AQA Case Studies Geography


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AQA Case Studies Geography

  1. 1. AS Geography Case Studies
  2. 2. AS Geography: Human Population
  3. 3. Fertility rate = Pop = 8.1million 5.2 children per Rapid Impacts of Poorest country in growth for overpopulation western 80% live in Doubled in less woman Pop density = LEDCs hemisphere absolute than 50 years 295 people per poverty sq/km Core Themes Population GDP = pressureMalthus – Background $1,500 Populationoptimistic Stage 2 theory country Hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes Sun Oven – reduced deforestation and its Case Study: cheap to make Over population:Afforestation Haiti – help soil Solutions Sharp drop – AIDs (6% of High birth rate fertility Low life + Youthful – reduce adults) expectancy (53) population over land flow source Population pressure on of food Human environment Spreading Other ideas; Poor health care disease - TBIntercropping,Plant nitrogen HIV/AIDs – 300,000 cases - fixers for soil highest in Latin America and fertility the Caribbean
  4. 4. Gov – 1960s gov sponsored Gov – control control pop GNP = $30,550 family planning ‘Stop at 2’ media Legalise abortions pop numbers and sterilisations movement Population Fertility rate = scheme to stem campaigns 4million 1.4 children per growth Core Themes woman Social and economic incentives- paid maternity leave, cheaper Population SDS – Background healthcare, free education, tax decline Stage 5 graduate Initial policy High life relief MEDC country blind dates expectancy – Large number better quality middle aged – Drop in 1987 – “have Ext. Maternity previous high birth base 3” slogan of life leave rate reflects Targeted Reversing the Case Study: success of educated decline Under population: Females live policy – Low young Less Singapore longer than BR + smaller women Gov. Part educated - families Fertility rate Too successful men Get £3750 fund housing now 1.4 well – BR declinefor each of education below the 2.1 for the last 20 their first Other factors for the replacement years3 children + fall in fertility rate level Success? no tax Impacts – Tend to suffer 50% women Falling economic growth, stress – work – Ageing pop. – health service + reduced careers pensions, desire for Children priority Jobs unfilled – 40% workforce children costly migrants
  5. 5. BR = 10.1 Population Age White DR = 11.9 Ethnicity Structure 45-64 65+ 98.8 Females 27.50 21.77 Chinese Black 22,895 Males Total 0.6 0.6 21,521 44,416 Population dynamics Qualifications Level 4-5 Level 2 None 17.6 20.9 27.4 Grants for Private Case Study: community No village education Affects of migration and population Conflict between activity bus locals and change in Rural areas: newcomers Transport Village Isle of Purbeck, Dorset Elderly and Schools poor left Isolation What is not there? Rural service decline What happened? Health care GP Deprivation Dormitory Post Food Librarys closure villageoffices shops Mobile Locals cannot afford Second home commuters Have to travel ones local houses – services unused Combined services - pollution
  6. 6. Site and service schemes – given land for Developments – Rehab – encouraged to work them to work and have an address tower blocks (crime, as community to build1870 - poorly built) schools etc.25,000 Populationpeople Industrial estates Transport Structure Charities – jobs and medical1990 - Authorities – gap years15 mil cleared slums What they didpeople Land – Lack of formal Rapid for Population dynamics inappropriate – employment – LEDCs riverside shoe shining Housing etc. Move to cities for work Case Study: Affects of migration and population 40% live in shanty Machines take change in Urban areas: towns over farming jobs Sau Paulo, Brazil Shortage of affordable housingMedias positive image Push and Pull factors Textiles etc. -Why? Cheaper Affects of Urban Services elsewhere Crime - growth City gangs Decline in attractions industries Rapid Transport In -migration Unemployment/ Jobs population Pollution; Housing growth BR high noise, air, underemployment DR falls visual
  7. 7. Extra info: So they set limits on who could have 23 sewing needles woman They wanted to avoid children and when - infanticide a Malthusian type China could only have Chinas elderly care conundrum disaster a rising living –heavy burden standard if the Chinese government concerned population was 1960-73 1974-79 about population growth controlled Pop. Boom Encouraged to Aimed to stabilise Population control could Infanticide – 55 million reduce population growth cause social unrest – they couples 1950-59 -Longer, later, by 2050 wanted could research life elsewhere Large pop. fewer – Wan- males, killed if(Famine in 59) xi-shao Case Study: girl` - males Attempts to manage population spoilt – . Stages of the policy 2006+ change to achieve sustainable Disadvantages emperor little . syndrome Growth fallen 0.6% development (over population) : Fertility rate 1.6 China – One Child Policy Unsuccessful Better health service – With one child the average Allowed in countryside ratio 118:100 families would fall to 370 million second child if – hard to 1979-90 1990+ Elderly dependent first a girl enforce inDidn’t work One child more Advantages rural areas population – well – still relaxed younger wouldincreased - ageing pop social have to create Successful in urban Financial and educational Source ofcontracepti influences from west more wealth to areas, with 90% ofincentives for one child – cheap labour +on – granny successful in urban maintain the children being only fines , abortions andpolice – one Report pregnancy same quality of sterilisations for more kept going till children e.g. they had a boychild policy babies killed life Beijing
  8. 8. Alcohol abuse and smoking – Percentage of potential highest in the world parents of child baring age Threat of HIV/Aids within the Russian population is so small Cause Case Study: Attempts to manage population change to achieve sustainable development (under population): RussiaRussia census – 50% increase Slow depopulation Aged workforce Muslim majority nation Urgent, polarised and Effect Scare-mongering angry debate Muslim population groups Population decline that are experiencing very rapid growth Long term Destroyed Russia consequences
  9. 9. High birth rates More diverse and as migrants A lot of middle aged multi-cultural society have children people due to Migrants experience migration racism and prejudice This strain on the More interesting healthcare service will – experience cause an increase in different the numbers of staff Population changes cultures Social Impacts (e.g. Celebratingneeded to work – these will all also need to be Chinese new trained year) Case Study: Change of population structures Send money because of migration: back to the Employment in (Poland to) Slough, UK loosing healthcare services country 3000-4000 more This growth in the permanent jobs Economic Impacts As their are more population will created because people of working cause huge strain of labour shortage Takes money age they will have on health services away from the more children as when they Companies based in Help other receivingputting more strain become elderly UK may move countries country on hospitals – they will need overseas if they could Businesses get become moreespecially maternity care not get the workers cheap labour with affluent and wards) flexible hours developed
  10. 10. AS Geography: Physical Rivers
  11. 11. Dredging – make deeper Diversion channels Generate Deforestation (3000 Reservoir channel (greater volume – send away from electricity acres), land slides 100m high, allowed pass) flood risk areas from HEP for and animals Farmland 2.3km Increased Central and disturbed long Eastern china and tourist flood plain Dams + Weirs attractions height – to regulate destroyed water Increased Retention basins + balance lakes - What? Clean energy – Environmental downstream divert when high no fossil fuels erosion discharge Between 1998-2004 Banks/channel sediment transport Case Study: fell by 50% modification – Hard Engineering (extensive strengthen and raise Expensive artificially modification): Toxins – 16,000 + a lot of Three Gorges Dam, China factories Sediment work build-up No needingflooding Economic Political Social dredgingand less Forced 85 billionproblems Resettlement kilowatts Need forin future Also created of 1.3million maintenance withstand people Improved earthquake Reduced risk of navigation Reservoir flooding for 15 Community and along river behind 14million million history disappears – useful for dam -2300 years worth homeless trade £25billion
  12. 12. Floodplain zoning – some areas Contour ploughing allowed to flood naturally and strip farming – Artificial Environment agency – more reduce runoff channels built sustainable Wetland + for diversion river bank conservation New lake and schemes Afforestation – floodplains created interception – – collect naturallyForecasting floods What? slows down water and warnings - Environmental reaching river Diverseshelter and protect environment for River restoration scheme Case Study: wildlife – to original stat before Soft Engineering (Slow down the being managed Might not rate and/or reduce the amount): Park always River Quaggy restoration lowered work scheme, UK and shaped Economic Introduce Political Socialschemes to do less Flood later Reduced management Won 2007 Flood zones and park risk to 600 Natural dont save quality homes and Can collect environment people in improved businesses 85,000m3 category poorer areas –(3 Olympic pools)
  13. 13. 80% river On bay of Borders India Improve Flood action 7 new dams flood plains Bengal plan 7 meters of embankment and Burma forecasts Population – Cut cost to 6 billion North 5000 flood Aid agencies 120 million Eastern, Sout Water Food and shelters (dense) h Asia Long term response purification plastic Government tablets 4 rivers meet Location sheets Afforestation gave rice andhere – Ganges, money Meghna etc. - Napal Sanitation Wettest climate World poorest countries (GNP Short term response $200)Less than 1-2 All 3 rivers peak Case Study: Medicine Internationalmeters above flow at same Flooding in LEDCs: and health aid flood level time Bangladesh, Asia -1998 care Fodder – Repair and Physical Causes food for live construct On a stock housesSnow melt – Monsoon floodplain Secondary Effects Global rains and delta Primary Effects (as a result) warming (instant) Cost Communications Human Causes $1billion down Global warming Urbanisation Spread of 30 million 980,571 1000 died disease Farakka dam flooded ¾ of affected 26,564 Bangladesh Deforestation Build up flood cattle killed 1 million people Shortage of clean plains under water to refuge drinking water
  14. 14. 10 miles south of Minimal – keep present Unsupportable – economic and Scottish border Confluence oflevel of flood defence environmental cost Population River Eden Upstream storage – large scale 71,773 Cumbria, Option 1 Option 2 – reservoirs and dams northwest Option 3 History – 3 England Lower Eden strategic + planningmajor floods in Appraisal Report (SPAR) Up streamed Location Risk to four years Long term response managed property and realignment, moveGeology – sand lives This selected – flood defence,and lime stone Rainfall – 73% environ. larger flood plain in Eden runoff in Eden acceptable and raise existing Case Study: defences Physical Causes Flooding in MEDC’s: Short term response Soils – Carlisle, UK - 2005Alluvium + Relief – low News Emergency deeper Vegetation gradient in warnings services – police soils Carlisle 1915 homes and and hospital on businesses flooded Secondary Effects standbyUrbanisation – to 2 meters (as a result) 3000 jobs at risk increased Human Causes 3,000 Damage in public spread of homeless 3 people Primary Effects(some for more perceptions of towns and Emotional died (instant) the area villages in than 3 months) impact valley areas Extreme financial 120 People 40,000 homes cost Communications injuries stranded without power affected
  15. 15. AS Geography: Human Health
  16. 16. People with: medical conditions, lung disease, SeasonalNose, throat bronchi diabetes, cancer, kidney/heart problems epidemics and Lungs Fever, headache, As a result can lead to severe infection, complications, Occurrence Lasts a week malaise, cough pneumonia and death (aprox.) and sore throat Vulnerable groups Burden on High attack Recover 1-2 Symptoms hospitals and case- weeks without Affects mortality treatment rates Case Study: Severe health Another form: Bird Flu Patterns of morbidity: consequences – H5N1 (subtype) Influenza Impacts in poorly nourishedTransmitted from populations – birds to humans One form: also limited Spanish Flu History 250,000 – access to 300,000 deaths health care 2003 – every year Hong Kong - threats of Killed 40 Three times in 2002- 1993 pandemic million the last century Madagascar Death rates highest world wide 27,000 cases Genetic mutations = among healthy in 1918-19 in 3 months, global pandemics young adults 800 deaths Large death and disease tolls
  17. 17. Life expectancy below 40 Currently at 26 years and 8 months (first time since 1950) 50% of expectant In 2006 – 34 years mothers in urban - Without AIDS In 5 months raised to 74 (estimated) areas24% of adults infected - out of a 1.6million Impact on health population Gov. Had money Government through provided free diamond Case Study: anti-retroviral industry drug HIV/AIDs: Botswana Impact on economic Impacts on Lifestyle Because of a lack of development workers Economy one third None specific to smaller (33%) by Income seven HIV in Botswana 2021 than it would times Sub- be without aids Saharan Africas
  18. 18. 1999 – 1 million infected 1984 – first case 66,000 AIDs deaths diagnosed Rise to 90% Impact on health condom use for prostitutes after gov 1995 – 5,000 intervention Case Study: infected HIV/AIDs: babies Thailand Impact on economic Impacts on Lifestyle development 60million free condomsRapid spread – to sex workers drug Vulnerable ‘100% condom users, low Prostitution programme’ infection rates groups – condom Promoted by TV, 30% by the prostitutes, drug use, sex Radio and posters 1990’s users workers
  19. 19. Tobacco Alcohol abuse Last 10 years, rates of people over 95,000 deaths per year High blood (UK) 65 decreased by 45% due to pressure (stress) lifestyle improvementsObesity The additional cost High cholesterol Obesity costs the of the unemployed (LEDC) Causes Impacts on health NHS £0.5billion a due to health Lack of year nutrition Impact on economic USA – ban on customers development suing fast food companies because of Smoking Cardiovascular obesity Case Study: related disease costs Disease of affluence: conditions the NHS Impacts on lifestyle costs NHS £14.4billion - Coronary Heart Disease £2.7billion - 2006 Japan – gov 2008 New Zealand – Heart attack every health recognisable 5-a-side football 15mins education - High risk teams healthy food LE average – 69.3 advertise lifestyles – logos alcohol, smoking, Glasgow years (UK lowest)reduce in high Health BP Public Smoking diet 2005 – 10,331 ban (UK) -2007 Lifestyle deaths Social Glasgow womenSocial class – working twice as Improvements in diet, quitting deprivation – highest rate of likely to have a heart attack smoking and exercise – reduced high rates of heart attacks in the than middle by 27% in 2008 heart disease world
  20. 20. 15,000 people work in our Only pharmaceutical company to Every hour we spend more than research team to discover tackle the three priority diseases £300,000 to find new medicines new medicines identified by the WHO – HIV, TB and Malaria We are a research based pharmaceutical company We screen about 65million compounds every year for Mission to improve the quality of new medicines human life by enabling people to Research do more, feel better and live We supply ¼ of the worlds longer vaccines and by Feb ‘07 we had We are 23 vaccines in clinicalLEDC factories encouraged to by development to ship drugs GSK by adverts Case Study: mainly to and campaigns Pharmaceutical Transnationals:MEDCs for us Distribution to buy GlaxoSmithKline, GSK (shipping/transporting) GSK process Factory owners Design new GSK people travel drugs in HQ in Production want to to LEDCs to find 2006- wemake profit the UK (making the drug) shipped 206 2006- we donated factories to make – so they the drugs – they million HIV 155 million tabletsmake their use these We make almost four treatments to to eliminate Our business workers factories so that billion packs of developing elephantiasis, mak employs overwork long they dont have to medicines and countries ing 600 million 100,000 peoplehours with pay workers as healthcare products in 117 countries treatments in little pay much – big profit every year total
  21. 21. Plants in more Worlds largest than 60 Annual revenue: countries £33,921million Make more money than the combined GDP of Costa Rica, Factories in 44 Lithuania and 4 other countries countries British American Tobacco Given leaflets – shops also Case Study: painted in Tobacco Transnationals: BAT offer to BAT colours paint cardiac Mauritius – British American hospital –½ a class of 11-14 Tobacco (BAT) sponsorshipyear olds smoke Advertising banned but carries on in a disguised Aware of BAT Mauritius form brands (e.g. Embassy) BAT controls 98.9% Single sticks of the market Children not make more aware of the 1/3 of all children 13-15 Can buy single accessible to sticks from 7p Free pots to shop dangers of smoke – poorest sector children each owners to contain smoking of society single sticks
  22. 22. Lack of rain fall – Rise in price of food – Population increase reduces water supply, including animals as greater than food ruins soils, takes away their land production – migration nutrients deteriorates (war or drought) DroughtPeople and occurs In 2000 rainscattle go in failed search for Causewater and pastureToo many on Improved infrastructureareas which Case Study: – insure produce can getused to have Famine: to markets for selling e.g. enough Somalia Better roads. People andlivestock die Solution Effect People wont fit inNo livestock – cities and stay inno food source cams were foods scares Food aid – non Improvements in gov aid –e.g. Red farming What People cross productivity – livestock is left abandon land fertilisers, seeds, Price of food and head for is worthless irrigation schemes rises city
  23. 23. Biggest are most Hereditary diabetes Exchange canoes for cars Average 20-39 male 8,700 attractive calories a day Different work – moved from farming Do not take advantage of to modern (not health care physical) Not a lot of money for rural health Social status Cause Limited medical access – transport to and Dependent on high in fat imported foods from the island costly and time consuming Tonga – weight loss WHO – must be programmes annually Case Study: addressed through public between 1995 and 2002 – Obesity: health policy – promote prises given and local media Pacific Islands healthy food and physical involvement activity Response Effect Diabetes – only takes 20 yrs WHO- comprehensive Need of a healthier diet to appear in populations and effective clinicalusing local food to benefit that adopt a high calorie programmes and the economy as well as and lack of exercise lifestyle education – essential in themselves tackling the problem
  24. 24. AS Geography: Physical Cold Environments
  25. 25. If disturbed could Open pit gold and copper mine – destroy breeding Pipeline built – 5 years totake up to 50 years / ground Anglo-American design, 3 to build and Transport to Location Damage worlds most vulnerable salmon costing $8billion South to return to 11,000 workers 40mil. Litres spilt, made it habitats Alaska original state. and residents cover 1300 sq Zigzag – 1.4million difficult barrels per day Could not be Slow rate of 24th Mar ’89 restored miles Skimmers reduce earth quakes transported byplant growth Above ground – tanker because Why is it fragile? to 112,000lt Limited species Strong pilings – prevent melt of ice seas Exxon Valdez prevent frost heaveFluctuations in energy in food Insulation – melt – Trans Alaskan chain Permafrost Poor thin Low refrigeration units Adaptations Pipeline 1968 – oil Transport – discovered in Short soils precipitation Blizzards Case Study: damaged ground Prudhoe bay summers Air (growing) What are the Tundra region: Impacts pollution challenges to humans Hunting – Surface Low Alaska over Tourism – litter, thaw(water temperatures exploitation vegetation logging) Snow lies for How have new comers removal, etcUse all of what is long periods How have people adapted to the Aggregate pads hunted – no How have people environment for large buildings exploited it over – layers of sand waste adapted to the Utilidors – above ground time insulated box for pipes and gravel Sustainable conditions WW2 – Trans Alaskan highway – –don’t sustainably? Elevate small Transport weapons to Tundra areas. exploit 20 th Century – Fishing, mining for oil, HEP, Tourism. buildings – piles (Inuit) Inuit’s just take driven into 17th Century – Sealing, whaling, trapping for fur and mining for gold. what they need to permafrost survive Post war (cold war)– Alaska close to Russia – strategically significant. for circulation
  26. 26. If disturbed could Affects food 300 employed Species running dangerously low Slow rate of take up to 50 years web Sail from USA and UK plant growth to return toLimited species original state. Fishing - krill International whaling Whaling convention -1946Fluctuations in Over 3 years 300,000 killed 19th Century – 27500energy in food Use of the Southern 1964 – 1000-2000 chain Why is it fragile? (after restrictions) More than ocean Damage – Sealing used for 5000 whales left natural causes fur guidelines Peaceful – no Stop cruses military/nuclear over 500 No litter Case Study: people from Glaciated region: stopping Free access and Sustainable Antartica/Southern ocean research rights 100 visitors management at a time Antarctic Code of Glacial landscapes , wildlife 12 Nationstourism shows conduct – seals whales and Antarctica Treatyenvironmental Scott Polar Tourism penguins -PEP Bans on concern research Cruise mineral Tern Why go? Protocol for colonies Visitor Numbers Ships resource environmental Impacts activity suffer Foot prints Over-flights protection – ‘91disturbances remain for a 6700 in 1992 45,000 in 2009 Camping Comprehensive 2/3 worlds long time monitoring to population – 45 Over flying Naturalist, photographers, prevent humancausing stress 1000-5000 researchers a year singatories journalists impacts