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Harvesting Machines
Prepared by
Er.Uttam Raj Timilsina(MSc.Engineering,IIT Roorkee)
Professor of Agricultural Engineering,...
 Indigenous harvesting tool used in Nepal
 Harvesting equipments for different crops
 Mowers-Types ,working principle a...
 Indigenous harvesting tools used in Nepal:-
 Harvesting of field crops is one of the most abour
consuming operarion of ...
Harvesting Machines
Use of mchanical devices or machines like
reapers,mowers potato diggers combine
harvester are initiat...
Harvesting tools,sickles used in
different countries
Types of sickles used in different
countries
Serrated edge sickles
Rice harvesting due to labor shortage
Rice harvesting
Paddy harvesting alone due to labor
shortage
Paddy harvesting
Wheat cutting manually
Indiginuous wheat havesting
Maize harvesting
Tea crop harvesting
Cabbage harvesting manually
Wheat harvesting ,manually
Collecting rice straw
Manually harvesting
Harvesting Equipment
• Crop harvesting equipment:-In developed countries farming
systems is fully or partially mechanized ...
Rice harvester ,Reaper
Rice harvester,Reaper
Rice harvester ,Reaper
Combine harvester
Wheat harvester,combine
Maize harvester
Maize harvester
Combine Harvester,Rice
Wheat harvesting in conservation
farming
Sugarcane harvester
Combine harvester
Combine harvester, Wheat
Forage harvester
Grass cutter,mower
Forage harvester,mower
Rice harvester, combine
Potato digger
Potato digger in operation
Harvesting Machines(HM)
• Constraints of harvesting:- The overall
constraints of field crops harvesting in Nepal by
mechan...
HM
Farm Constraints:-Which are listed as:
-Small farm holdings
-Very small plots size with high bunds
- Poor water contro...
Harvesting Machines(HM)
Crop Constraints:-Which are listed as :
-Excessive moisture content at harvesting time
-Uneven ri...
HM
Equipments constraints:- which are listed as:
-Lack of functionality of machines regarding
operation and maintenance s...
HMT
• Harvesting tools and machineries:-
 Manuals Tools
- Differents types of sickles like serrated sickles,plain
sickles...
HM
Mechanical Harvesters-
-Tractor operated Mowers
-Tractor operated Reapers
-Self propelled Reapers,
-Power tiller opera...
• Mowers:- Mowers are designed to cut meadow grasses and fodder
crops/forage crops.Depending upon the source of power used...
HM
• Main parts of cutter bar mowers:-
 Cutter bars or finger bars unit:-It is the main part of
mower.The main function o...
HM
 Power transmitting unit:- The main function of this unit is
to receive and transmit motive force. It consists of main...
HM
 Frame or body of the mower :-It support all moving parts
of the mower and provides penings for main
axle,countershaft...
HM
• Rotary Mower:-These are the mowers which have knives rotating
about a substantially vertical spindle.Rotary mowers mo...
Cutter bar mower
Cutter bar mower/reaper
Mini type cutter bar reaper
Rice crop ready for harvesting
combine
Rotary drum mower
Front mounted cutter bar mower
Cutter knife assembly
Parts of cutter bar
Lawn mower(Rotary type)
Front and side mounted rotary mower
Hand tractor mounted cutter bar mower
Front side mounted reaper/mower
Front mounted multy drum Rotary
Mower
HM
• Reapers:-The working principle of reapers is same as like cutter
bar mowers.Reapers are used to harvest cereal crops ...
Front mounted cutter bar reaper
Mostly the reaper are mounted on front, rear but side
as well as mid side of tractors or hand tractors. The
tractor front ...
HM
• Harvesting devices for root crops: The harvesting
devices or use of equipments for root crops like potato
diggers or ...
HM
 Types of potato diggers:-
-Animal drawn potato diggers-single row diggers
-Tractor drawn potato diggers-Double row or...
Potato digger
Hand tractor operated digger
Two row digger
digger
Potato harvester
Potato harvester
»Thank you
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
Harvesting machines
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Harvesting machines

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Er. Uttam Raj Timilsina(MSc.Engineering,IIT Roorkee)
Professor of Agricultural Engineering,Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
uttamrajtimilsina@gmail.com
*All Right Reserved**
Uploaded and Shared by AgriYouthNepal

Published in: Engineering
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Harvesting machines

  1. 1. Harvesting Machines Prepared by Er.Uttam Raj Timilsina(MSc.Engineering,IIT Roorkee) Professor of Agricultural Engineering,AFU uttamrajtimilsina@gmail.com, 9841684994 For Batch 2069/2070,BSc.Ag,4th semester(071/7/16-071/10/15) Course Code:AEN-301,Farm Power and achinery(1+1
  2. 2.  Indigenous harvesting tool used in Nepal  Harvesting equipments for different crops  Mowers-Types ,working principle and constructional details  Reapers and reapers binders-Types,working principles and constructional details  Potato digger-working principles and constructional details
  3. 3.  Indigenous harvesting tools used in Nepal:-  Harvesting of field crops is one of the most abour consuming operarion of farming in Nepal.Harvesting of almost all cereals crops,potato,sugarcane and other crops in Nepal is being done manually by using most popular hand tools like CommonSickles Serrated Sickles and Spades.By experiences as well as field research, It is realized that harvesting manually by using sickles it takes about 170-200 man hours to harvest 1 ha of paddy crop. Due to high labor demand at the time of harvesting, the entire harvesting operation continues for weeks together,resulting grain losses to the extent of 5-15 % due to over drying of crop in the field .
  4. 4. Harvesting Machines Use of mchanical devices or machines like reapers,mowers potato diggers combine harvester are initiated to harvest cereals crops like paddy and wheat being feasible in Terai areas of Nepal but the application of such machines is not being feasible in rest areas of hills and mountains.Therefore harvesting of cereals crops,potato,sugarcane by using hand tools like sickles spades in hill and mountain is a compulsion without other alternatives of machine use.
  5. 5. Harvesting tools,sickles used in different countries
  6. 6. Types of sickles used in different countries
  7. 7. Serrated edge sickles
  8. 8. Rice harvesting due to labor shortage
  9. 9. Rice harvesting
  10. 10. Paddy harvesting alone due to labor shortage
  11. 11. Paddy harvesting
  12. 12. Wheat cutting manually
  13. 13. Indiginuous wheat havesting
  14. 14. Maize harvesting
  15. 15. Tea crop harvesting
  16. 16. Cabbage harvesting manually
  17. 17. Wheat harvesting ,manually
  18. 18. Collecting rice straw
  19. 19. Manually harvesting
  20. 20. Harvesting Equipment • Crop harvesting equipment:-In developed countries farming systems is fully or partially mechanized with the use of seeding,planting , harvesting and threshing macnineries/equipments.The use of such equipments is supported by commercial farming principle ,economy and technologies in developed countries like as the use of following harvesting equipments  Cereal crops harvesters like Rice/Paddy Harvester ,Wheat,Barley Harvester,Maize harvester as well as Combine Harvester  Sugarcane Harvester  Root crops harvester like Ground nut harvester,Potato Harvester  Cotton Harvester  Forage crops harvester  Fruit crops Harvester
  21. 21. Rice harvester ,Reaper
  22. 22. Rice harvester,Reaper
  23. 23. Rice harvester ,Reaper
  24. 24. Combine harvester
  25. 25. Wheat harvester,combine
  26. 26. Maize harvester
  27. 27. Maize harvester
  28. 28. Combine Harvester,Rice
  29. 29. Wheat harvesting in conservation farming
  30. 30. Sugarcane harvester
  31. 31. Combine harvester
  32. 32. Combine harvester, Wheat
  33. 33. Forage harvester
  34. 34. Grass cutter,mower
  35. 35. Forage harvester,mower
  36. 36. Rice harvester, combine
  37. 37. Potato digger
  38. 38. Potato digger in operation
  39. 39. Harvesting Machines(HM) • Constraints of harvesting:- The overall constraints of field crops harvesting in Nepal by mechanical equipments are categories as: Farmer Constraints:- Which are listed as -Low income -Low investing capicity, -Reluctance to change traditional methods, -Poor mechanical aptitude,and -Desire to save straw for other use
  40. 40. HM Farm Constraints:-Which are listed as: -Small farm holdings -Very small plots size with high bunds - Poor water control or muddy field -Inadequate ground support for harvesting equipment -Lack of access road to the field
  41. 41. Harvesting Machines(HM) Crop Constraints:-Which are listed as : -Excessive moisture content at harvesting time -Uneven ripening -Severe lodging and high shattering tendency of local and tall varities -Low grain/panicle-straw ratio -
  42. 42. HM Equipments constraints:- which are listed as: -Lack of functionality of machines regarding operation and maintenance skills -Difficult to change the operational practices of farmers for operating indigenous tools -High cost of imported equipments
  43. 43. HMT • Harvesting tools and machineries:-  Manuals Tools - Differents types of sickles like serrated sickles,plain sickles -different types of spades like hoe type spades,flat type spade etc  Animal drawn machines- -Mowers -Diggers
  44. 44. HM Mechanical Harvesters- -Tractor operated Mowers -Tractor operated Reapers -Self propelled Reapers, -Power tiller operated Reapers, -Power tiller operated Reaper with winders - Tractor operated combines harvester -Self propelled combines harvester, -Potato diggers or Potato harvester.
  45. 45. • Mowers:- Mowers are designed to cut meadow grasses and fodder crops/forage crops.Depending upon the source of power used mowers are classifed as:-  Animal Drawn Mowers,Trailed type  Tractor drawn Mowers -Trailed type with ground wheels -Semi mounted type with ground wheels -Tractor mounted type:-Rear mounted mowers, front mounted mowers,side mounted mowers,Central or mid mounted mowers  Depending upon the mode of construction as well as working action these mowers are classified as:- - Cutter bars type or finger bar type used for fodder or forage crop harvesting -Rotary blade type or rotary grass cutters used for lawn maintaining ,lawn grass cutting
  46. 46. HM • Main parts of cutter bar mowers:-  Cutter bars or finger bars unit:-It is the main part of mower.The main function of this unit is to cut crops and separate it from uncut portion.The knife moves back and forth over the guard surface to cut plants in both direction due to shearing action .It consists of parts as knife of triangular section, inside shoe,out side shoe,guards,ledger plate,wearing plate, knife clips,and grass board.The knife is the most important part of the cutter bar.The types of knife are smooth cutting edge types,top serrated cutting edge type,bottom serrated cutting edge type.
  47. 47. HM  Power transmitting unit:- The main function of this unit is to receive and transmit motive force. It consists of main axle,spur gears ,bevel gear,crank shaft, crank wheel and pitman (connecting rod).The main axle receives power from PTO shaft of tractor in case of tractor mounted type and one of the transport wheel in case of trailed type.The reciprocating(back and forth) motion is transmitted to the pitman which in turns operates the knife on the cutter bar by converting rotary motion to reciprocating motion by means of dynamically balanced devices.The knife makes about 1600 cutting stroke/minute.In order to engage or dis-engage the driving unit a clutch is provided on the counter shaft so that operator can operate it by foot from the seat.
  48. 48. HM  Frame or body of the mower :-It support all moving parts of the mower and provides penings for main axle,countershaft,crankshaft as well as also provides space for gears ,clutch and bearings.  Transport wheels-The transport wheel transmit power to the cutter bar knife.It is so arranged that when the wheel move forward the rachet and powl(gear box mechanism) mechanism comes into play to drive the main axle.  Auxillary parts:-In tractor drawn mower hand liver is provided to regulate,and adjust the cutter bar height as well as stopping and starting of mower in action from operator seat.Similarly in animal drawn mower foot lift is provided so that the cutter bar can be raised when turning at corners or to avoid obstructions.A hand liver is also provided to adjust the height of cut.
  49. 49. HM • Rotary Mower:-These are the mowers which have knives rotating about a substantially vertical spindle.Rotary mowers mostly are used in lawn or orchard to cut grass to maintain the lawn,orchard and play ground.Rotary mowers are of two types:-  Drum type mowers:- These are driven from the top by a shaft and gears or V-belts having numbers of rotary blades or knives moving inside the drums.Drum mowers with 3-4 double edges blades or knives carriers are of single drums or double or multi drums with more coverage of grass cutting areas in a single operation.  Disc mowers:- Disc mowers are smaller in size than drum mowers. Rotating discs with sharp serrated cutting edges are fitted with vertical spindle.When disc rotate with high speed the cutting action take place with serrated edge of the disc.
  50. 50. Cutter bar mower
  51. 51. Cutter bar mower/reaper
  52. 52. Mini type cutter bar reaper
  53. 53. Rice crop ready for harvesting
  54. 54. combine
  55. 55. Rotary drum mower
  56. 56. Front mounted cutter bar mower
  57. 57. Cutter knife assembly
  58. 58. Parts of cutter bar
  59. 59. Lawn mower(Rotary type)
  60. 60. Front and side mounted rotary mower
  61. 61. Hand tractor mounted cutter bar mower
  62. 62. Front side mounted reaper/mower
  63. 63. Front mounted multy drum Rotary Mower
  64. 64. HM • Reapers:-The working principle of reapers is same as like cutter bar mowers.Reapers are used to harvest cereal crops like rice and wheat.The size of machine varies from 1.8-2.1 meter depending upon the size of a prime mowers.They are mostly power tiller operated as well as tractor operated and self propelled reapers powered by 6 hp diesel engine.The cutter bar receives power from that engine for crop harvesting operation.Reaper consists of a cutter bar,crop row divider called reel and conveyor belt,star wheel etc. The reel direct the crop towards cutter bar where it is cut.The star wheel lift the cut crops up and turn it at 90 degree.
  65. 65. Front mounted cutter bar reaper
  66. 66. Mostly the reaper are mounted on front, rear but side as well as mid side of tractors or hand tractors. The tractor front mounted machine s having cutter bar length of 1.9-2.1 meter are operated at the forward speed of about 3 km/hr.The cut crops are carried along by belts to the entire width of machine before being placed on the ground with reaper winder or without winder.The reaper have the hydraulic lifting and lowering mechanism of cutter bar as cutting height adjustment of crops.Reaper is generally used to cut plant leaving crop stubble to a height of about 8 cm on ground.Reapers are available
  67. 67. HM • Harvesting devices for root crops: The harvesting devices or use of equipments for root crops like potato diggers or potato harvester,groundnut diggers or harvester is beneficially increasing trends.  Potato diggers:- It is realized that in some circumstances the cost of harvesting of potato manually is higher than the market price of potato in terms of commercial potato farming.So it is need to create a situation of profitable potato farming by the use of potato farming equipments like potato planter,potato diggers or potato harvester in case of large scale potato farming.
  68. 68. HM  Types of potato diggers:- -Animal drawn potato diggers-single row diggers -Tractor drawn potato diggers-Double row or multi row diggers  Potato diggers consists of parts like digger blade,conveyor,shaker belts ,elevators,graders and other associaries.The ridge bottom and replaceable bar point share,shovel type share are in common use in potato digger.The digger share uplift the whole mass of soil containing potato tubes then passes this mass to conveyor and shaker belts where seperation of potato tubes from soil takes place by falling soil mass to ground and conveying the potato tubes either to fall down to ground surface or to store in container by the use of elevator.
  69. 69. Potato digger
  70. 70. Hand tractor operated digger
  71. 71. Two row digger
  72. 72. digger
  73. 73. Potato harvester
  74. 74. Potato harvester
  75. 75. »Thank you

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