilization of rice- fallow through urdbean/ mungbean in coastal peninsular and lentil in NEPZ and Chhattisgarh • Promotion of pulses under intercropping like mungbean/urdbean with spring sugarcane and chickpea with mustard/linseed, pigeonpea with groundnut/soybean/millets, short duration and thermo-insensitive varieties of mungbean and urdbean as summer season crops after harvest of wheat in Indo -Gangetic plains • Development and popularization of urdbean/mungbean for late planting (mid Aug-early Sept in north India)
  • 75. Improving Productivity and yield stability • Development of new and efficient plant type • Development of high yielding short duration having multiple and multi-racial resistance to diseases • Gene pyramiding for stable resistance • Exploitation of hybrid vigour in pigeonpea • Utilization of gene pools from unexplored areas • Exploitation of wild relatives for transfer of genes of interest • Development of saturated linkage map for gene mining, gene cloning and gene mapping • Development of transgenic against drought and gram pod borer • Promoting short duration varieties in drought prone areas • Development of input use efficient genotypes • Popularization of improved crop management practices-major concern • Efficient water management in rain-fed area • Rainwater harvesting and recycling through farm ponds and community reservoirs • Promoting micro irrigation system • Adoption of moisture conservation practices Development of resilient pulse crops to climatic adversities • Development of resilient /smart pulse crops and technologies • Critical monitoring of diseases and pest dynamics with reference to climate change
  • 76. Production and Supply of Quality Seeds • Active involvement of private sector, NGOs, and farmers help groups in production of quality seeds • Mandatory target to Public Sector Seed Corporations • Popularization of seed village concept with buyback system • More incentive on production of seeds of new varieties • Promotion of farmers to farmer's exchange of seeds Reducing Post Harvest Losses • Development and popularization of harvesters, threshers and graders • Modernization of existing dal mills • Establishment of processing units in the production zones • Development and popularization of low cost safe storage structures Ensuring Attractive Price to Producers • Announcement of MSP well in advance • Creation of procurement centres in production zone • Popularization of mini dal mills among farmers at village level • Development of organized market for pulses • Linking farmers with markets/ trade • Promotion of export of pulses like lentil and kabuli chickpea • Production of value added products
  • 77. Ensuring Timely Availability of Critical Inputs • Advanced forewarning and forecasting system • Promotion of IPM technologies against Helicoverpa • Ensuring timely availability of bio-pesticides- HaNPV, Trichoderma & herbicides e.g. Pendimethalin • Seed dressing with fungicides for controlling seed borne diseases • Providing safe storage structures like Pusa Bins and Ware house facility • Creation of production units of quality bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides • Fortification of fertilizers with specific nutrients like S, Fe, Zn, B etc., in specific regions • Popularization of sprinkler in rain-fed areas • Establishment of single window input supply centres for cluster of villages Efficient Transfer of Technology (FLDs) • Farmers training and exposure visits • Popularization of improved technologies through mass media • Close interaction of research organizations, state departments of agriculture and private agencies
  • 78. Way forward *Breaking yield plateau and enhancing productivity 1. Harnessing potential of Biotechnology: Gene characterizatuion for yield determining traits using biparental populations, MAGIC populations and association mapping and development of functional markers for the genes. New tools of Bioinformatics and statistical genetics should be used extensively as new genetic informatuion is generated very fast. 2. Widening of genetic base/ gene pool: Prebreeding utilizing wild relatives of pulses 3. Hybrid technology: Development of hybrid with suitable level of heterosis *Quality pulse: Quality data should be generated and Due consideration to quality traits should be given at the time of identification of the varieties for release. * Quality seed: Production of Quality seed utilizing effectively the chain from breeder seeds to foundation and certified seeds.
  • 79. Way Forward Continue *Resource Management • Increasing input use efficiency of nutrients and water and work out the nutrients both micro and micro for different pulses and across environments • Increasing efficiency of symbiotic process for enhanced nitrogen fixation by Rhizobia • Pulses are largely grown in the rain-fed areas where P deficiency often occurs. More work is required on microorganisms like phosphate solubilizing bacteria/fungi and VAM which are capable of solubilizing non-available P to available form and help in P uptake by pulse crops. • Pest surveillance and forecasting methods need to be developed encompassing GIS and remote sensing technologies for better management of diseases pests
  • 80. Way Forward Continue *Social Sciences and Trade • • • • • Developing a data warehouse covering global, national, state and district-wide information on area, production, productivity, prices, trade, and improved varieties and resource management technologies. To document various market outlooks (such as FAO, ACIAR, USDA, etc.) for Pulses and develop a synthesis for government to take informed decision on prices, procurement and trade and develop expertise on modelling pulses outlook on a regular basis. To document and analyze existing and innovative value chains for different pulses and propose strategies for up-scaling and/or out-scaling best practices to improve the value addition and marketing efficiencies. To bridge the large gaps that exist between yields of different pulses at research farm and the farmers’ field as well as at farms within the same area. To study assessment of initially a few improved varieties and resource management technologies and later this be part of regular strategy. Production, processing, value addition and trade of pulses will be the guiding factor for future of pulses in India.
  • 81.