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24.3 nationalism


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24.3 nationalism

  1. 1. Nationalism Nationalism contributes to the formation of two new nations and a new political order in Europe
  2. 2. Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity <ul><li>Two Views of Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three different types of nationalist movements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unification merges culturally similar lands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>separation splits off culturally distinct groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>state-building binds separate cultures into one </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires <ul><li>The Breakup of the Austrian Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria includes people from many ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1866 defeat in Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War) and Hungarian nationalism forces emperor to split the empire into Austria and Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>still ruled by emperor </li></ul></ul></ul>Flag of Austria-Hungary representing two kingdoms, but ruled by one emperor. This was a concession to Hungarian nationalism.
  4. 5. Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires <ul><li>The Russia Empire Crumbles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over their empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russification —forcing other peoples to adopt Russian culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires <ul><li>The Ottoman Empire Weakens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal tensions among ethnic groups weakens the empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turks. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Case Study: Italy <ul><li>Cavour Unites Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy forms territory from crumbling empires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1815-1848 Italians want independence from foreign rulers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Case Study: Italy <ul><li>Cavour Leads Italian Unification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camillo di Cavour —prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets French help to win control of Austrian-controlled Italian land </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Case Study: Italy <ul><li>Garibaldi Brings Unity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giuseppe Garibaldi —leads nationalists who conquer southern Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite southern Italy with Sardinia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garibaldi steps aside, allowing the king of Sardinia to rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of Venetia and Papal States finally unites Italy </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Case Study: Germany <ul><li>Bismarck Unites Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1815, thirty-nine German states form the German Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prussia Leads German Unification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia has advantages that help it to unify Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mainly German population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>powerful army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creation of liberal constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Case Study: Germany <ul><li>Bismarck Takes Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junkers —conservative wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realpolitik —power politics without room for idealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck defies Prussian parliament </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Case Study: Germany <ul><li>Prussia Expands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia and Austria fight Denmark, gain two provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick victory makes other German nations respect Prussia </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Case Study: Germany <ul><li>Seven Weeks War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck creates a border dispute with Austria to provoke a war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia seizes Austrian territory, northern Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern and western parts of Prussian kingdom are joined for the first time. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Case Study: Germany <ul><li>The Franco-Prussian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilhelm is crowned Kaiser —emperor of a united Germany—at Versailles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. To some Germans, Bismarck was the greatest and noblest of Germany’s statesmen. They say he almost singlehandedly unified the nation and raised it to greatness. To others, he was nothing but a devious politician who abused his powers and led Germany into dictatorship. His speeches, letters, and memoirs show him to be both crafty and deeply religious. At one moment, he could declare, “It is the destiny of the weak to be devoured by the strong.” At another moment he might claim, “We Germans shall never wage aggressive war, ambitious war, a war of conquest.”
  15. 18. A Shift in Power <ul><li>Balance Is Lost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically </li></ul></ul>