Independence Movements


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Independence Movements

  1. 1. Latin American Independence from Europe • Most of Latin America was ruled by Spain, Portugal or France for 300 years • In the 1800s, European countries such as Spain and Portugal were tightly controlling colonies and continuing their wealth • The American and French Revolutions convinced Latin Americans that European rulers could be defeated and many began to overthrow their European rulers. • They began launching the Latin America Independence Movement
  2. 2. Independence Leaders • • • • Touissant L’Ouverture Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin Miguel Hidalgo
  3. 3. TouIssanT L’ouverTure • 1791 – former slave who led Haiti’s fight for independence from France • Haiti was originally known as St. Domingue • Touissant’s slave owner allowed him to read and write. Many books he read spoke of freedom. • He led a rebel group, killing colonists and burning the land.
  4. 4. TouIssanT L’ouverTure • France freed the slaves in 1794. • Toussaint then had to fight the Spanish and English to keep them from taking over the island. • By 1799, Toussaint controlled the island country and named himself dictator for life. • He set up a constitution and guaranteed decent wages, housing, and medical care.
  5. 5. TouIssanT L’ouverTure What qualities do you believe L’Ouverture possessed? What characteristics made people follow him into battle?
  6. 6. TouissanT L’ouverTure • Napoleon Bonaparte was insulted by Toussaint’s declaration. • He sent the French Army to retake the colony. • Toussaint was captured & died in a French prison. • 1803- French gave up on the island nation after much of the army died of Yellow Fever. • 1804- Haiti became independent & was renamed the Republic of Haiti • It was the 2nd free nation in the Western Hemisphere
  7. 7. simon BoLivar • In Venezuela in the early 1800’s, rebellions began to break out against Spanish rule. • Simon Bolivar, a wealthy landowner, had just returned from Europe • His goal was to free his homeland – Venezuela. • Beginning in 1810- he fought for the freedom of his homeland. • Later, he helped liberate other countries.
  8. 8. simon BoLivar
  9. 9. simon BoLivar • He was called “El Libertador” for his determination and power to free his country. • He helped liberate or free Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Bolivia • Should he have helped free other countries? Would you be willing to fight and die for the freedom of another country?
  10. 10. simon BoLivar • He became the president of Gran Columbia, which includes today’s countries of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. • He moved farther south, liberating Bolivia, and adding it to his republic. • He is also called the “George Washington of South America” • The country of Bolivia is named for him and his birthday is a national holiday in Venezuela and Bolivia.
  11. 11. Jose de san Martin • A Spanish general that led Argentina to independence from Spain in 1816 • He was the son of a mission soldier. • He also helped free Peru and Chile from Spanish rule. • He liberated Lima, Peru on July 1821 • He was the country’s leader • He helped liberate Chile in 1817 • Peru’s independence was threatened by loyalists in the mountain
  12. 12. Jose de san Martin
  13. 13. Jose de san Martin • San Martin needed help and looked to Bolivar. • Bolivar met up with Jose de San Martin on July 25, 1822.
  14. 14. Jose de san Martin • Bolivar and San Martin couldn’t reach an agreement. • San Martin quit his post and went into exile in Europe. • A year later Bolivar and his troops enter Lima and defeat the loyalists
  15. 15. Miguel Hidalgo • Most of Mexico had been under Spanish rule since Cortes invaded in the early 1500’s • 1810 – Hidalgo, a Catholic priest in the village of Delores, led an army of peasants to revolt in Mexico against Spanish rule. • He spoke out for social reform in his country. • He felt the slaves should be freed • He felt the land should be returned to Mexican farmers & wanted Spain to stop heavy taxation
  16. 16. Miguel Hidalgo
  17. 17. Miguel Hidalgo • 1808- France invaded Spain and Hidalgo decided it was time to revolt. • He gave a speech called Grito de Delores (Cry of Delores) to set off the independence movement. • He led a small group of protestors to Mexico City. • By the time they arrived, his army was up to 2,000. • The protesters’ farm equipment was no match for the guns of government soldiers. • The protesters were easily defeated after a few battles. Hidalgo was captured and killed.
  18. 18. Miguel Hidalgo • Spanish officials executed Hidalgo, but the rebellion against Spain didn’t stop. • Mexico gained independence in 1821. Today, Hidalgo is known as the “Father of Mexican Independence” • Why do you think the
  19. 19. Mural showing Hidalgo leading independence movement in Mexico