24.1 Latin American24.1 Latin AmericanPeoples Win IndependencePeoples Win IndependenceSpurred by discontent andSpurred by discontent andEnlightenment ideas, peoples inEnlightenment ideas, peoples inLatin America fight colonial rule.Latin America fight colonial rule.
Colonial Society DividedColonial Society Divided A Race and Class SystemA Race and Class System• Latin America has social classes that determineLatin America has social classes that determinejobs and authorityjobs and authority PeninsularesPeninsulares—born in Spain, they head colonial—born in Spain, they head colonialgovernment and societygovernment and society CreolesCreoles—American-born Spaniards who can become—American-born Spaniards who can becomearmy officersarmy officers MestizosMestizos—have both European and Native American—have both European and Native Americanancestryancestry MulattosMulattos—have both European and African ancestry—have both European and African ancestry Slaves and Native Americans are at the bottom ofSlaves and Native Americans are at the bottom ofsocietysociety
Revolutions in the AmericasRevolutions in the Americas Revolution in HaitiRevolution in Haiti• Haiti is the first Latin AmericanHaiti is the first Latin Americanterritory to gain freedomterritory to gain freedom• Toussaint L’OuvertureToussaint L’Ouverture leadsleadsslave revolt against the Frenchslave revolt against the French(1791)(1791)• Toussaint eventually dies in aToussaint eventually dies in aFrench prison in 1803.French prison in 1803.
Revolutions in HaitiRevolutions in Haiti Haiti’s IndependenceHaiti’s Independence• Jean-Jacques DessalinesJean-Jacques Dessalinesdeclares Saint Domingue adeclares Saint Domingue acountry in 1804country in 1804• Saint Domingue becomesSaint Domingue becomesfirst black colony to winfirst black colony to winindependenceindependence• Renames Haiti, meansRenames Haiti, means“mountainous land” in the“mountainous land” in theArawak languageArawak language• Emperor Jacques isEmperor Jacques isassassinated in 1806 byassassinated in 1806 bydisaffected members of hisdisaffected members of hisadministration.administration.
Creoles Lead IndependenceCreoles Lead Independence The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasThe Spread of Enlightenment Ideas• Enlightenment ideas inspire LatinEnlightenment ideas inspire LatinAmerican revolutionariesAmerican revolutionaries Creole LeadersCreole Leaders• Simón BolívarSimón Bolívar—wealthy Creole leads—wealthy Creole leadsVenezuela in revolutionVenezuela in revolution• José de San MartínJosé de San Martín—leader of—leader ofArgentinean revolutionary forcesArgentinean revolutionary forces
1. Bolivar’s 1807return fromEurope by wayof the UnitedStates allowedhim to study theAmericansystem ofgovernment.2. In 1810, Bolivarwent to Londonto seek supportfor therevolution inLatin America.At the sametime, he studiedBritishinstitutions ofgovernment.
Portraits of Bolivar and San MartinPortraits of Bolivar and San Martin
Creoles Lead IndependenceCreoles Lead Independence Bolívar’s Route to VictoryBolívar’s Route to Victory• Venezuela declares independence inVenezuela declares independence in1811; Bolivar wins war by 18211811; Bolivar wins war by 1821 San Martín Leads SouthernSan Martín Leads SouthernLiberation ForcesLiberation Forces• Argentina is independent in 1816; SanArgentina is independent in 1816; SanMartin helps free ChileMartin helps free Chile• Bolívar’s and San Martín’s armies driveBolívar’s and San Martín’s armies driveSpanish out of Peru in 1824.Spanish out of Peru in 1824.
Mexico Ends Spanish RuleMexico Ends Spanish Rule A Cry for FreedomA Cry for Freedom• PadrePadre Miguel HidalgoMiguel Hidalgo—priest who launches—priest who launchesMexican revolt (1810).Mexican revolt (1810).• 80,000 Indian and80,000 Indian andMestizo followers marchMestizo followers marchon Mexico Cityon Mexico City• Jose Maria MorelosJose Maria Morelos——leads revolt afterleads revolt afterHidalgo’s defeat, butHidalgo’s defeat, butlosesloses• Both Hidalgo andBoth Hidalgo andMorelos were executed.Morelos were executed.
An artisticrepresentationof theexecution ofJose MariaMorelos in1815.
Mexico Ends Spanish RuleMexico Ends Spanish Rule Mexico’sMexico’sIndependenceIndependence• Mexican creoles react;Mexican creoles react;Iturbide (a MexicanIturbide (a MexicanGeneral) declaresGeneral) declaresMexico independentMexico independent(1821)(1821)• Iturbide reigns brieflyIturbide reigns brieflyas emperor until Marchas emperor until March1823.1823.• In 1823, CentralIn 1823, CentralAmerica breaks awayAmerica breaks awayfrom Mexicofrom MexicoAgustín de Iturbide
Iturbide is credited with designing thefirst Mexican flag. (1821-1823)Today’s Flag of MexicoThe tri-color flag is stillused, and the presence ofthe eagle is also used inthe modern flag of Mexicoused since 1968.
Brazil’s Royal LiberatorBrazil’s Royal Liberator A BloodlessA BloodlessRevolutionRevolution• Napoleon invadesNapoleon invadesPortugal; royalPortugal; royalfamily moves tofamily moves toBrazil (1807)Brazil (1807)• Portuguese courtPortuguese courtreturns to Portugalreturns to Portugalafter Napoleon’safter Napoleon’sdefeat (1815)defeat (1815)The Imperial Palace in Rio deJaneiro where King John VIof Portugal had transferredthe Portuguese Royal Courtto Brazil.
Brazil’s Royal LiberatorBrazil’s Royal Liberator• Portuguese prince DomPortuguese prince DomPedro stays behind inPedro stays behind inBrazilBrazil Dom Pedro acceptsDom Pedro acceptsBrazilian’s request to ruleBrazilian’s request to ruletheir own countrytheir own country He officially declaresHe officially declaresBrazil’s independenceBrazil’s independence(September 1822)(September 1822)• By 1830, nearly all ofBy 1830, nearly all ofLatin American regionsLatin American regionswin independencewin independencePedro I of Brazil
Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro I