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Eyjafjallajökull
    Case Study
About the Volcano...
• Eyjafjallajökull is the name of the glacier
  that sits on top of the volcano, meaning
  “Island Mountain Glacier”.
• The volcano is actually called Eyjafjoll.
• The caldera at the top of the volcano is
  2.5km wide.
• The volcano is 1,666m tall.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
Location...
• The volcano is on the island of Iceland, which is
  part of Europe and situated immediately South
  of the Arctic Circle.
• Iceland is located on the North American plate
  (Moving West) and the Eurasian plate (Moving
  East), creating a divergent plate boundary
  which move apart at 1-5cm every year.
• The famous Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs through
  the island.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
The Eruption...
• The volcano began to erupt on the 20th of March, and
  the main eruption occurred on the 19th of April.
• It was a fissure eruption, with the lava flow more
  dominant on the West side but also on the East.
• An ash plume rising 11,000m into the air resulted
  from the eruption.
• The ash was fine grained, with 24% of it under
  10µm which is the same as an aerosol.
• The ash was distributed by high velocity jet streams
  above Iceland.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
Local Icelandic Effects...
• The 150m thick ice cap melted which caused major
  flooding to Iceland and 700 people were evacuated.
• It destroyed parts of the main Route 1 road. Other
  roads were bulldozed to allow the flash flood water
  to reach the sea.
• Fine ash silted the rivers caused blockages a year on.
• The government paid to dredge rivers or allow them
  to flood and create a new path.
• 20 farms were destroyed by the flooding and the
  ash.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
Worldwide Effects...
• The fine grain ash posed a problem to
  airplanes as it can enter engines or turn into
  a glassy substance due to the heat of the jet
  engine.
• Britain had fine anticyclonic weather when
  the ash cloud existed meaning that winds
  dispersed the ash clouds better.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
Secondary Worldwide Effects...
• Airspace closed across Europe, with at least 17,000
  flights a day being cancelled, with 6 flightless days.
  Overall 95,000 flights were cancelled.
• This cost airlines more than $200 million a day and
  was estimated that $2 billion was lost overall.
• Shares in Air Travel and Tourism Agencies dropped
  by 4%. Less fuel was needed and so 1.87million
  barrels were not in demand causing a loss of money
  in the oil industry.
• It was estimated that London lost £102 million of
  tourist income which caused a knock on effect for
  workers travelling and businesses.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010
Management...
• Iceland was prepared for this eruption because
  the first small eruption occurred on the 20th
  March and they were prepared for larger
  eruptions.
• High tech equipment was used to predict the
  further eruptions.
• Iceland had a good warning system with texts
  being sent to residents with a 30 minute
  warning.
• The emergency services were well prepared.
Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010

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Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010

  • 1. Eyjafjallajökull Case Study
  • 2. About the Volcano... • Eyjafjallajökull is the name of the glacier that sits on top of the volcano, meaning “Island Mountain Glacier”. • The volcano is actually called Eyjafjoll. • The caldera at the top of the volcano is 2.5km wide. • The volcano is 1,666m tall.
  • 4. Location... • The volcano is on the island of Iceland, which is part of Europe and situated immediately South of the Arctic Circle. • Iceland is located on the North American plate (Moving West) and the Eurasian plate (Moving East), creating a divergent plate boundary which move apart at 1-5cm every year. • The famous Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs through the island.
  • 6. The Eruption... • The volcano began to erupt on the 20th of March, and the main eruption occurred on the 19th of April. • It was a fissure eruption, with the lava flow more dominant on the West side but also on the East. • An ash plume rising 11,000m into the air resulted from the eruption. • The ash was fine grained, with 24% of it under 10µm which is the same as an aerosol. • The ash was distributed by high velocity jet streams above Iceland.
  • 8. Local Icelandic Effects... • The 150m thick ice cap melted which caused major flooding to Iceland and 700 people were evacuated. • It destroyed parts of the main Route 1 road. Other roads were bulldozed to allow the flash flood water to reach the sea. • Fine ash silted the rivers caused blockages a year on. • The government paid to dredge rivers or allow them to flood and create a new path. • 20 farms were destroyed by the flooding and the ash.
  • 10. Worldwide Effects... • The fine grain ash posed a problem to airplanes as it can enter engines or turn into a glassy substance due to the heat of the jet engine. • Britain had fine anticyclonic weather when the ash cloud existed meaning that winds dispersed the ash clouds better.
  • 12. Secondary Worldwide Effects... • Airspace closed across Europe, with at least 17,000 flights a day being cancelled, with 6 flightless days. Overall 95,000 flights were cancelled. • This cost airlines more than $200 million a day and was estimated that $2 billion was lost overall. • Shares in Air Travel and Tourism Agencies dropped by 4%. Less fuel was needed and so 1.87million barrels were not in demand causing a loss of money in the oil industry. • It was estimated that London lost £102 million of tourist income which caused a knock on effect for workers travelling and businesses.
  • 14. Management... • Iceland was prepared for this eruption because the first small eruption occurred on the 20th March and they were prepared for larger eruptions. • High tech equipment was used to predict the further eruptions. • Iceland had a good warning system with texts being sent to residents with a 30 minute warning. • The emergency services were well prepared.