Developing seed systems  to maximize impact for 
    the  poor in drought‐prone regions: TLII 
                         TL...
Tropical Legumes II (TLII)  
Enhancing grain legumes’ producJvity and producJon, 
and the incomes of poor farmers in droug...
TLII SPECIFIC SEED SYSTEM THRUSTS 

1.  Give farmers’ access to drought‐tolerant varieJes 

      •       Increase produc0...
Our Clients

    Mostly small‐scale farmers  
    Subsistence 
    ‘Incipient‐commercial’ 


  In Drought Zones
  •  Lo...
OVERVIEW OF SEED SYSTEMS
         (Obj 8)
TLII SEED SYSTEMS: Country Focus‐ Phase I
                                                  
           ET   KE   TZ   Mal...
5  Cross‐ Crop Thrusts 

  Improve availability of foundaJon/cerJfied seed by NARS/other 
  Public Sector and Private Sect...
SELECT KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
TLII Models: FoundaJon seed producJon 
1.    NARS (at Research Center)  
2.    NARS‐ with contract farmers 
3.    Public s...
TLII: Delivery models 
1.     Agro‐input dealers selling directly to clients 
2.     Private companies‐ selling direct to ...
M+E   (Agreements Sept 25, 2009)
                                        
                Seed producJon  
per Mode of See...
  M+E (Agreements September 25, 2009)
                                                
               Seed DistribuJon and...
RETHINKING IMPACT PATHS
20
                                 .




10
     Wider Impact



                                ...
Links with PRIVATE SECTOR:

   Provision of  iniJal seed for bulking up   
  
   ProducJon for commercial farmers   
  
...
Pro-poor features

  Seed produced and available in zones of acJon 


  Seed cost ‘accessible’, parJally via small packe...
SELECT RESULTS (as of Sept 2009)
                                
TLII Seed Partnerships: > 180
 Partnerships are a cornerstone of impact-oriented seed systems, Since its inception in Sept...
Results: TLII 8.3 ProducJon of FoundaJon Seed 
             Aug 2007‐ June 09  (MT):  
Program        Foundation/Certified...
Number of farmers reached  (November 09) 




             1,286,540 
         Founda0on Seed‐   ECA Groundnut (ICRISAT)  
                             (this season):   450 T 


              ...
Gross Margin Analysis (per ha) for CBSS 
Seed Systems in Nigeria(Naira)  (IITA) 

Crop      Gross    Total    Gross Margin...
Marketing Small Packs
    Cowpea : Nigeria , Mozambique     Groundnuts; Niger
    Soybean : Kenya                   Beans:...
Sold in open markets, country stores, agro-dealers




       Kenya- beans           Nigeria- cowpea
Results‐ small packs seed experiments 
High volume sales
  Niger -   groundnut-   6,908 packs
  Kenya-    beans        2...
Market differentiation

  Beans- Kenya-       80 g, 250g

  Soybeans –Kenya-    1 kg

  Soybean- Nigeria-   2 kg
Seed outlet enhancement (CIAT)
                                     




23% farmers currently within 1 hr. seed outlet
Rural radios (Niger):
dissemination of
information on:

* prices,
* varieties
* location of selling    points




 Not cov...
SUMMARY: SELECT RESULTS 
Impacts 
   Impressive amount of seed produced 
  
   Significant  number of farmers reached 
  ...
But…… continuing reflections
  FoundaJon Seed‐  produced by NARS ( reflecJons 25/9/09)
                                    ...
IARCS producing foundaJon seed 


Advantages                       Disadvantages 

• ncome genera0on (non‐profit) 
 I
     ...
MOVING FORWARD
Future : within crops

Any model moved forward has to be:

  Impact-oriented   (reached people)

  cost-effective


  U...
Future : among crop synergies- TLII

    Test case: marketing

      Single supplier- bagging multiple crops


      Pro...
Future : among crop synergies‐ TLII 

Better targeting --within next year
(for high impact zones)



Map? : ‘high poverty’...
Across BMGF projects
TLI and TLII       TL II    and DTMA    TL II    and  N2fix 

(not clear seed    ..(Maps              ...
with WASA/ESASA


 Seed Supply Exchange
 
MOVING FORWARD: TLII‐AGRA links
                                   


                   AGRA              TLII




Specif...
For more informaJon 

  www.tropicallegumes.org

     Updates seed systems (syntheses Nov 2009)


     Seed Manuals (pr...
21  Louise Sperling   Objective8 Overview
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21 Louise Sperling Objective8 Overview

  1. 1. Developing seed systems  to maximize impact for  the  poor in drought‐prone regions: TLII  TLII Seed Systems Group November 17, 2009 ICRISAT, CIAT, IITA  + 180 partners  8.1 J. Ndjeunga WCA . Groundnuts 8.2 E. Monyo ECA- CP, PP, Groundnuts 8.3 J.C. Rubyogo/L.Sperling ECA- Beans 8.4 A. Kamara Pan-Afr. Cowpea 8.5 S. Nigam India- CP, PP, Groundnuts 8.6 A. Kamara Pan-Afr Soybean
  2. 2. Tropical Legumes II (TLII)   Enhancing grain legumes’ producJvity and producJon,  and the incomes of poor farmers in drought‐prone  areas of sub‐Saharan Africa and South Asia”    15% increase in produc0on and produc0vity    30% of total area to be covered with improved varie0es    Some 57 million farmers  Funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
  3. 3. TLII SPECIFIC SEED SYSTEM THRUSTS  1.  Give farmers’ access to drought‐tolerant varieJes  •  Increase produc0on/ stabilize produc0on   •  Valorize efforts of PUBLIC Breeding  •  Decrease Food Aid/Seed Aid  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐  2.  SJmulate development of seed + commodity     agro‐enterprise   
  4. 4. Our Clients   Mostly small‐scale farmers     Subsistence    ‘Incipient‐commercial’  In Drought Zones •  Low harvest  •  High incidence of ‘disaster’  Poor  Farmers may lose seed, need       to restock   Low purchasing power   Need highly adapted varieJes 
  5. 5. OVERVIEW OF SEED SYSTEMS (Obj 8)
  6. 6. TLII SEED SYSTEMS: Country Focus‐ Phase I   ET KE TZ Malw Nigeria Niger Mali Moz India Beans X X Cowpea X X X X X G-nuts X X X X X X P-pea X X X Ch-pea X X X Soy X X X X X bean
  7. 7. 5  Cross‐ Crop Thrusts    Improve availability of foundaJon/cerJfied seed by NARS/other  Public Sector and Private Sector   (iniJal supplies/ bulking)    Design decentralized  seed producJon modes‐‐  tailored to various  clients   (decentralized producJon)    Design diffusion‐ markeJng‐‐ tailored to various clients   (decentralized distribuJon/markeJng)    Enhancing local capacity to produce delivery store and market  (capacity building)    Enhance local‐level awareness of newly‐released varieJes       (awareness raising/demand creaJon)     
  8. 8. SELECT KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
  9. 9. TLII Models: FoundaJon seed producJon  1.  NARS (at Research Center)   2.  NARS‐ with contract farmers  3.  Public sector with founda0on seed farm  4.  Individual  farmers and farmers groups  5.  Agricultural Universi0es  6.  IARCS producing founda0on seed directly  7.  IARCS contrac0ng farmers  8.  Private companies  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐    CerJfied seed:  7 models    Other qualiJes seed‐ 10 models 
  10. 10. TLII: Delivery models  1.  Agro‐input dealers selling directly to clients  2.  Private companies‐ selling direct to clients  3.  CBSS (Community‐based seed produc0on)  4.  NGOs give seed loans  5.  FFS (Farmer Field Schools)  6.  Schools  7.  Via large farmer associa0ons/unions/coopera0ve  8.  Farmer growers to grain exporters  9.  Farmer growers‐ selling to traders (via local markets)  10.  Farmer to farmer exchange  11.  Soybean resource centers  12.  Seed revolving fund  13.  Seed banks  14.  Seed revolved from payback system  15.  Seed villages  16.  Parastalals involved in direct delivery 
  11. 11. M+E   (Agreements Sept 25, 2009)   Seed producJon   per Mode of Seed Production •  ost of Seed Production C (versus quality, yields and risks) (disease/health analysis) •  uantity of Seed Produced Q •  nalysis of Qualitative Costs and Benefits (and for whom) A
  12. 12.   M+E (Agreements September 25, 2009)   Seed DistribuJon and MarkeJng  •  umber of different varieJes distributed per target region  N •  verall quanJty of seed distributed  O •  mount of seed distributed per farmer  A •  umber of farmers reached per region  N •  rofile of clients (gender, wealth and other key variables of  P interest: casts?  ethnic group?)   •  eographic reach (zones covered), key zones not covered  G •  nowledge associated with specific modes of seed transfer   K •  nalysis of QualitaJve Costs and Benefits  (and for whom)  A • ncome to farmers/seed producers  I
  13. 13. RETHINKING IMPACT PATHS 20 . 10 Wider Impact Conventional 2 6 1 14 0 Years
  14. 14. Links with PRIVATE SECTOR:    Provision of  iniJal seed for bulking up          ProducJon for commercial farmers          MarkeJng of  seed, including in small packs  (agro‐ dealers)        Moving grain products on a large scale  (export market)    Catalyzing new private sector companies to enter into  commercial legume seed producJon 
  15. 15. Pro-poor features   Seed produced and available in zones of acJon    Seed cost ‘accessible’, parJally via small packets,  or  seed loans,  or in  retail markets     Seed quality to meet end‐user needs    VarieJes to enter local channels on large scale  (ISSUE: how to link PRIVATE  SECTOR with PRO‐POOR interests) 
  16. 16. SELECT RESULTS (as of Sept 2009)  
  17. 17. TLII Seed Partnerships: > 180 Partnerships are a cornerstone of impact-oriented seed systems, Since its inception in September 2007, TLII ‘seed systems’ (Objective 8) has established at least 187 organizational partnerships for seed production and delivery, with many of these formalized through contract or Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs). Partners include inter alia; government research and extension systems, private sector companies, seed parastatals, farmer cooperatives, unions and associations, universities, schools, faith-based and non-governmental organizations. Largely because of these partnerships, and focus on organizations’ complementarities, the scale of seed production under TLII has been notable: as of September 2009, 2391 MT of foundation and certified seed and 1111 MT of ‘other’, good quality seed. Select TLII Seed System Partners                                                   ObjecJve  8.1: Groundnuts,  WCA: ICRISAT,  Nigeria :Ins0tute of Agricultural Research ,  ,                                   State Agricultural and Rural Development Authori0es in Kano (KNARDA) in Katsina State  (KTARDA) and                              in Jigawa State (JARDA, Bayero , University of Kano Niger: Ins0tut Na0onal de Recherche Agronomique du Niger                 (INRAN)  ALHERI Seed Company, Direc0on Regionale du Developpement Agricole/Direc0on Departmentale de l’Agriculture       (DRD/DDA), Farmers’ Associa0ons/Farmers’ Organiza0on/Small‐Scale Seed Producers, Mali: Ins0tut d’Economie Rurale (IER),  EUCORD, FA/FO/SCSP. AOPP Associa0on of Cer0fied Seed Producers, FA/FP/SCSP, Farmers’ and Producer Organiza0ons, FASOKABA                         ObjecJve 8.2: Groundnuts, chickpea, pigeonpea, ESA : ICRISAT  Malawi: Department  of Agricultural Research Services  (DARS), Na0onal Small‐                      holder Farmers Associa0on Malawi (NASFAM),  CARE Malawi, Ac0on Aid and Adven0st Development and Relief Agency (ADRA),  Plan Interna0onal,               Rab Processors, Seed Co, Monsanto,  Tanzania: Department of Research and Training (DRT), Naliendele Research Ins0tute‐ Department of Crop Development          (DCD ),  Diocese of Central Tanzania (DCT),  Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Concern Interna0onal, Mohamed Enterprises, OLAM Pvt Ltd., East  African Seed,       Zonabia Seed,  Ethiopia: Ethiopia Ins0tute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Regional Agricultural Research Centers, Ethiopian Seed Service,   Farmers’ Unions, Ethiopian Na0onal Extension Service.                         ObjecJve  8.3: Beans, E. Africa. : CIAT.   Ethiopia:  Ethiopian Ins0tute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC), Southern Agricultural                   Research Ins0tute (SARI), Awassa Agricultural Research Center (ARC),  Areka ARC,  Debre Berhan ARC,  Lume Adama Farmers Coopera0ve Union (FCU), Hetossa FCU, Bora                 Dambal FCU, Uta Wayu FCU, Walta FCU, CARE West Hararghe, Haraghe Catholic Secretariat (HCS), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Alem Tena Catholic Church (CC), Wonji CC,  Meki   C       CC, Self Help Development Interna0onal (SHDI)‐Bora, Water Ac0on, Improving  Produc0vity & Market Success (IPMS)‐Alaba,  Interna0onal Development Enterprise (IDE),  Zonal          Agriculture and Rural Development Office (ZARDO) in Shewa, Arsi, Silte  and Guraghe, MAP Coop, ACOS‐Ethiopia, ELFORA, H. WAQO seed, Haramaya University.  Kenya:  Kenya        Agricultural Research Ins0tute (KARI), KARI‐ HQ,  and Katumani, Kisii, Catholic Diocese (CD)  of Nakuru,  CD of Kisumu, CD of  Homa Bay,  CD of Muranga,  Ministry of Agriculture   (MoA) Nyanza Province, MoA Kitui, MoA Yaoa, MoA Makuyu,  MoA Samia, Leldet LTD, Drylands Seed LTD,  Lambwe Seed Growers, Farm Inputs Promo0on Services (FIPS) Africa,    Nangina Social Work Project,  Self Help Developmental Interna0onal  World Vision (WV)‐ Makuyu,  WV‐Mutonguni, Concern Universal, MAA AIDS Awareness Programme,   Excellent Development, INADES Forma0on Interna0onal, Busia Community Development Organiza0on (BUCODEV). Across both countries Pan Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA)  ObjecJve 8.4: Cowpea,  pan‐Africa IITA. Nigeria :  Borno State Agricultural Development Project (BOSADP), University of Maiduguri, Jirkur Seed Co‐opera0ve, Kano State  Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KNARDA), Seed Project Ltd, Kano, Premier Seeds Ltd Zaria, Na0onal Agricultural Seed Council Kano, Niger:  Ins0tut Na0onal  de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN),  Organisa0on Neerlandaise de Developpment (SNV)‐ Maradi,  Advisor Fruits‐légume SNV Zinder, Alheri Seed Kouni.  Mali:  Ins0tut d’Economie Rurale (IER) Segou, Millenium Village Project, AOPP Associa0on of Cer0fied Seed Producers, Mozambique: Ins0tuto de Inves0gacio Agraria de  Mocambique,   IIAM Empresa Comercial dos Productores Associados (IKURU) , Mozambique.  Tanzania:  Sokoine University of Agriculture,  Agricultural Research Ins0tute, Iringa,Tanzania     Official Seed Cer0fica0on Ins0tute, Msimba, Founda0on Seed Farm, Agricultural Seed Agency.         ObjecJve 8.5: Groundnuts, chickpea, pigeonpea, India  ICRISAT. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Department of Agriculture  (DoA),    Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Government of Tamil Nadu, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru,  UAS Dharwad, UAS Raichur,  Doa/MoA,        Government of Karnataka, Karnataka Oilseeds Federa0on, Karnataka  State Seeds Corpora0on (KSSC), Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (PDKV)           Akola,  Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Durgapur (PDKV), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karda PDKV, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Adarsh                Rythu , Andhra Pradesh State Seeds Development Corpora0on (APSSDC).    ObjecJve 8.6: Soybean,  IITA CIAT‐TSBF  pan‐Africa. Nigeria Borno State Agricultural Development Project (BOSADP), Univ.             of Maiduguri, Jirkur Seed Co‐opera0ve, Biu, Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP), Seed Project                     Ltd, Kano, Premier Seeds Ltd  Zaria,   Malawi, DARS,  Kenya: Kenya Agriculture Research  Council,                               Leldet Seed Company,  Mozambique Ins0tuto de Inves0gacio Agraria de Mocambique                                                (IIAM) ,  Tanzania ,   Agricultural  Research  Ins0tute, Iringa.,    For more informaJon see:     www.tropicallegumes.or                                                              Tanz. Official Seed Cer0fica0on Inst. Msimba.  g   
  18. 18. Results: TLII 8.3 ProducJon of FoundaJon Seed  Aug 2007‐ June 09  (MT):   Program Foundation/Certified Other: ‘Good’ WCA-Gnut 65 100 ESA:CP,PP,GN 501 n/a Beans 209 752 Cowpea 194 Soybean 290 23 India 1132 236 (CP.PP.GN) TOTAL 2391 1111
  19. 19. Number of farmers reached  (November 09)  1,286,540 
  20. 20.          Founda0on Seed‐   ECA Groundnut (ICRISAT)                               (this season):   450 T  ICRISAT  6  2  Seed Stock  NGOs  4  Contract  Farmers  Growers  10  3  Seed Revolving Fund  5  Seed Companies  7  11  1  8  Agrodealers  8  13  9  Government of Malawi  The Malawi Model of the Seed  Revolving Fund 
  21. 21. Gross Margin Analysis (per ha) for CBSS  Seed Systems in Nigeria(Naira)  (IITA)  Crop Gross Total Gross Margin income Variable (Naira) cost Cowpea 38038 14559 23479 ($168) Soybean 89145 53650 35294 ($252) $1=N140
  22. 22. Marketing Small Packs Cowpea : Nigeria , Mozambique Groundnuts; Niger Soybean : Kenya Beans: Ethiopia and Kenya   Get new varieties to farmers (80g 250g 500g, 1 kg, 2 kg , 5 kg   Uncover demand   Varieties   Seed   Expand market for certified FASO KABA- Bamako , Mali FASO KABA- Bamako
  23. 23. Sold in open markets, country stores, agro-dealers Kenya- beans Nigeria- cowpea
  24. 24. Results‐ small packs seed experiments  High volume sales   Niger - groundnut- 6,908 packs   Kenya- beans 28,000 “   Ethiopia- beans 11,750 “   Nigeria- soybeans 7,980   Mozam cowpea 12 Tons in packs   Nigeria cowpea 15 “ Farmers purchase certified legume seed > 75,000 farmers (2 seasons)
  25. 25. Market differentiation   Beans- Kenya- 80 g, 250g   Soybeans –Kenya- 1 kg   Soybean- Nigeria- 2 kg
  26. 26. Seed outlet enhancement (CIAT)   23% farmers currently within 1 hr. seed outlet
  27. 27. Rural radios (Niger): dissemination of information on: * prices, * varieties * location of selling points Not covered by rural radios
  28. 28. SUMMARY: SELECT RESULTS  Impacts     Impressive amount of seed produced       Significant  number of farmers reached    Innova0on results    Demand crea0on:  farmers pay for cer0fied seed      Cost‐effec0ve CBSS seed produc0on models      Promising Founda0on seed model      Marke0ng model‐  poor/ women/ high impact   
  29. 29. But…… continuing reflections FoundaJon Seed‐  produced by NARS ( reflecJons 25/9/09)   Advantages  Disadvantages  •  Easy variety replacement    Supply can be hijacked ( oqen  for poli0cal reasons)  •  Consistent supply    Bureaucracy‐ not run  as  ‘business  •  Broad range of varie0es    Oqen ‘non‐sharing of varie0es’  •  Poten0al to serve range of  partners    Diverts efforts away from  research func0ons (where no  seed unit) 
  30. 30. IARCS producing foundaJon seed  Advantages  Disadvantages  • ncome genera0on (non‐profit)  I   Compe00on with local actors  •  ood quality seed  G   Limited ability to distribute seed  •  ider range of varie0es  W •  illing gap because of non‐ F   Conflict of interest  for CGIAR  func0onal ins0tu0ons  mandate    Totally unsustainable 
  31. 31. MOVING FORWARD
  32. 32. Future : within crops Any model moved forward has to be:   Impact-oriented (reached people)   cost-effective   Usable for drought-prone zones
  33. 33. Future : among crop synergies- TLII Test case: marketing   Single supplier- bagging multiple crops   Promotion of multiple crops- through agro-dealer, open market networks Needs‐ cross‐crop milestones 
  34. 34. Future : among crop synergies‐ TLII  Better targeting --within next year (for high impact zones) Map? : ‘high poverty’- /‘high drought’ hot spots Map?: high population density - drought (some commitment- across crops, for action)
  35. 35. Across BMGF projects TLI and TLII   TL II    and DTMA  TL II    and  N2fix  (not clear seed  ..(Maps  .. Variety choice?  development)  component)  ‐  hould n2fix  be  S ‐ Maize/legumes  ( building on some of the  interacJons?  TLII seed system s?  ‐  ites  S ‐  artners  P ‐  essons L
  36. 36. with WASA/ESASA Seed Supply Exchange  
  37. 37. MOVING FORWARD: TLII‐AGRA links   AGRA TLII Specific Actions: Legume seed 1. ncentives for private seed companies– to pack smaller I 2.  ink with agro-dealer networks- L 3.  xpand agro-dealer networks- (trader agents-- remote areas)? E 4.  + E-- together- WHO is being reached? At what COST? M
  38. 38. For more informaJon    www.tropicallegumes.org   Updates seed systems (syntheses Nov 2009)   Seed Manuals (production, business, value chain (19 languages, including 10 African languages)   Videos!

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