1750-1914: An Age ofRevolutions Latin AmericanIndependence Movements
4Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917 Referred to as Banana Republics
3 Latin American Wars of Independence• What caused discontent in Latin America?• How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in Central America win independence?• How did nations of South America win independence?
3 What Caused Discontent in Latin America?By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped WesternEurope had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rootedin the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during300 years of Spanish rule.• Peninsulares were those born of Spanish parents in Spain; therefore, they had the most wealth, education, & status.• Creoles resented their second-class status.• Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites.• Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish.• Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
3 CENTRAL HAITI MEXICO AMERICAIn 1791, Toussaint Father Miguel Hidalgo and Spanish-ruled landsL’Ouverture led slaves in José Morelas led popular declared theirrevolt. revolts. independence in theBy 1798, enslaved Rebels led by Agustín de early 1820s.Haitians had been freed. Iturbide overthrew the Local leaders set up theIn 1802, Napoleon sent Spanish viceroy, creating United Provinces ofan army to recapture an independent Mexico. Central America.Haiti.Napoleon’s forces Iturbide took the title of The union soonagreed to a truce, or emperor, but was quickly fragmented intotemporary peace. overthrown. separate republics of Liberal Mexicans set up Guatemala, Nicaragua,In 1804, Haitian leaders Honduras, El Salvador, the Republic of Mexico.declared independence. and Costa Rica. Struggles for Independence
Independence in South America 3 In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence.Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” :theGeorge Washington of South America,” ledan uprising that established a republic inVenezuela. He then capturedColombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.• In 1816, José de San Martín helpedArgentina win freedom from Spain. He thenjoined forces with Bolívar.• Bolívar tried to unite the liberatedlands into a single nation called GranColombia. However, bitter rivalries madethat dream impossible. Before long, GranColumbia split into three independentcountries: Venezuela, Colombia, andEcuador. (Panama)
3Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844
3 Independence Movements in Latin America Long-Term Causes Immediate CausesEuropean domination of Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injusticesSpread of Enlightenment ideasAmerican and French revolutions Revolutionary leaders emergeGrowth of nationalism in Latin America Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king Immediate Effects Long-Term EffectsToussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave Attempts made to rebuild economiesrevolt in Haiti 18 separate republics set upBolívar, San Martín, and others leadsuccessful revolts in Latin America Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gainColonial rule ends in much of Latin economic independenceAmerica
François Toussaint- Simón Bolívar Louverture-Padre Miguel Hidalgo Key People Pedro I José de San Martín
Latin American Independence Movements, 18th & 19th C. Wars of Independence In Latin America Many Latin American nations made a break for freedom while Napoleon was in power in Spain & Portugal, but alas…
Results• Caudillos – Strong military, usually selfish & greedy, leaders emerge – Dictatorship and totalitarian systems emerge• Dependency theory challenges “Modernity” theory – Western European markets determine the product – South America dependent upon others buying their one crop. They see it as the gringos controlling their lives!• Banana Republics – United Fruit Company controlled Central America in late 19th and early 20th century – Phrase coined to designate politically unstable, dependent on limited agriculture, and ruled by a small, wealthy and corrupt clique put in power by the United States government in conjunction with the CIA and the US business lobby
Latin American social classes Peninsulares were men born in Spain or Portugal who held highest offices and important military and political positions Creoles were Spaniards born in the Latin American colonies who were officers in army, but not in government and controlled much of the land and business in the colonies. But they deeply resented power of the peninsulares. Mestizos made up the majority of the society because it was mixed European and Indian. They worked as servant to the peninsulares and Creoles and as plantation overseers and farmhands. Mulatto-European and African mixed ancestry. The Native Americans/Africans were the lowest society group but also the largest. They were not known as citizens but did much labor.
French colonies: Revolution in Haiti• Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti• Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
• The first Latin American uprising was in the French colony of Haiti, which was where huge plantations of sugar, cotton and coffee spread across the mountains and valleys of the lush tropical land. The Plantations were owed by French planters and worked by the colony’s enslaved African population• There was a high demand of sugar and coffee from the small colony of Haiti• 500,000 to 560,000 people living in Haiti in the late 1700s were enslaved or had been• Unrest erupted in the early 1790’s when enslaved Africans led by François Toussaint-Louverture revolted by setting fires to plantation homes and fields of sugarcane.• Napoleon sent forces in 1802 in order to take control of the colony and successfully captured Toussaint-L’Ouverture and imprisoned him in France until his death in 1803.• Yellow fever was the death of thousands of French soldiers which is what the Haiti people needed to defeat the French and gain their independence in 1804.
Toussaint L’Ouverture• Former slave, self-educated.• Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat.• Allegedly got name (“opening” in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines.• Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791.• 100,000 slaves in revolt.• By 1801, L’Ouverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves.• In January 1802, French troops landed.• Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery• French accused him of planning another uprising.• Sent him to a prison in the French Alps.• He died 10 months later, April 1803.
Liberty! Toussaint L’Ouverture and his army of former slaves battle for independencefrom France and an end to slavery. Although Toussaint achieved his goal of endingslavery, Haiti (see inset) did not become independent until after his death. Why do youthink Toussaint and his army were willing to risk death to achieve their goals?
• Padre Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest who was the leader of the Mexican war for Independence. He started the movement of independence in 1810. With his help, the fight for independence lasted for 11 years but Miguel did not see it to the end. He was executed in 1811 because of traitors who sold him out to the Spaniards. • Miguel Hidalgo was known as a risk taker with the motto:May 8, 1753 –July 30, 1811 “We want a free Mexico;” with this motto, his fight for independence never ended.
• Father Miguel Hidalgo led the fight against the Spanish government in Mexico because of the deep care he had for the poverty-stricken Native Americans and mestizos.• Hidalgo’s goals were political freedom, an end to slavery, and improvements to living conditions for Mexico’s poor and revolution was the only way to bring change• On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo gave a stirring address that became known as “el Grito de Dolores” that called for Mexicans to fight for “Independence and Liberty.”• In 1811 the well-trained Spanish army finally overwhelmed the rebels and Hidalgo was captured and executed
Independence: Mexican Independence DayToday, the people of Mexico remember Father Hidalgo’s speech as ―el Grito deDolores.‖ Every September 15, the anniversary of the speech, the president ofMexico rings a bell—suggestive of the church bell in Dolores. The president thenhonors the Grito de Dolores by repeating the speech.The next day, September 16, marks the anniversary of the beginning of the fightagainst the Spanish. It is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day, a nationalholiday. Schools and businesses shut down, and people throw huge parties.Fireworks light the night sky.Why is the ringing of bells animportant custom of MexicanIndependence Day?
Statue of Bolívar as the Liberator in Mexico City
Agustín de Iturbide José Francisco de San Simón Bolívar July September 27, 1783 – Martín24, 1783 – December July 19, 1824 February 25, 1778 – 17, 1830 August 17, 1850
• Agustín de Iturbide decisively ended the Mexican War of Independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of Regency in 1821 and Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from May 19, 1822 to March 19, 1823. Agustín de Iturbide is also credited as the original designer of the Mexican flag.• Simón Bolívar led many colonies to independence because he believed in equality and saw liberty as “the only object worth a man’s life.” Bolívar’s nickname was “The Liberator” because he devoted his life to the freedom for Latin Americans. In 1810, Simón Bolívar started a revolt against the Spaniards in Caracas which lasted 9 years until he crushed Spain’s power in northern South America. Also called “George Washington of South America”• José de San Martín led Latin American armies over the Andes Mountains and into Chile where he joined Bernardo O’Higgins. The two men successfully achieved independence for Chile in 1818. In 1820, they also captured Lima and declared Peru independent. In 1826, Bolívar and his armies had liberated all of South America.
Chilean liberator Bernardo O’Higgins by the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siquieros at Chillán’s Escuela México.The son of the Irish-born governor ofChile, he was a leading figure in themovement to overthrow the rulingSpanish administration and was the firsthead of state of the independent Chile. OHiggins Rides Again, Arica, Chile - Every South American city displays its heroes in bronze. In Arica, its Bernardo OHiggins who does the honors. OHiggins fought alongside of Argentinas Jose San Martin, defeating Spain at Chacabuco, bringing independence to Chile in 1818, and served as its first "Supreme Director".
Gran Colombia, 1820-1830Bolivar’s vision of a united South America.Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela andPanama.Short-lived due to dissension amongst variousfactions.Bolivar resigned in 1828.In 1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided intoColombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance,1903.
When the king returned toPortugal, he left his son DomPedro to rule Brazil. “If Brazildemands independence,” theking advisedPedro, “proclaim it yourselfand put the crown on yourown head.”In 1822, Pedro followed hisfather’s advice.
Brazil gains Independence• Brazil gains independence without the bloodshed because when Napoleon’s French army had invaded Portugal, causing the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil.• King João transferred his monarchy to Brazil and immediately introduced governmental reforms in Brazil. With the different reforms made by King João, Brazil was a self-governing kingdom without the Portuguese in 1815.• In September 1822 Brazil won full independence from Portugal and crowned Dom Pedro as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.• In 1825, Portugal finally recognized Brazil’s independence.
Challenges that come with Growth• Because of the high mountains and thick jungles made transportation and communication difficult, hindering trade and economic growth, which let many fertile lands remaining undeveloped.• Stable food source is important to growth; building infrastructure is equally important—schools, roads, hospitals…• In the Colonies the executive branch of the government had the political power.• The judicial branch was weak and limited, and• the legislative branch was practically nonexistent.• The leaders were well educated but had no experience in the legislative process, and with low literacy rates, the people were slow to get a grip on democratic process.• But there were still the separation between the upper and lower classes, but now the creoles owned the best land and controlled business and government, not the peninsulares.
• Although Catholicism remained the official religion and Church and government continued to be closely tied.• With the gain of independence came the increase of political conflicts. Liberals called for separation of Church and State, the breakup of large estates, higher taxes on land, public social services, and civilian control of the government. There were liberals than there were the creoles, most of whom were rich landowners, church leaders, and military officers. The decades that followed the wars for independence saw an ongoing struggle for economic strength and social justice.
4 Political ProblemsDuring the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plaguedby revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.• Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy.• With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area. What they really needed:• Land Reform• a break with traditional customs• experience with government• infrastructure• separation of Church and State
Opposing 1 IdeologiesAt the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to turn theclock back to the way things had been before 1789.Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposed by theCongress of Vienna.The clash of people with opposing ideologies, orsystems of thought and belief, plunged Europeinto more than 30 years of turmoil.
1 What Were the Goals of Conservatives?Conservatives pursued the following goals:• Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napoleon swept across Europe.• Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors.• Maintain an established church.• Suppress revolutionary ideas.
1 The Liberal and Nationalist ChallengeChallenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals andnationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the FrenchRevolution. LIBERALISM NATIONALISM Liberals wanted: • National groups who shared • Governments based on a common heritage set out written constitutions and to win their own states. separation of powers. • Natural rights of • Nationalism gave people with liberty, equality, and a common heritage a sense prosperity. of identity. • Rulers elected by the people and responsible to • Nationalism often bred them. intolerance and led to • A republican form of persecution of other ethnic government. or national groups.
Church on the Spilled Blood (ResurrectionCathedral). Built as a memorial churchdedicated to Alexander II (the tsar whoabolished serfdom in Russia), this churchnow represents the world`s largestmuseum of mosaics. Outside the traditionalRussian onion domes make this church themost un-St.Petersburg-like structure, Church on Spilled Blood - built between 1883 and 1907
1 Revolts Against the Old OrderSpurred by the ideas of liberalism andnationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old • Inorder. the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers and becomes “The Powder Keg of Europe”. • In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy.
2 How Did RevolutionThe revolts in Paris inspired uprisings Spread in 1830?elsewhere in Europe. Most weresuppressed by military force. But hereand there, rebels did win changes fromconservative governments. Even whenthey failed, revolutionaries frightenedrulers badly enough to encourage reform Polandlater in the century. Nationalists in Poland staged anBelgium The one notable success for uprising in 1830.Europe’s revolutionaries in 1830 took However, theplace in Belgium. The Congress of Viennahad united Belgium and Holland under rebels failed to gainthe Dutch king. widespreadThe Belgians resented this arrangement support, and wereand pushed for independence. brutally crushed byIn 1831, Belgium became an Russian forces.independent state with a liberalconstitution.
2 Revolutions of 1848 In 1848, revolts in Paris again unleashed a tidal wave of revolution across Europe.• In Austria, revolts caused Metternich to resign. The Austrian government agreed to reforms, but these gains were temporary. With Russian help, Austrian forces defeated the rebels. Many were imprisoned, executed, or exiled.• Nationalists in Italy rebelled against Austrian Hapsburg rulers. They expelled the pope and installed a nationalist government. Before long, Austrian troops ousted the new government and the French army restored the pope to power.• In Prussia, liberals forced King Frederick William IV to agree to a constitution written by an elected assembly.• Within a year, Frederick dissolved the assembly and issued his own constitution keeping power in his own hands.
Conflicting IdeologiesThis cartoon shows PrinceMetternich standingresolute against the angrycrowd behind him who arepushing for reform.Metternich representedthe conservative order andopposed revolutionaryideals such as freedom andprogress.How does the cartoonistportray those in thecrowd?What does the crowdsupport?What did Metternich do tosuppress revolutionaryideas?
Serbs in BattleSerb leader Karageorge (left) leads the Serbs againstthe Ottomans at the Battle of Misar during the firstSerbian rebellion.(a) Why would this battle and others like it help lead to a sense of Serbian national identity?(b) Why was this sense of nationalism important for the Serbs?
Belgium Wins IndependenceThe one notable success in 1830 took place in Belgium. In 1815, the Congress ofVienna had united the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and the Kingdomof Holland under the Dutch king. The Congress had wanted to create a strong barrierto help prevent French expansion in the future.The Belgians resented the new arrangement. They and the Dutch had different languages.The Belgians were Catholic, while the Dutch were Protestant. The Belgian economy wasbased on manufacturing; the Dutch, on trade.In 1830, news of the Paris uprising ignited a revolutionary spark in Belgium. Students andworkers threw up barricades in Brussels, the capital. Britain and France believed that theywould benefit from the separation of Belgium and Holland and supported Belgiandemands for independence. As a result, in 1831, Belgium became an independent statewith a liberal constitution.Rebels Fail in PolandNationalists in Poland also staged an uprising in 1830. But, unlike the Belgians, thePoles failed to win independence for their country.In the late 1700s, Russia, Austria, and Prussia had divided up Poland. Poles had hopedthat the Congress of Vienna would restore their homeland in 1815. Instead, the greatpowers handed most of Poland to Russia.In 1830, Polish students, army officers, and landowners rose in revolt. The rebels failedto gain widespread support, however, and were brutally crushed by Russian forces.Some survivors fled to Western Europe and the United States, where they kept alivethe dream of freedom.
2Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 • Why did revolutions occur in France in 1830 and 1848? • How did revolution spread in 1830? • What were the results of the 1848 revolutions?
2Why Did Revolutions Occur in France in 1830 and 1848? 1830 1848Charles X, a strong believer in When the government triedabsolutism, suspended the to silence critics andlegislature, limited the right to prevent publicvote, and restricted the press. meetings, angry crowds took to the streets.Liberals and radicals rebelledand took control of Paris. Louis Philippe abdicated.Moderate liberals put inplace a constitutional Revolutionary leadersmonarchy, and chose Louis proclaimed a SecondPhilippe as king. Republic.
Revolt in France in 1830• Wanted to restore absolute monarchs• Had support of ultraroyalists- -nobles favoring a return to the old order• Dissolved the Assembly and held new elections Charles X• Issued the July Ordinances – Measures that showed the dissolved assembly, ended press freedom, and restricted voting rights• Les Trois Glorieuses—in return for July Ordinances – Three glorious days of rioting and revolution, again! – Parisian workers and students forced Charles to give up the throne and flee to Great Britain
• Louis Philippe accepted the throne as “The Citizen King” – Dressed and behaved like a middle class citizen – Favored wealthy and ignored middle class demands• Francois Guizot – Prime minister of France – Also refused middle class Louis-Philippe I demands François Guizot accepts the charter from Louis- Philippe, the "Citizen-King".
France--The Revolution of 1848• Guizot feared a demonstration and cancelled a banquet• February 22 – Crowds flooded the streets singing “The Marseillaise” and shouted protests to Guizot – Troops called to calm it sided with the rebels and joined the parade – 52 civilians were killed or wounded – Louis Philippe fled to Great Britain – Rebels declared France a republic Marianne/Liberte
2 Why Did the Uprisings Fail? By 1850 the rebellions had faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789.• Rulers used military force to suppress the uprisings.• Revolutionaries did not have mass support.• A growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reforms.
Giuseppe Mazzini, around 1865 Flag of Italy, 1833In the 1830s, the nationalist leader Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy. The goal of thissecret society was “to constitute Italy, one, free, independent, republican nation.” In1849, Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome, but French forces soon toppledit. Like many other nationalists, Mazzini spent much of his life in exile, plotting and dreamingof a united Italy.
To nationalists like Mazzini, a united Italy made sensenot only because of geography, but also because of acommon language and history. Nationalists remindedItalians of the glories of ancient Rome and themedieval papacy. To others, unity made practicaleconomic sense. It would end trade barriers amongthe Italian states and stimulate industry. The image is a draft of a speech written by Camillo Cavour in 1861. After 1848, leadership of the Risorgimento or Italian nationalist movement, passed to the kingdom of Sardinia, which included Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy as well as the island of Sardinia. Its constitutional monarch, Victor Emmanuel II, hoped to join other states to his own, thereby increasing his power.
3 Unifying Italy• What were the key obstacles to Italian unity?• What roles did Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi play in the struggle for Italy?• What challenges faced the new nation of Italy?
This Harpers Weekly cartoon glorifies Giuseppe Garibaldi, the military leader of the Italian independence and unification movement, as a liberator of the Italian people from their oppressive rulers. He appears as Perseus, the mythical Greek hero who rescued Princess Andromeda (here, Sicily) from a sea monster (here, "Bomba," King Ferdinand II of Sicily).• Camillo Benso, conte di Cavourwas the statesman, while Garibaldi was the warrior, but together they created Italy.
• Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82) helping Victor Emmanuel II (1820-78) put on the boot of Italy. The Unification of Italy. John Tenniel cartoon from "Punch", London, 17 November 1860. Wood engraving. Without Garibaldi’s efforts on his behalf, Victor Emmanuel II would not have become King of a united Italy. VEII becomes king with a constitutional monarchy and a bicameral legislature
VittorioEmanuele II The Vittoriano in Rome, honoring King Victor Emmanuel and celebrating the unity of Italy. The decision to build it was reached in 1878, shortly after the kings death that year; the site on the Capitoline Hill was chosen in 1882; and the design of 28 year-old Giuseppe Sacconi was selected in 1884. Construction began in 1885 and the monument was inaugurated in 1911. It is fondly referred to as The Typewriter.
3 Obstacles to Italian UnityFor centuries, Italy had been a battleground for ambitious foreignand local princes. Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led peopleto identify with local regions.The Congress of Vienna divided Italy up among Austrianrulers, Hapsburg monarchs, and a French Bourbon king.Nationalist attempts to expel Austrian forces from northern Italywere repeatedly crushed.
3What Challenges Faced the New Nation of Italy?• Italy had no tradition of unity. Strong regional ties left Italy unable to solve critical national issues.• An enormous gap existed between the north, which was richer and had more cities, and the south, which was poor and rural.• Hostility between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church further divided the nation.• In the late 1800s, unrest increased as radicals on the left struggled against a conservative right.
The Struggle for Italy 3 CAVOUR GARIBALDIPrime minister who believed in Long-time nationalist leader whoRealpolitik. wanted to create an Italian republic.Wanted to end Austrian power in Led his Thousand Red Shirts intoItaly and annex its provinces of battle.Lombardy and Venetia. Captured Sicily and Naples andLed Sardinia to provoke a war with turned them over to VictorAustria. With help from Emmanuel. ShortlyFrance, Sardinia defeated Austria afterward, Victor Emmanuel II wasand annexed Lombardy. crowned king of Italy.
Italian EmigrationEmigrants crowd theport of Naples.Why did Italiansimmigrate to othercountries in the early1900s?
Otto von Bismarck(center), chancellorof Germany, meetswith European andTurkish leaders atthe Congress ofBerlin.
Reaction and Nationalism The Unification of Germany An Alsatian
Terms People and Places to look forPEOPLE AND PLACES TERMS• William I • Realpolitik• Otto von Bismarck • Kaiser• Frankfurt • chancellor• Austria• Prussia• Schleswig• Holstein
“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power. . . . The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions— that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood andOtto von Bismarck delivered his “blood andiron” speech in 1862. It set the tone for his iron!”future policies. Bismarck was determined to —Otto von Bismarck, 1862build a strong, unified German state, withPrussia at its head.
1 Building a German Nation• What early changes promoted German unity?• How did Bismarck unify Germany?• What was the basic political organization of the new German empire?
1 Steps Toward German Unity• Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon made important territorial changes in German-speaking lands. Many Germans resented Napoleon and his changes. As people fought to free their lands from French rule, they began to demand a unified state.• In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union called the Zollverein.• In 1848, liberals again demanded German political unity. They offered the throne of a united German state to Frederick William IV of Prussia, but he refused it.
Steps Toward Unity• In order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I, an international conference, The Congress of Vienna, was called.• The Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation in 1815 as a buffer against possible future French expansion!• Even though Austria dominated the confederation, Prussia was the largest German state that had a well-organized government and strong economy.• The power in the German states, at this time, was liberal!!
Bismarck Early Germany• Military battles caused Germany to become politically unified, but this did little to ease the tension felt by German people. The Germans still had many religious, social, economic and political differences that divided them. This was because the Germans had been separate individual kingdoms for hundreds of years. German leaders saw the need to bring the people together as a whole. Otto von Bismarck emerged as the man who would play a key role in unifying the nation of Germany. Kaiser William I will support Bismarck. Notice stylish Prussian helmet
Otto von BismarcKBACKGROUND INFORMATION• Son of Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck and Wilhelmine Luise Mencken,• Otto von Bismarck was born into a wealthy family. He was educated at secondary schools and studied law at the University of Gottingen. Otto also served in the army for one year and became an officer in the Landwehr, reserve.HIS ROLE IN GERMANY• Bismarck was one of the most significant figures in Germany. In 1847 Bismarck entered into politics as a ultraconservative champion of Junker interest.• Junker is a member of the aristocratic landholders class, esp. in East Prussia, strongly devoted to militarism and authoritarianism, from among whom the German military forces recruited a large number of its officers.• Bismarck was also a Chancellor of the Northern German Confederation. As Chancellor of the N. German Confederation Bismarck played an important role in government. He greatly influenced German and international politics both during and after his time of service.• Otto von Bismarck was also the Prime Minister of Prussia. He shared many of the same views as the King of Germany at the time, William I. They both believed that Prussia needed a government and army to achieve German unity.• While alive Bismarck engaged in THREE major wars to unite Germany.
Bismarck Unites GermanyOtto von Bismarck succeeded where others hadfailed. Bismarck came from Prussia’s Junker class,made up of conservative landowning nobles.Bismarck first served Prussia as a diplomat inRussia and France. In 1862, King William I madehim prime minister. Within a decade, the newprime minister had become chancellor, or the Royal house medalhighest official of a monarch, and had used his of the Hohenzollernspolicy of “blood and iron” to unite the Germanstates under Prussian rule.Bismarck’s success was due in part to his strong will. He was a masterof Realpolitik or realistic politics based on the needs of the state. Inthe case of Realpolitik, power was more important than principles.
1 How did Bismarck unify Germany? In 1862, Otto von Bismarck was made chancellor, or prime minister, of Prussia. Within a decade, Bismarck had united the German states under Prussia.• Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik, or realistic politics based on the needs of the state. He valued power over principles.• Bismarck strengthened the army in preparation for pursuing an aggressive foreign policy.• In 1864, Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria. Together, they seized the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark and divided up the spoils.• In 1866, Bismarck attacked and defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, and then annexed, or took control of, several north German states.• Bismarck dissolved the Austrian-led German Confederation and created a new confederation dominated by Prussia.• In 1870, Bismarck provoked France into the Franco-Prussian War and quickly claimed victory.
Strengthening the Army Prussia Declares War With Denmark and Austria France Declares War on Prussia Austro-Prussian War painting and a medal of victoryDelighted by the victory over France, princes from the southern German statesand the North German Confederation persuaded William I of Prussia to take thetitle kaiser ,or emperor. In January 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birthof the Second Reich, or empire. They called it that because they considered it heirto the Holy Roman Empire.A constitution drafted by Bismarck set up a two-house legislature. The Bundesrat, or upper house, was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Reichstagor lower house, was elected by universal male suffrage. Because the Bundesratcould veto any decisions of the Reichstag, real power remained in the hands ofthe emperor and his chancellor.
Kulturkampf• Kulturkampf refers to the German cultural struggle between church and state.• The Catholics in Germany organized the Center party to represent their interests in German government. They did this because at this time, there were a lot of Protestant Prussians who wanted to oppress the Catholics.• Bismarck viewed Catholics as a threat to German unification. For this reason, he usually supported the Protestants in political affairs.
The Church• In 1870, the Roman Catholic Church declared the doctrine of infallibility. This stated that the pope is infallible when speaking on religious issues.• This was a threat to Germany, because now the government could not disagree with the pope, without causing the Catholics to feel alienated.• The Church is not going to back down from this confrontation Pope Pius IX
Germany’s Reaction• Bismarck viewed the Jesuits as papal agents working to bring down Germany, so he banished all Jesuits from Germany in 1872. The Jesuits who had been living in Germany were expelled out of the country.• The next year, German legislature started passing a series of laws that were meant to lessen Catholic influence in the country. These were called the May Laws. Under the May Laws, Catholic bishops lost most of their authority and power. Also, weddings had to be performed by a secular official.• In response to the May Laws, the Catholic Church ended all diplomatic ties with Germany and the Pope Pius IX declared the laws invalid. Map of Europe in 1871
A Political Game of ChessThis politicalcartoon showsOtto vonBismarck andPope Pius IXtrying tocheckmateeach other in agame of chess.
• Pope Pius IX died and was Healing the Rift succeeded by Leo XIII.• Leo XIII wanted to make peace with Germany. He made an effort to heal the rift and come to a compromise with the German legislature.• Eventually the German legislature agreed and repealed most of the May Laws. This was an effort by the German government to appease the Church and the Catholic population of Germany. This ended the Kulturkampf. Pope Leo XIII
Three Wars• Bismarck’s initial goal was to raise money for an army expansion. Then use the Prussian military and economic power to reduce Austrian influence among the German states. – Bismarck went to war three times.
War against DENMARK!• Denmark ruled the territories Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck wanted to avoid the Danish annexation of Schleswig so he persuaded Austria to join Prussia in declaring war against Denmark. In 1864 the war took place.• Effects of War – Prussia and Austria won the war and Denmark was forced out of the disputed Schleswig and Holstein. – Prussia got Schleswig and Austria got Holstein. • Accomplishments of this war... • It made Europe aware of Prussia’s military might and influence. • Also the tension stemming from the war gave Bismarck the PERFECT excuse he wanted for going to war with Austria.
Seven Weeks War• Bismarck stripped Austria of its alliances. By doing this he gained alliances with Russia, France and Italy.• On June 15, 1866 the war between Prussia and Austria began and shortly end seven weeks later with the victory of Prussia.Purpose The purpose of this was to separate Austria from Germany and eliminate the chance for Germany to be controlled under Austrian rule.Effect of the Seven Weeks War Even though Bismarck wanted to destroy Austria, Bismarck knew it wasn’t a good idea because he would probably need an alliance with Austria in the future. The treaty that officially ended the Seven Weeks War was negotiated in the city of Prague. This treaty also dissolved the German Confederation.After the war was over, a “new organization” was formed. It was called the Northern German Confederation. This “new organization” gave the German states the right to handle there own domestic affairs. However, the national defense and the foreign policy was in Prussia’s hands. * Because of this new strong government Bismarck was made a hero among German nationalists.
The Franco-Prussian War• The southern German states were largely Catholic so they stayed out of the Confederation all together. They feared the Protestant Prussian military and its immense control of Germany!• Now, France posed as a serious obstacle to the unification of Germany. This is because Napoleon III would not accept or allow the unification of Germany unless France got a cut and received some territory in Germany.• Bismarck went to war with France to resolve this situation. On July 19, 1870 the fighting began! Because there were more anti-French than there were anti-Prussian, the German states allied with Prussia.• It’s no a surprise that Prussia won and Bismarck had now gained support from all of the German states for the unification of Germany under Prussia!!
Formation of an Empire• On Jan. 18, 1871, William I assumed the title Kaiser, or emperor, of a united Germany.• Bismarck became the German chancellor, or chief minister.• The new empire united 25 states into one federal union. – The Kaiser headed the national government.• However, unification did not make Germany a model democratic state.
In January 1871, German princesgathered in the glittering Hall ofMirrors at the French palace ofVersailles. They had just defeatedNapoleon III in the Franco-PrussianWar. Once home to Frenchkings, the palace seemed theperfect place to proclaim the newGerman empire. To the winners aswell as to the losers, the symbolismwas clear: French domination ofEurope had ended. Germany wasnow the dominant power in
Social ReformUnder Bismarck’s leadership, Germanypioneered social reform. By1884, Germans had health and accidentinsurance. By 1889, they had disabilityand old-age insurance. Why did Bismarckintroduce these social reforms?
2 Strengthening Germany• What marked Germany as an industrial giant?• Why was Bismarck called the Iron Chancellor?• What policies did Kaiser William II follow?
2 The German Industrial Giant By the late 1800s, German chemical and electrical industries were setting the standard worldwide. German shipping was second only to Britain’s among the European powers.Germany possessed several characteristics that madeindustrialization possible:• Ample iron and coal resources in RuhrValley• Disciplined and educated work force• Rapidly growing populationIn the 1850s and 1860s, Germans had founded large companies andbuilt many railroads.German industrialists were the first to see the value of appliedscience in developing new products such as synthetic chemicals anddyes.
Industrial Growth• Before it unified, Germany was not a very industrialized nation. The main source of income was through agriculture. Germany did not produce the same amount of coal, textiles, iron and steel as industrial nations like Great Britain.• German leaders realized that a strong economy is the foundation of a strong country, so they worked to industrialize Germany. Germany began mining coal along the Rhine. This coal will fuel the new factories and industrial plants. Many young German citizens came to work at these new factories and by the end of the 1800’s Germany was an industrial nation. The upper class of Germany profited from industrialization and lived lavishly, but the lower class was forced to live in crowded cities and work long hours.
2 The Iron Chancellor Called the Iron Chancellor, Bismarck applied ruthless methods to achieve his goals.Foreign policy goals:• Bismarck wanted to keep France weak and isolated while building strong links with Austria; then, defeat both.• Later, Bismarck competed with Britain for colonies to expand Germany’s overseas empire.Domestic goals:• Bismarck sought to erase local loyalties and crush all opposition to the imperial state. He targeted the Catholic Church and the socialists, both of which he saw as a threat to the new German state.
Bismarck vs. Socialists• Bismarck believed that Socialists were a threat to the German government. He decided to try to end the Socialist party. In 1878, German legislature passed a law that banned any Socialists meeting or publication. It did not ban the party itself, but it made it nearly impossible for the Socialists to communicate publicly.• Bismarck also tried to convince the people that the German government cared about the workers more than the socialists. German legislature passed bills such as the Old Age Insurance Law and the Sickness Insurance Law. The Old Age Insurance Law protected workers after their retirement and the Sickness Insurance Law gave partial compensation to sick workers.• Bismarck’s success against the Socialists was short-lived, because the Socialists won 35 seats in German legislature. These Socialists refused to renew any anti-socialist bill that was proposed.
2• When William II came to power, he wanted to Kaiser put his own stamp on Germany. During his reign, he asked Bismarck to resign, believing William II that his right to rule came from God and that “there is only one master in the Reich.”• resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms.• provided services, such as programs for social welfare, cheap transportation, and electricity.• spent heavily on the German military machine.• launched an ambitious campaign to expand the German navy and win an overseas He was born with a withered arm, carefully disguised in empire. photos, but this may have affected his self-esteem. He over-compensates, especially with the mustache!
Bismarck’s Resignation KaiserIn 1888 Kaiser William I, an influential Wilhelm IIsupporter of Bismarck, died at the age of 91.His son, Prince Frederick, replaced him.Frederick was very liberal-minded, butaccomplished very little because he died lessthan a year after his coronation. Frederick’sson, William II, will take the throne. At thetime of his coronation William II is 29 yearsold. He was very conservative. He alsobelieved strongly in militarism. Militarism isthe idea that a country needs a strongmilitary prepared for war at all times. KaiserBismarck and the Kaiser disagreed many William II—times and eventually this caused Bismarck to notice theresign. Bismarck resigned in 1890 after many arm! This is ayears of changing Germany into a world painting!!!power.
What if Annie Oakley had shot Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1889? By David Clay LargeOne chilly November afternoon in 1889, a fur-coated crowd assembled inBerlin’s Charlottenburg Race Course to enjoy a performance of BuffaloBill’s Wild Wild West Show, which was touring Europe to great popularacclaim. Among the audiencewas the Reich’s impetuous young ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II, who had beenon the throne for a year. Wilhelm was particularly keen to see the show’sstar attraction, Annie Oakley, famed throughout the world for her skillswith a Colt. 45.On that day, as usual, Annie announced to the crowd that she would attempt toshoot the ashes from the cigar of some lady or gentleman in the audience. “Whoshall volunteer to hold the cigar?” she asked. In fact, she expected no one fromthe crowd to volunteer; she simply asked for laughs. Her long-suffering husband,Frank Butler, always stepped forward and offered himself as her human Havana-holder.
This time, however, Annie had no sooner made herannouncement then Kaiser Wilhelm himself leaped out of theroyal box and strutted into the arena. Annie was stunned andhorrified but could not retract her dare without losing face. Shepaced off her usual distance while Wilhelm extracted a cigarfrom a gold case and lit it with flourish. Several Germanpoliceman, suddenly realizing that this was not one of Kaiserslittle jokes, tried to preempt the stunt, but were waved off by HisAll-Highest Majesty. Sweating profusely under her buckskin, andregretful that she had consumed more than her usual amount ofwhiskey the night before, Annie raised her Colt, took aim, andblew away Wilhelms ashes.Had the sharpshooter from Cincinnati creased the Kaisers headrather than his cigar, one of Europes most ambitious and volatilerulers would have been removed from the scene. Germany mightnot have pursued its policy of aggressive Weltpolitik thatculminated in war twenty-five years later.Annie herself seemed to realize her mistake later on. After WorldWar I began, she wrote to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. Hedid not respond.
Key Terms• Romanticism- The artistic movement of the early 1800s emphasizing individuality and emotion.• Realism- The artistic and literary style of the mid-1800s that pictured the realities of everyday life.• Symbolism- Anti-realism artistic movement that focused on dreamlike images and symbols.• Impressionism- artistic style in which painters tried to capture quick impressions and the effects of light.• Postimpressionism- Artistic movement whose members experimented with form and color.
4 Romanticism Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason. They glorified nature and sought to excite strong emotions in their audiences.ART LITERATURE MUSIC Painters broke free Writers created a new kind of Composers tried to stir from the discipline and hero, a mysterious, deep emotions. rules of the melancholy figure out of step Ludwig van Beethoven Enlightenment. with reality. combined classical forms J.M.W. Turner Lord Byron described the with a stirring range of captured the beauty romantic hero in his poetry. sound. and power of nature. Charlotte Brontë wove a Frederic Chopin conveyed Eugène Delacroix mysterious tale in Jane Eyre. the sorrow of people painted dramatic living under foreign action. occupation.
Romanticism : The emphasis of human emotion over reason• Romantic artists tried to free themselves from the rigid forms and structures of neoclassical art. In doing this, the rejected the mechanization and the ugliness of industrialized society, and turned to nature, glorifying its awesome power and beauty.• Many Romantic artists looked to the past, admiring the mythical heroes of old. - Romantic Music• Meant to stir emotions, either in large works, aka symphonies, written by Russian composer Peter Tchaikovsky, or in smaller works like piano pieces. - Romantic Literature• Romantic writers created emotion-filled, imaginative works. One early leader of the romantic movement in literature is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. France’s most popular romantic writer was probably Aurore Dupin AKA George Sand. - Romantic Painting• Romantic painters, like writers and composers, reflected romantic ideals. Painters began to portray exotic, powerful subjects in a dramatic and colorful way. Most of the romantic works were meant to stir emotions, and not appeal to the intellect.
Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)Tchaikovsky wrote music across a range ofgenres, including symphony, opera, ballet,instrumental, chamber and song.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)• He was a German poet, novelist, playwright, co urtier, and natural philosopher.• Goethe was one of the greatest figures in Western literature.• He is best known for Faust, a drama about human striving and the need for redemption: the classic bargain with the Devil.
Aurore Dupin AKA George Sand (1804-1876)• Aurore was a French author who made peasants and workers heroes in her fiction.• She was born with the name Aurore, but she was called George Sand, her pen name.
The Lady of Shalott John William Waterstone 1888
Realism : The presentation of real and concrete things. • In the mid-1800s, some artists began to reject the sentimentality of romanticism. They wanted to portray life in a realistic manner. - Realism in Literature • Realism also flourished in literature. French writer Honore de Balzac described the greed and stupidity that he saw in The Human Comedy. • Charles Dickens was the foremost English realistic writer. He spoke out on behalf of the poor. • Russian writer Leo Tolstoy also reflected his compassion for the peasants and gave his analysis of social customs.
4 RealismBy the mid-1800s, a new artistic movement, realism, took hold in the West.Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was.Realists often focused their work on the harsh side of life in cities or villages.Many writers and artists were committed to improving the lot of theunfortunates whose lives they depicted.• The English novelist Charles Dickens vividly portrayed the livesof slum dwellers and factory workers.• The Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen wrote plays that attacked the hypocrisy he observed around him.• The French painter Gustave Courbet focused on ordinary subjects.
RealismRealism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction ofsubjects as they appear in everyday life, withoutembellishment or interpretation. The term also describesworks of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize theugly or sordid.Realism often refers to the artistic movement, which beganin France in the 1850s. The popularity of realism grew withthe introduction of photography—a new visual source thatcreated a desire for people to produce things that look“objectively real.”
Honore de Balzac (1799-1850)• He is a French journalist and writer, and also one of the creators of realism in literature.• The Human Comedy was about 90 of his novels and short stories of French life, grouped together
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)• Dickens is probably the most known English realistic writer.• He focused on the deplorable conditions in the prisons, hospitals, and poorhouses of London.• In his novel Hard Times, he attacked the materialism of Coketown, a fictional city.
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)• He was a Russian author, essayist and philosopher• War and Peace is a family novel in which Tolstoy takes five families through the stages of life.
Symbolism• Some writers became disgusted with what they viewed as the ugly and brutal realities of European industrial civilization.• Symbolism spread to the other arts and to other countries.
A daguerreotype (original French: daguerréotype) is an early type of photograph, developed by Jacques Daguerre, in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. In later developments bromine and chlorine vapors were also used, resulting in shorter exposure times. The daguerreotype is a negative image, but the mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the image and makes it appear positive when the silvered surface has a dark ground reflected into it. Thus, daguerreotype is a direct photographic• process withoutTemple, Paris,for duplication. Boulevard du the capacity 1838, by Daguerre. The first picture of a person. The image shows a busy street, but because exposure time was over ten minutes, the traffic was moving too much to appear. The exception is the man at the bottom left, who stood still getting his boots polished long enough to show.
The process revealed on that day seemed magical. Each daguerreotype is a remarkably detailed, one- of-a-kind photographic image on a highly polished, silver-plated sheet of copper, sensitized with iodine vapors, exposed in a large box camera, developed in mercury fumes, and stabilized (or fixed) with salt water or "hypo”. Although Daguerre was required to reveal, demonstrate, and publish detailed instructions for the process, he wisely retained the patent on the equipment necessary to practice the new art.From the moment of itsbirth, photography had a dualcharacter—as a medium of artisticexpression and as a powerful scientifictool—and Daguerre promoted hisinvention on both fronts.
Mathew Brady • Mathew Brady (1822 – January 15, 1896) was one of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and the documentation of the American Civil War. He is credited with being the father of photojournalism.
Impressionism• During the 1870s, a group of French artists developed a style called impressionism.• Claude Monet, one of the most famous impressionists, painted series of paintings on the same subject to show variations in light and color during various times of the day and seasons of the year.
Claude Monet• The most lyrical of the impressionist painters, Claude Oscar Monet, b. Nov. 14, 1840, d. Dec. 5, 1926, was also the most committed to recording transient effects of light and atmosphere. This aim led Monet and his colleagues to develop the techniques of impressionism. Monet advised his fellow painters to concentrate on the play of light and color of the objects that they had before them.
EDGAR DEGAS• The art of Edgar Degas, b. Paris, July 19, 1834, d. Sept. 26, 1917, reflects a concern for the psychology of movement and expression, the harmony of line and continuity of contour. These characteristics set Degas apart from the other impressionist painters, although he took part in all but one of the 8 impressionist exhibitions between 1874 and 1886.
Post-Impressionism• In the late 1880s some artists turned away from impressionism.• By this time, Paul Cezanne had laid the foundation for Postimpressionism.• Georges Seurat, another Postimpressionist, applied science to his paintings.• Vincent van Gogh used brilliant colors and distorted forms to make intense statements in his paintings.
Georges-Pierre Seurat A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
Pointillism is a style of painting in which smalldistinct dots of color create the impression of awide selection of other colors and blending. Asidefrom color "mixing" phenomena, there is thesimpler graphic phenomenon of depictedimagery emerging from disparate points.Historically, Pointillism has been a figurativemode of executing a painting, as opposed to anabstract modality of expression.The technique relies on the perceptive ability ofthe eye and mind of the viewer to mix the colorspots into a fuller range of tones and is relatedclosely to Divisionism, a more technical variant ofthe method. It is a style with few seriouspractitioners and is notably seen in the works ofSeurat, Signac and Cross. The term Pointillismwas first coined by art critics in the late 1880s toridicule the works of these artists and is nowused without its earlier mocking connotation.
• Paul Cézanne 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work Paul laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th centurys new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. The line attributed to both Matisse and Picasso that Cézanne "is the father of us all" cannot be easily dismissed.• Cézannes work demonstrates a mastery of design, color, composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of color and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields, at once both a direct expression of the sensations of the observing eye and an abstraction from observed nature. The paintings convey Cézannes intense study of his subjects, a searching gaze and a dogged struggle to deal with the complexity of human visual perception. Self portrait c. 1875