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Insect pests of cucurbits


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Insect pests of cucurbits

  1. 1. INSECT PESTS OF CUCURBITS R. Regmi Assistant professor Department of entomology
  2. 2. Insect pests of cucurbits Major insect pests • Red Pumpkin Beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) • Cucurbits Stink Bug, Cordius janus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) • Pumpkin Fruit Fly, Bactrocera curcubitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) • Spotted Beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata / E. Pussillanima (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
  3. 3. Red pumpkin beetle Cucurbit stink bug Spotted beetle, Epilachna beetle Cucurbit fruit fly
  4. 4. Minor insect pests • Cutworm, Agrotis segetum/A. ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) • Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta crucifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) • Aphids, Aphis gossypii/ Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) • Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) • Soybean Hairy Caterpillar, Spilarctia casigneta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) • Banded Blister Beetle, Mylabris orientalis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) • Semilooper, Anadividia (Phytometra) peponis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) • Stem Boring Beetle, Apomecyna saltator (Coleoptera: Cerambicidae)
  5. 5. Cutworm ` Flea beetle White fly Peach aphid Banded blister beetle Stem boring beetle
  7. 7. Soybean hairy catterpillar
  8. 8. Red Pumpkin Beetle, Aulacophora foveicollis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) • Red pumpkin is serious pest of cucurbits which is widely distributed in Asia, Australia, southern Europe and Africa. • Damage is caused by grubs as well as by beetles. • The grubs lead a subterranean(underground) life and, full grown grub measure about 12 mm in length and 3.5 mm across the mesothorax. • They are creamy white, with a slightly darker oval shield at the back. • The beetles feed on above the ground plant parts. They are oblong and 5-8mm long. • Their dorsal body surface is brilliant orange red & ventral surface is black being clothed in short white hair.
  9. 9. Life cycle: • The beetles are found concealed in groups under dry weeds, bushes & plant remains or in the cervices of soil. • They resume activity as soon as the season warms up • In life span of 60-85 days, lay about 300 oval yellow eggs singly or in batches of 8-9 in moist soil, near the base of the plants. • The eggs hatch in 6-15 days and the grubs remain below the soil surface feeding on roots, underground stems of creepers and on fruits laying in contact with the soil. • They are full grown in 13-25 days and pupate in thick walled earthen chambers in the soil, at a depth of about 20-25 cm. • The pupal stage lasts 7-17 days and the beetles, on emergence, begin to feed and breed. • The life cycle is completed in 26-37 days and the pest breeds five times from March to October.
  10. 10. Damage: • The beetles are very destructive to cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly during March-April when the creepers are very young. • The grubs damage the plants by boring into the roots, underground stems & sometimes into the fruits touching the soil. • The beetles injure the cotyledons, flowers and foliage by biting holes into them. • The early sown cucurbits are to severely damage.
  11. 11. Management: • Infested fields plough deep to kill the grubs in the soil. • Flooding irrigation in the field. • Sow the crop in November to avoid damage by this pest • Apply 7Kg of carbofuran 3G per ha 3-4 cm deep in the soil near the base of the plants just after germination and irrigate. • Spray 375g of Carbaryl 50WP in 250 liters of water per ha
  12. 12. Cucurbits Stink Bug, Cordius janus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) • The cucurbits stink bugs attack all members of the cucurbits. • Adults are winged and grayish brown. • The edges of the abdomen and underside of the insect have orange to orange brown stripes. • Feeding by piercing and sucking mouthparts occurs primarily on the plant foliage and tender stems. • Sometimes, cucurbits stink bugs may also damage on fruits. • The associated damage symptoms include wilting of leaves and ultimately result black or dry out.
  13. 13. Life Cycle: • Cucurbits stink bug egg are 1/16 inch long & laid in clusters of 15-40 on the undersides of leaves or stems. • Eggs are bronze to brick red in color and hatch in 1 to 2 weeks. • The colour of nymph ranges from mottled white to greenish gray, which have black legs. • Later on, they turn dark brown & resemble with adults. • The nymphs have partial development of wings, whereas the adults have full-grown wings. • The nymph become adult in 4 weeks. • The total life cycle completes within 4-5 weeks.
  14. 14. Management: • Collect and destroy the different stages of bug. • Field sanitation, removal of weed hosts and other overwintering sites of bugs. • Parasitiod like a Tachinid fly (attack nymph and adult) and some wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae and Scelionidae are egg parasition) can be used for management. • Spray 1 liter of malathion 50EC in 250 liters of water per ha. • Spray Rogor (dimethoate) 30 EC @1ml/liter of water.
  15. 15. Pumpkin Fruit Fly, Bactrocera curcubitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) • This is the most destructive pest of cucurbits. • Only the maggot cause damage by feeding on near ripe fruits, riddling (piercing ) them and polluting the pulp. • The maggots are legless and appear as headless, dirty white wriggling creatures, thicker at one end and tapering to a point at the other. • A full grown maggot is 9-10 mm long & 2 mm broad in the middle. • The adult flies are reddish brown with lemon yellow markings on the thorax and have fuscous areas on the outer margin of their wings.
  16. 16. Life cycle • This pest is active throughout the year, but the life cycle is prolonged during winter. • The adult flies emerge form pupae in the morning hours and mate at dusk. • It takes a few days for the eggs to mature inside the body of female which starts laying them within 14 days. • During winter, the pre-oviposition period is prolonged. • They oviposit in comparatively soft fruits avoiding those with hard rind. • The selection of a suitable sites and the actual laying of eggs take about 6-8 minutes. • A cavity is made by sharp ovipositor and about a dozen white cylindrical egg are laid, mostly in the evening hours. • After laying the eggs, the female releases a gummy secretion which cements the tissues surrounding the pucture and makes the entrance water proof. • The female, on an average lay 58-95 eggs in 14-54 days.
  17. 17. Life cycle continue • The egg hatch in 1-9 days and the maggots bore into the pulp forming galleries. • The attacked fruits decay because of secondary bacterial infection. • The larva are full grown in 3 days during summer & 3 weeks during winter. • The mature larvae come out of the rotten fruits and move away in jumps of 12-20 cm. • These are made possible by folding & unfolding the two ends of the elongated body. • After reaching a suitable place, they bury themselves about 5 mm deep in the soil and pupate. • The pupae are barrel shaped, light brown & they transform themselves into winged adults in 6-9 days in the rainy season and 3-4 weeks in the winter. • There are several generations in a year.
  18. 18. Damage: • The maggot pollute and destroy fruits by feeding on the pulp. • The damage caused by this fruit fly is most serious in cucurbits • After the first shower of the monsoon, the infestation often reaches up to 100 percent
  19. 19. Management: • The regular removal & destruction of the infested fruits • Frequent raking of the soil under the vine/ ploughing the infested field after crop harvested can help in killing the pupae. • Install Cue lure trap (3 traps per ropani) • Foliar spray of malathion 50%EC @ 2ml/liter @2g jaggery/liter of malation solution. • Treat root zone soil of plants with Malation 5% Dust@ 20 kg/ha to kill hibernating pupa • Use protein bait spray (Malathion+hydrolysed protein+ water at few spots in a field. Both male and female are attracted to ammonia generated by protein sources. • Use food lure@ 1kg pumpkin and & 100 gm of jaggery and 10 ml malathion. • Apply bait spray containing 50ml malation 50EC +0.5kg of sugar in 50 liters of water per ha. Repeat the spray if problem is serious.
  20. 20. Spotted Beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata / E. dodecastigma (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) • 2 species of spotted beetle Epilachna dodecastigma, E. vigintioctopunctata attacked different cucurbits and also solanaceous crops like brinjal, tomtato and potato. • Another species E. demurili, attacks cucurbitaceous vegetable exclusively. • Damage is caused by the beetles as well as the grubs. • Beetles of all the three species are about 8-9 mm in length & 5-6 mm in width. • E. viginitioctopunctata beetles are deep red and usually have 7-14 black spot on the each elytron whose tip is somewhat pointed. • Beetles of E. dodecastigma are deep copper- coloured and have six black spot on each elytron whose tip is rounded. • E. demurili beetles have a dull appearances and are light copper coloured. Each of their elytron bears six black spots surrounded by yellowish rings. • Grubs of all the three species are about 6 mm long, yellowish in colour and have six rows of long branched spines.
  21. 21. Life cycle • The life cycle & mode of damage of the three species of spotted beetle are very similar. • Considering their abundance, E. vigintioctopunctata is the most important. • It passes the winter as a hibernating adult among heaps of dry plants or in cracks & cervices in the soil. • It resumes activity during March- April & lays yellow cigar shaped eggs, mostly on the underside of leaves, in batches of 5-40 each. • A single female can lay up to 400 eggs in her lifetime. • The egg hatch in 2.9-5 days at 35-25 °C. • The grubs feed on the lower epidermis of leaves and are full grown in 7-17 days at 35-25 °C • The pupae are darker and are found fixed on the leaves, stems and most commonly, at the base of plants. • The pupal stage lasts from 5- 13 days at 35-25 °C. • The pest passes through several breeds from March to October and its population maximum at the end of April or in early May. • During the hot and dry months, the number declines greatly but the population again builds up in August.
  22. 22. Damage: • Both the adults and grub cause damage by feeding on the lower and upper surface of leaves. • They eat up regular areas of the leaf tissue, leaving parallel band of uneaten tissue in between. • The leaves become a lace like appearances. • They turn brown, dry up and fall off and completely skeletonize the plants.
  23. 23. Management • Field sanitation • Collect and destroy the infested leaves along with insect in initial stages • Spray 625ml of malathion 50EC in 325 litres of water per ha at 10 days intervals as soon as the pest appears.