The Mexican Revolution
in World Historical
Context
Race, labor, dependency and exploitation:
Change and Continuity Over Ti...
Warm-up Questions


Turn to the person sitting next to you and
discuss your understanding of the following:
– What is the...
During the Lecture
 Think about:

–
–
–

Previously studied theories (historiography)
Murals and their influences, impact...
Setting the historical stage

PRE-REVOLUTIONARY
MEXICO
Mexico Preconquest



Indigenous cultures: Mexica, or
Aztecs, and the Mayas.
The Aztecs
– Capital, Tenochtitlan, had ove...
TENOCHTITLAN – The Aztec Capital City
The Conquest






In 1519, Hernan Cortes
lands
1521-Aztec collapse
– Guns, germs, steel
– Hostile neighbors
Smallpox,...
The Trans-Atlantic World Economy
(15th-17th Century)










Period of European
expansion and exploitation
through...
American Population:
Connection to labor and race?
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000

Native
European
African

4000000
30000...
World Population Growth, 1500-1800 CE
900
800
700
600
500
Millions

400
300
200
100
0
1500

1600

1700

1800
14
Colonial Period



The Colonial Period last from
1521 to 1810.
New Spain.
– Mexico
– the Spanish Caribbean
islands
– Cen...
Key Themes
Throughout the Colonial Period, up to the

modern day:
 Labor systems
 Race and caste (class) in society
 F...
Social Classes of Mexico


Mexican society was divided according to skin color &
heritage into 4 main groups:
– Peninsula...
Spaniard + Indian = Mestizo
Black + Spaniard = Mullato
Black + Indian = Zambo
Spaniard + Mestiza = Castiza
Spaniard + Castiza = Spaniard
Zambo + Indian = Zambaiga
Zambaigo + Indian = Albarazado
Indian + Albarazada = Chamizo
Chamizo + Indian = Cambuja
Albarazado + Indian = Cachimboreta
Zambaigo + Indian = Albarazado
Albarazada + Mulatto = Barcino
Barcino + Zambo = Coyote
Coyote + Indian = Cambujo
Cambujo + Indian = Chamizo
Essential Questions:
What do the previous “castas” slides
suggest about race relations in Mexico?
2. What do the earlier s...
Mexican Independence?






Father Hidalgo, Creole
priest who taught Indians
and Mestizos.
Leads the call for Mexican
I...
My children: a new
dispensation comes to us
today. Will you receive it? Will
you free yourselves? Will you
recover the lan...
Mexican War of Independence
– Father Hidalgo was supported by Indians,
mestizos, and criollos, who were prevented from
gov...
U.S. Mexico Relations in 19th Century
 Monroe Doctrine: 1823

 Largely bluff, some support from Great Britain
 Mexican-...
1823

Mar 1, 1836
Dec 29,
1845

1846-1848
Oct 13,
1847
Feb 2, 1848

General Santa Anna deposed Iturbide and declared a Rep...
The Key Phrase from the
Monroe Doctrine
…the American continents, by the free and
independent condition which they have
as...
The end of the Porfiriato

THINGS FALL APART
World Revolutions in Comparison (WASTE/MC)
WASTE (MC)

French

Russian

Mexican

War

•7 Years. U.S.
Revolution

•1904-5 R...







Why Revolution, and Why
1910?

Complex reasons; the
revolution is not a unified
process
Gradual mutation of
att...
Diaz and the Porfiriato


Basically 1876-1910
 1880-1884







Elitist dictatorship
“pan o palo”
Client of U.S.
In...
The Flores Magon Brothers &
Regeneración







Anarchist group of brothers
“Regeneración ” their
mouthpiece, openly c...
Labor Violence


Yaqui Revolt

 1896
  “Diaz’s anti-agrarian and anti-indigenous Mexican policies "



Labor strike at...
The Creelman Interview



1908 interview given by Diaz to James
Creelman, reporter for the NY Times (parallel?)
Message ...
Emergence of Francisco
Madero






Background
Advocating a political
revolution as the solution
Had experience with p...
Campaign and Election of 1910


Madero vs. Diaz; anti-Diaz rhetoric rising; arrest
of Madero
– Fomenting rebellion
– Insu...
Fragmented Birth of the Revolution








Continues to emphasize
the long historical
tradition in Mexico of
regionali...
Revolution in the North







Pascual Orozco in
Western Chihuahua
Pancho Villa, also in
Chihuahua
Support of disaffe...
Revolution in the South






Represents the ideas of
change in Southern
Mexico = Emiliano Zapata
Primary focus – inher...
Popular Support of the Revolution
Exile of Diaz



Madero’s return to Mexico; capture of Ciudad Juarez
Becomes focal point for Revolution
–
–
–




A pr...
Summarize.
 Think about:

–
–
–

Previously studies theories (historiography)
Murals and their influences, impacts
Preced...
What comes after the revolution? (Take 1: Madero)

THINGS FAIL TO COME
TOGETHER
Madero’s Mistakes






Enemies within:
– Allowed Diaz’s military forces to remain in the military
with the assumption ...
Result: Zapata and the Plan de
Ayala








Disillusioned with the slow pace of change under
Madero’s leadership, Zap...
12. A Mural depicting Zapata with
his Plan de Ayala
12
General Huerta Succeeds Madero





In 1913 General Victoriano Huerta overthrew the
Madero government by assassinating ...
Victoriano Huerta
Venustiano Carranza and the
Constitutionalist Army
Venustiano Carranza joins the
Revolution
Carranza, a wealthy landholder like
Madero organized a third army, mostly of
Mexi...
Carranza and Obregon
Alvaro Obregon Joins Carranza
 Huerta resigned as President in 1914 after

the US refused to recognized him as a
Presiden...
The Mexican Constitution of 1917
institutionalizes the revolution






The Mexican constitution of 1917 empowered
the ...
Transitions to stability



From revolution to anarchy (1915-1917)
– US support of Carranza
– Pancho Villa’s exploits and...
Key Articles—Mexican Constitution
 Article

3

– Education -- secular, obligatory, free
 Article

27

– Land reform, lan...
Carranza Presidency (1917-1920)





Generally considered a failure
One shining light = estab. of a
national labor orga...
The Obregon Presidency (19201924)






Signficance? Mexico’s social
revolution, and the
implementation of the
Revolut...
Plutarco Calles and the Maximato


New groups to consider via the Revolution

– Organized labor (esp. in the North; major...
Themes of the Maximato









Payoff for Social & Economic
Reform  redistribution of
land & more favorable
condit...
Problems with the Maximato?
 Shift to the right ideologically; away from

some of the principles of the Revolution
 Resp...
Muralist Movement - Diego Rivera






Emerges out of the
Revolution; an artistic and
political expression of a
new Mex...
Cardenas & Mexican Populism
(1934-1940)
Background



Born in 1895; Michoacan; educated through the
6th grade
Experiences during the Revolution led him into
pol...
Cardenas and the Social
Revolution

 Open lines of communication with the

public
 Modest in his own public displays
 B...
Agrarian Reform



The first focus of his
presidency

– “A Convention at Zacapu”


Agrarian Reform (Article
27)
– Return...
Labor Reform


Labor Reform (Article 123)

– Developing sophistication of
labor unions
– CROM  CTM
– Dealt with bread & ...
Political Reform





Redefining Politics
PRN  PRM (Partido Revolucionario Mexicano; 1938)
Question of how to create ...
The Mexican Revolution
Accomplished the Following:
 Nationalization of the oil industry
 Transfer of more than 45 millio...
PERSPECTIVES AND
HISTORIOGRAPHY
http://www.fragilecologies.com/jun27_03.html THEORY OF RISING EXPECTATIONS

 

Davies J-Curve

110

                      ...
Causes of Revolution III:
Theory of Rising Expectations


The “J-Curve” theory of
political revolutions



"Revolutions ...
http://www.fragilecologies.com/jun27_03.html

THEORY OF RISING EXPECTATIONS

Davies J-Curve

112
Pause and Reflect
• Turn to the people to your left and right
and summarize the three devices/theories
of revolution we ha...
Mexican Revolution (1910-40)




Radicals v. Reformers
Thin line?
Periodization:
– Armed (Revolution) Phase
(1910-20)
–...
Consider periodization…
 Great men
 Social reform
 Legislature
 World Events
 USA influence
 Political upheavals
Historiography 1


Orthodox View (ca. 1930-late 1960s):
– Revolution was a mass, unanimous uprising; peasant
v. small num...
Historiography 2


Revisionist View (1968-1970s):
– There really was no revolution – it was just a political
‘shuffle’ of...
Historiography 3


Post-revisionist view (1980s-now)
–
–
–

Synthesis of the orthodox and revisionist views
Revolution wa...
Reflect
 Think of our readings:

–
–
–
–

The Nation articles?
Your documents?
Keen?
Cockcroft?

 Where do they stand in...
Historiography 4


Top-Down vs. Bottom-up
– Who was more influential: the leaders or the masses?
– Cannot understand the ...
Historiography 5--Emphasis
 According to Nora Hamilton, Cardenas

reached the “limits of state autonomy” in
1938. Due to ...
Radicals/Revolutionaries v. Reformers



IB likes to make this distinction—clearly define
these in your essay—good eleme...
Radicals/Revolutionaries vs. Reformers (2)


What is a Reformer?

– Working through governmental or legal institutions to...
Urban Labor


Where does the:
– Casa del Obrero Mundial (1912)
 House of the World Worker
 Anarcho-Syndicalism/Red Batt...
Map of Mexico - Regionalisation
Review:

PHASES AND LEADERS
Armed Phase (1910-20)




‘Revolutionary’ Leaders:
– Francisco I. Madero
– Pascual Orozco (?)
– Emiliano Zapata
– Pancho...
Francisco I. Madero







“The Mexican does not want 
bread, he wants the liberty to 
earn bread.”




From a wealt...
Maderismo as a government



Lasted until Madero’s overthrow and murder in
1913…
What did he do?

– Oversaw the fairest ...
Maderismo as a government (cont)


Why did it fail?
–
–
–

Continued influence of Porfirian elites/the Right
Heavy politi...
Emiliano Zapata











“Where there were Zapatistas, there were
guarantees.”



Began as the leader of the Defe...
Zapatismo



Existed as a separate revolutionary movement
from 1911-20
What did it want?

– Land Reform – it wanted to r...
Zapatismo (cont)


What did it do?

– Oversaw the expropriation of several haciendas, while
attempting to maintain the ha...
Alvaro Obregon











“I had so many brothers and sisters that  
when we had Gruyere cheese, only the holes...
What can Obregon’s career tell us about the
Constitutionalist and Sonoran Revolutions?







During the Armed Phase, ...
What can Obregon’s career tell us about the
Constitutionalist and Sonoran Revolutions? (cont)




Was a key player in th...
So…What can we conclude?








Although Madero called for a revolution, he himself was
more a reformer – preferred t...
Reform phase (1920-40)
Mexican Revolution (1910-1940)


Reform Phase (192040)



Looking at three
presidencies:
– Obregon (1920-24)
– Calles (1...
Timeline


1920 – Obregon elected
President

– Jose Vasconcelos becomes
Rector of National University










1923...
Just to make sure…
 PNR: 1929

–
–

National Revolutionary Party
Calles

 PRM: 1938

–
–

Party of the Mexican Revolutio...
Regionalisation
Radical vs. Reformer
 Review:

 What is a Radical/Revolutionary?

–
–
–

Two groups in the MR
Followed which leaders, re...
Obregon (1920-24, ’28)








Started as a Constitutionalist under
Carranza (eventually became a
general)
Came to pr...
Obregon’s Presidency (1920-24)


Very able populist leader

– He had an interesting sense of humour
– Was able to have go...
Plutarco Elias Calles (1924-8)








“Mexico for the
Mexicans“



Became a General in Constitutionalist
Army
Serv...
Calles: Church v State Conflict


Constitution of 1917
–
–
–
–





Article 3 – no religious education
Article 27 – la...
Calles: Church v State Conflict (cont)


The Cristiada was not primarily due to religion. It was a
response to the contin...
The ‘Maximato’ (1928-34)




After Obregon’s assassination, Calles decided
not to run again, but instead to place men on...
The ‘Maximato’ (1928-34) (cont)


Socio-economic reform, especially land reform, was
halted during this period with a gen...
Lazaro Cardenas (1934-40)






“I am convinced that the good
intentions of a ruler are simply not
enough...and that t...
Cardenismo (1930-1940)



Brought the end to the Maximato (eventually
exiled Calles in 1936)
Was a populist government –...
Cardenismo (1930-1940) (cont)


Had several major policies:

– Land reform: over 18 million hectares redistributed. Colle...
Reminder: Cultural Revolution
Beginning in the 1920s, especially with the encouragement of
Vasconcelos, Mexican art, music...
So…Can we conclude?









Obregon was a radical during the Armed Phase, but was
a moderate reformer during his pre...
But Can We
Conclude?

"This chapter tells how the
supreme government was affected
by the poverty of the Indigenous
peoples...
Thinking IB
 The Mexican Revolution can be used to

answer questions on:
–
–
–

The Mexican Revolution (obviously)
U.S. F...
Common Topics
 Art and muralism
 Stages of the Revolution
 US influence
 Reform or Revolution?
 Success? (Political, ...
CAN YOU ANSWER…
Essential Questions 1






Who can be considered the father of the
Mexican Revolution?
Was the Mexican Revolution a ...
Essential Questions 2








How did greater geo-political developments and patronclient relationships define the po...
Essential Questions 3





How did the Mexican Revolution shape Mexican politics
and economic after 1940?
When are a p...
CAN YOU COMPOSE AN
ANALYTICAL RESPONSE
TO…
Potential Essay Questions 1







Evaluate the extent to which the United States
participated in the Mexican Revolut...
Potential Essay Questions 2







Compare and contrast the reform movements of Villa and
Zapata with special focus o...
CAN YOU IDENTIFY AND
DESCRIBE…
When instructed, write everything you know about the following
items on your assigned whiteboards.

Concentrated Review
Leaders
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Madero
Cardenas
Calles
Obregon
Zapata & Villa
Diaz
Documents
 Constitution of 1917 (in general)
 Article 3 & 130
 Article 27
 Article 123
 Plan of Ayala
 Plan of San L...
MR and USA
 Bucareli Agreement
 Pershing Expedition
 Henry Lane Wilson
 Oil Expropriation
 Vera Cruz
 Zimmerman Tele...
Interest Groups
 Agraristas
 Rancheros
 Soldaderas
 CROM
 Cristeros
 Zapatistas
Geography
 Sonora
 Chihuahua
 Morelos
 Yucatan and Chiapas
 DF
 Exiles in USA
A Cultural Revolution
 Flores Magon Brothers
 Jose Vasconcelos
 Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo
 Muralism and Muralists
 J...
Mexican Revolution Online


http://runyon.lib.utexas.edu/conflict.html



http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mex-revolu...
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas
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Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas

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The Mexican Revolution in a world-historical context. Includes long-term causes back to pre-conquest Latin America, current historiography, world-systems analysis and extrapolations to modern Mexico and the Zapatista movement of 1994.

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  • Fight for Liberty (Father Miguel Hidalgo leading a revolt against the Spanish rulers of Mexico)
    Painted by Jose Clemente Orozco (1939)
  • Fight for Liberty (Father Miguel Hidalgo leading a revolt against the Spanish rulers of Mexico)
    Painted by Jose Clemente Orozco (1939)
  • Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context: IB History of the Americas

    1. 1. The Mexican Revolution in World Historical Context Race, labor, dependency and exploitation: Change and Continuity Over Time in the World-System
    2. 2. Warm-up Questions  Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss your understanding of the following: – What is the world-system? – What is dependency theory? – What is a patron-client relationship? – How would Marxist, traditional capitalist and neo-liberal theorists/scholars describe the concepts above? – What are your personal feelings of these concepts and how they have impacted Latin America?
    3. 3. During the Lecture  Think about: – – – Previously studied theories (historiography) Murals and their influences, impacts Precedents and parallels (other LA nations/revolutions…)
    4. 4. Setting the historical stage PRE-REVOLUTIONARY MEXICO
    5. 5. Mexico Preconquest   Indigenous cultures: Mexica, or Aztecs, and the Mayas. The Aztecs – Capital, Tenochtitlan, had over 750,000 inhabitants – Built on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.  The Aztecs were an advanced civilization intellectually. – Astrologists and mathematicians  Zero borrowed from Maya – Human sacrifice Map found at: http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-empire.html
    6. 6. TENOCHTITLAN – The Aztec Capital City
    7. 7. The Conquest     In 1519, Hernan Cortes lands 1521-Aztec collapse – Guns, germs, steel – Hostile neighbors Smallpox, flu, plague: 8 million Mexican deaths “Moctezuma’s revenge” – Columbian Exchange theory for syphilis  Top: La muerte de Moctezuma – a painting by David Siqueiros World system horrors begin
    8. 8. The Trans-Atlantic World Economy (15th-17th Century)       Period of European expansion and exploitation through the Americas Europe enriched by New World resources at little to no cost to themselves Potato and other American crops allow for population boom in Western Europe Large-scale slavery makes labor costs negligible Manila Galleons in Pacific When was this trade prevalent? (1565-1815)
    9. 9. American Population: Connection to labor and race? 8000000 7000000 6000000 5000000 Native European African 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 1500 1800 13
    10. 10. World Population Growth, 1500-1800 CE 900 800 700 600 500 Millions 400 300 200 100 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 14
    11. 11. Colonial Period   The Colonial Period last from 1521 to 1810. New Spain. – Mexico – the Spanish Caribbean islands – Central America as far south as Costa Rica, a – Today's southwestern United States – Philippines http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/fotos/cortes.jpg
    12. 12. Key Themes Throughout the Colonial Period, up to the modern day:  Labor systems  Race and caste (class) in society  Forms of exploitation  U.S Intervention and conflict  Dependency and world-system 16
    13. 13. Social Classes of Mexico  Mexican society was divided according to skin color & heritage into 4 main groups: – Peninsulares: Spaniards born in Spain; held top positions in government, church, and military. – Criollos/Creoles: Pure Spanish blood born in Mexico; wealthy upper class, owned haciendas, ranches, & mines. Had little political power. – Mestizos: MixedSpanish & Indian blood; lived in poverty, worked hard, had few rights. – Indians: Lowest class, mistreated by colonists and church, little or no rights…like slaves.
    14. 14. Spaniard + Indian = Mestizo
    15. 15. Black + Spaniard = Mullato
    16. 16. Black + Indian = Zambo
    17. 17. Spaniard + Mestiza = Castiza
    18. 18. Spaniard + Castiza = Spaniard
    19. 19. Zambo + Indian = Zambaiga
    20. 20. Zambaigo + Indian = Albarazado
    21. 21. Indian + Albarazada = Chamizo
    22. 22. Chamizo + Indian = Cambuja
    23. 23. Albarazado + Indian = Cachimboreta
    24. 24. Zambaigo + Indian = Albarazado
    25. 25. Albarazada + Mulatto = Barcino
    26. 26. Barcino + Zambo = Coyote
    27. 27. Coyote + Indian = Cambujo
    28. 28. Cambujo + Indian = Chamizo
    29. 29. Essential Questions: What do the previous “castas” slides suggest about race relations in Mexico? 2. What do the earlier slides about the Mexica (Aztecs) and the Columbian Exchange suggest about relations between Mexico and Europe or other outside powers? 3. How will these socio-historical influences help define Mexican revolutionary identity? 1. Discuss with your partner.
    30. 30. Mexican Independence?    Father Hidalgo, Creole priest who taught Indians and Mestizos. Leads the call for Mexican Independence from Spain 9/16/1810: Speech: El Grito de Dolores.
    31. 31. My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act at once… Will you defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the gachupines!
    32. 32. Mexican War of Independence – Father Hidalgo was supported by Indians, mestizos, and criollos, who were prevented from governing their country by peninsulares. – Passionate, but unprofessional army-outmatched by Spaniards. – Father Hidalgo & other revolutionaries were killed in 1811.  Tortured, body mutilated, head hung as a warning – Fighting continues until 1821 – General, Augustin de Iturbide unites Mexico and defeats Spain – Treaty of Cordoba—1821 – Little changes in Mexico
    33. 33. U.S. Mexico Relations in 19th Century  Monroe Doctrine: 1823  Largely bluff, some support from Great Britain  Mexican-American War (1846-1848)  After 1845 U.S. Annexation of Texas (1836 Texan Revolution)  U.S. victorious: take 50% of Mexican territory  Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo  La Reforma (1860s)  Porfiriato (1876-1880; 1881/4-1911)
    34. 34. 1823 Mar 1, 1836 Dec 29, 1845 1846-1848 Oct 13, 1847 Feb 2, 1848 General Santa Anna deposed Iturbide and declared a Republic. Bitter struggle began between centrists (conservatives) and federalists (liberals), continuing to 1860. Because of Santa Anna's increased federal centralization, Texas declares its independence. The United States annexes the Republic of Texas. President James K. Polk sends John Slidell to Mexico to settle differences but war party in Mexico under Paredes won out. US-Mexican War. Four campaigns -- Taylor in Northern Mexico, Kearny in New Mexico, naval blockage of both coasts and Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. Aztec Club of 1847 organized in Mexico City with General John A. Quitman, of Mississippi, as its first President. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the War. Terms of peace included payment by the United States of $15 million for Mexico Cession. 1857 A new constitution and a liberal victory, but three years of civil war followed until Benito Juarez emerged as liberal leader and President. 1861 European intervention during the U.S. Civil War by Great Britain, Spain and France. First two withdraw shortly thereafter. 1863 French army captures Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Hungary, a Hapsburg, proclaimed second Emperor of Mexico. 1865-1867 U.S. Civil War ends, the United States sends troops to the border, French withdraw and Maximilian is executed at Querétaro. 1867-1872 Juarez is again President of Mexico; dies in office. 1877-1911 Porfirio Diáz dictator of Mexico for all but four years. Encourages foreign exploitation of Mexico's natural wealth, but Mexico City becomes a metropolis.
    35. 35. The Key Phrase from the Monroe Doctrine …the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers…
    36. 36. The end of the Porfiriato THINGS FALL APART
    37. 37. World Revolutions in Comparison (WASTE/MC) WASTE (MC) French Russian Mexican War •7 Years. U.S. Revolution •1904-5 RussoJapanese War, WWI •Mexican-American War, French Invasion, WWI Absolutism • Louis XVI •Romanovs •Diaz (basically) Social Class •Three Estates •Peasants, Landlords •Landowners and corporatists/peasants Taxation •Heavy Taxes for Wars. Luxuries •Taxes for war and some luxuries; no land reform •Heavy taxes, no land reform, overworked/underpaid peasantry Enlightenment Ideas (Marxism Communism) •Enlightenment Ideas •MarxistCommunist Ideas •Both Enlightenment and Marxist ideas; common sense revolution
    38. 38.     Why Revolution, and Why 1910? Complex reasons; the revolution is not a unified process Gradual mutation of attitudes between 19001910; more and more individuals abandoning the hope of social and political progress in the framework of the existing order Agitation from above and below Porfiriato = years of frustration for those who want change
    39. 39. Diaz and the Porfiriato  Basically 1876-1910  1880-1884      Elitist dictatorship “pan o palo” Client of U.S. Interests of the elite classes at heart How would Diaz help shape Mexican revolutionary identity?
    40. 40. The Flores Magon Brothers & Regeneración     Anarchist group of brothers “Regeneración ” their mouthpiece, openly critical of Diaz’s policies; brothers Jesus, Ricardo, and Enrique First time notion of social reform should come before political reform Policies annoyed U.S.—fear of loss of political/economic control – Cross-border efforts
    41. 41. Labor Violence  Yaqui Revolt  1896   “Diaz’s anti-agrarian and anti-indigenous Mexican policies "  Labor strike at Cananea Copper Mine (Sonora) – – – –   June 1906 Colonel William Greene and defense of American interests Role of Regeneracion and labor agitation Violent response by Diaz’ agents Labor strike at Rio Blanco textile mill (Veracruz)  1907 Flores Magon brothers implicated in these events; but Diaz did not see these as indicative of larger problems = isolated events
    42. 42. The Creelman Interview   1908 interview given by Diaz to James Creelman, reporter for the NY Times (parallel?) Message sent: – Ready to retire; welcomed opposition parties and was ready to promote democracy  Why? – Saw the interview as bait to bring out opposition so that he could easily “deal” with them? – Sincere in his remarks; subsequent events forced him to change his mind?  Gearing up for the Election of 1910
    43. 43. Emergence of Francisco Madero     Background Advocating a political revolution as the solution Had experience with plight of the landless poor; yet believed that solutions came from individuals, not society (MC or E?) Moderate vs. radical liberals; Flores Magon brothers felt he ignored the stark social reality of Mexico at the time – Not radical enough
    44. 44. Campaign and Election of 1910  Madero vs. Diaz; anti-Diaz rhetoric rising; arrest of Madero – Fomenting rebellion – Insulting public authorities   Madero jailed, Diaz victorious Response = Plan de San Luis Potosi – From Texas, Madero forced to flee country   Reveals Madero’s concern for democracy and political reforms before social change Serves, however, as the opening shots of the Revolution
    45. 45. Fragmented Birth of the Revolution     Continues to emphasize the long historical tradition in Mexico of regionalism and fragmentation Centers of revolt in North, Central, and Southern Mexico; goals different A revolution or a civil war? (Or both?) We’ll discuss Significant long term impact on the development of Mexico in the 20th century; the defining modern event
    46. 46. Revolution in the North      Pascual Orozco in Western Chihuahua Pancho Villa, also in Chihuahua Support of disaffected miners, ranchers, indigenous groups Not much opposition from Porfirian Army Advocating labor and land reforms in the North – individual access to land; labor codes that protect the worker
    47. 47. Revolution in the South    Represents the ideas of change in Southern Mexico = Emiliano Zapata Primary focus – inherent rights/access to land; responding to the reality of land concentration during the Porfirian period (Plan de Ayala--later) Initially does not support the Plan de San Luis Potosi; but eventually comes around to the ideas of the Revolution
    48. 48. Popular Support of the Revolution
    49. 49. Exile of Diaz   Madero’s return to Mexico; capture of Ciudad Juarez Becomes focal point for Revolution – – –   A provincial capital Official point of entry between US and Mexico Morale boost Diaz negotiates treaty with revolutionaries on May 21, 1911; exiled to France Madero takes power, but underestimates the discontent that the majority of Mexicans felt about the social and economic situations they found themselves under. At this point, a major fragmentation of revolutionary goals emerge. Now what?
    50. 50. Summarize.  Think about: – – – Previously studies theories (historiography) Murals and their influences, impacts Precedents and parallels (other LA nations/revolutions…)
    51. 51. What comes after the revolution? (Take 1: Madero) THINGS FAIL TO COME TOGETHER
    52. 52. Madero’s Mistakes    Enemies within: – Allowed Diaz’s military forces to remain in the military with the assumption that they had learned their lesson Betrayed land reform: – He told Emiliano Zapata that lands taken from Indian villages by hacendados could not be returned (estranged Zapata) Weak stand against USA and big business: – Large oil companies (American owned), large land owners and others in the economic elite waged a war of words against Madero in the Mexican press which inspired rebellion (estranged Orozco and Villa)
    53. 53. Result: Zapata and the Plan de Ayala     Disillusioned with the slow pace of change under Madero’s leadership, Zapata continued the revolution by advancing his own plan, the Plad de Ayala. In the Plan de Ayala Zapata writes that Madero had “no intentions other than to satisfy his personal ambitions, boundless instincts as a tyrant, and his profound disrespect” for the constitution of 1857. Zapata went onto promise small largely indigenous land holders that they would be returned their properties taken by their “oppressors.” It should be noted that Madero was the owner of an enormous estancia and had appointed many members of his family to his government
    54. 54. 12. A Mural depicting Zapata with his Plan de Ayala
    55. 55. 12
    56. 56. General Huerta Succeeds Madero    In 1913 General Victoriano Huerta overthrew the Madero government by assassinating him. Huerta, a general under Madero in the Mexican army, rose to power with Madero’s death and with the hope of restoring the rule similar to the Porfirato. Huerta rise to power inadvertently initiated the dramatically revolutionary phase of the Mexican revolution.
    57. 57. Victoriano Huerta
    58. 58. Venustiano Carranza and the Constitutionalist Army
    59. 59. Venustiano Carranza joins the Revolution Carranza, a wealthy landholder like Madero organized a third army, mostly of Mexico’s elite to contest Huerta’s presidency. In his Plan de Guadalupe (March 1913) Carranza declared himself the “First Chief of the Constitutional Army ,” but said nothing about socio-economic conditions that propelled Villa and especially Zapata.
    60. 60. Carranza and Obregon
    61. 61. Alvaro Obregon Joins Carranza  Huerta resigned as President in 1914 after the US refused to recognized him as a President and sent troops to Veracruz.  Obregon joined Carranza as a military strategist. Together they defeated Villa’s forces in the North and ultimately assassinated Zapata in the South.
    62. 62. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 institutionalizes the revolution    The Mexican constitution of 1917 empowered the government to redistribute land, recognized labors right to organize, subjected the church to new restrictions. Carranza assumed to the presidency in 1917, but resigned after trying to rig the first election under the new constitution. Obregon succeeded Carranza and organized the Partido Nacional Revolucionario – Renamed the Partido Revolucionario Institucional— The PRI—in 1946
    63. 63. Transitions to stability  From revolution to anarchy (1915-1917) – US support of Carranza – Pancho Villa’s exploits and the Pershing expedition  Stability at the Queretaro Convention (October, 1916) – Purpose is to write a new constitution; desire to end factionalization and come to some compromise – Led by Carranza – Some ideas carry over from the 19th century – For most part, new constitution based on 20th century liberalism – Articles 3, 27, and 123  A long term document; seals the Revolution as a permanent part of Mexican nationalism and development, and solidifies Carranza’s hold on power
    64. 64. Key Articles—Mexican Constitution  Article 3 – Education -- secular, obligatory, free  Article 27 – Land reform, land belongs to Mexico --subsoil too (why important?)  Article 123 – Labor reform -- workers rights, strikes and unions legal, minimum wage, equal for men and women
    65. 65. Carranza Presidency (1917-1920)    Generally considered a failure One shining light = estab. of a national labor organization = CROM  Confederacion Regional Obrera Mexicana, headed by Luis Morones Overthrow of Carranza – Protests from the state of Sonora (Adolfo de la Huerta, Plutarco Calles, Alvaro Obregon  The Sonoran Triangle – Plan de Agua Prieta
    66. 66. The Obregon Presidency (19201924)     Signficance? Mexico’s social revolution, and the implementation of the Revolution, starts here Agrarian Reform Labor Reform Education – “To educate is to redeem” – Jose Vasconcelos   Introduction of the ideas of indigenismo Never recognized by the US government
    67. 67. Plutarco Calles and the Maximato  New groups to consider via the Revolution – Organized labor (esp. in the North; major industrialized areas; tied to Article 123) – Peasants (esp. in the South and Central; tied to Article 27) – Business interests = difficult at time to control  The power and “presidencies” of Calles  known as the Maximato – – – –  1924-1928 = Calles 1928-1932 = Emilio Portes Gil 1932-1934 = Abelardo Rodriguez 28-24, Calles not president; but might of well had been Key to this period is a distinct shift to the right in terms of political ideology
    68. 68. Themes of the Maximato       Payoff for Social & Economic Reform  redistribution of land & more favorable conditions for workers Labor & the growth of CROM Education US/Mexican relations  cautious warming Formation of the PNR  Ptd. Nacional Revolucionario; attempts to bring stability to politics War on Mexican Communists
    69. 69. Problems with the Maximato?  Shift to the right ideologically; away from some of the principles of the Revolution  Responses? – To the left, towards socialism  “The Socialists ABCs” – To the right, The Cristero Revolt – Existence of regional caciques counter Calles goals  Global obstacles to the social revolution = The Great Depression
    70. 70. Muralist Movement - Diego Rivera    Emerges out of the Revolution; an artistic and political expression of a new Mexico and Mexican identity Embraces the Indian as a positive force in the formation of Mexican identity New emphasis on the indigenous side of the identity equation = indigenismo ; through policies, art, culture, history
    71. 71. Cardenas & Mexican Populism (1934-1940)
    72. 72. Background   Born in 1895; Michoacan; educated through the 6th grade Experiences during the Revolution led him into politics – Acting governor of Michoacan under Obregon – Governor under Calles (1928-1932); road tests many policies he would bring to the national level   Hand picked by Calles as candidate for president in 1934 Demonstrated his populist tendencies during the campaign; evoked principles of the Revolution
    73. 73. Cardenas and the Social Revolution  Open lines of communication with the public  Modest in his own public displays  Breaks from the Calles machine  Becomes president during a time of transition in the Revolutionary generations  Is the most successful of the postRevolutionary presidents in institutionalizing the Revolution
    74. 74. Agrarian Reform  The first focus of his presidency – “A Convention at Zacapu”  Agrarian Reform (Article 27) – Returns close to 50 million acres – Agrarian reform – not just land reform – Reinforcing the ejido – “The Agrarian Reform at La Laguna”
    75. 75. Labor Reform  Labor Reform (Article 123) – Developing sophistication of labor unions – CROM  CTM – Dealt with bread & butter issues, especially the wage structure  Nationalization of Railways & Oil – “The Oil Expropriation” as an example of nation building; significant support from other LA nations – Calls for intervention in the US – Question of value of compensation ($200M vs. $24M) – Creation of PEMEX
    76. 76. Political Reform     Redefining Politics PRN  PRM (Partido Revolucionario Mexicano; 1938) Question of how to create political unity; examined in “Cardenas & The Masses” Type of integration of different groups into national politics; defines Cardenas populist style, but is it really about true political integration or political control – “Cardenas took care to guide the workers’ struggle toward purely economic rewards, and when they were integrated into the political process they remained subordinate to, and controlled by, the State, through the official party” (Arturo Anguiano)   Formation of the CNC  Confederacion Nacional de Campesinos Formation of the CTM  Confederacion Trabajadores Mexicanos; led by Vicente Lombardo
    77. 77. The Mexican Revolution Accomplished the Following:  Nationalization of the oil industry  Transfer of more than 45 million acres of land to the power  The near monopoly of political power by the PRI  A socialist orientation by the politicians that followed
    78. 78. PERSPECTIVES AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
    79. 79. http://www.fragilecologies.com/jun27_03.html THEORY OF RISING EXPECTATIONS   Davies J-Curve 110                                                                          
    80. 80. Causes of Revolution III: Theory of Rising Expectations  The “J-Curve” theory of political revolutions  "Revolutions are most likely to occur when a prolonged period of objective economic and social development is followed by a short period of sharp reversal. People then subjectively fear that ground gained with great effort will be quite lost; their mood becomes revolutionary.Various statistics—as on rural uprisings, industrial strikes, chocolate is yummy, unemployment, and cost of living—may serve as crude indexes of popular mood. More useful, though less easy to obtain, are direct questions in crosssectional interviews. The goal of predicting revolution is conceived but not yet born or matured."
    81. 81. http://www.fragilecologies.com/jun27_03.html THEORY OF RISING EXPECTATIONS Davies J-Curve 112
    82. 82. Pause and Reflect • Turn to the people to your left and right and summarize the three devices/theories of revolution we have looked at thus far 113
    83. 83. Mexican Revolution (1910-40)    Radicals v. Reformers Thin line? Periodization: – Armed (Revolution) Phase (1910-20) – Reform Phase (1920-40)  Best organizational method: These two large phases, combined with more specific breakdowns based on historiographic decisions…
    84. 84. Consider periodization…  Great men  Social reform  Legislature  World Events  USA influence  Political upheavals
    85. 85. Historiography 1  Orthodox View (ca. 1930-late 1960s): – Revolution was a mass, unanimous uprising; peasant v. small number of exploiters – Regime of the 1920s was a populist, nationalist regime – Despite emphasis on peasant movement, mostly TopDown – Myth of the Revolution – supported by the government, 1930  – Notable purveyors of this view: Frank Tannenbaum, Robert E. Quirk, Charles Cumberland
    86. 86. Historiography 2  Revisionist View (1968-1970s): – There really was no revolution – it was just a political ‘shuffle’ of elites or just a ‘great rebellion’ – Just a change from one dictator (Diaz) to another (Calles/Cardenas) – As revision develops, studies moved away from TopDown and focused on the social movements (e.g. Jean Meyer’s La Cristiada) – Development of the Microhistory (e.g. Paul Friedrich’s Agrarian Revolution in a Mexican Village and *Luiz Gonzalez’s San Jose de Gracia*) – Notable purveyors of this view: Ramon Ruiz, Jean Meyer
    87. 87. Historiography 3  Post-revisionist view (1980s-now) – – – Synthesis of the orthodox and revisionist views Revolution was first and foremost a social movement Regional perspective (North/Center/South) is key; generalization must be carefully constructed – Continued debate over top-down (e.g. E. Krauze) vs. bottom-up (regional microhistorians) – Notable purveyors of this perspective: Alan Knight, Linda Hall, John Womack, DA Brading
    88. 88. Reflect  Think of our readings: – – – – The Nation articles? Your documents? Keen? Cockcroft?  Where do they stand in these debates?
    89. 89. Historiography 4  Top-Down vs. Bottom-up – Who was more influential: the leaders or the masses? – Cannot understand the revolution looking only at the leaders – it was a social revolution – Yet can still learn a lot about the revolution from the careers of the leaders – especially leaders such as Zapata, Obregon, Cardena – Compare to Cuban Revolution theories: rising expectations, great men, etc.
    90. 90. Historiography 5--Emphasis  According to Nora Hamilton, Cardenas reached the “limits of state autonomy” in 1938. Due to the nature of his ‘progressive alliance’, he was eventually forced to slow down the revolutionary policies – According the orthodox view, his policies were the culmination of the revolutionary promises
    91. 91. Radicals/Revolutionaries v. Reformers   IB likes to make this distinction—clearly define these in your essay—good element for your intro What is a Radical/Revolutionary? – In MR, can be divided into 2 groups:  Agraristas – groups led to revolt due primarily to agrarian grievances. Thus, main goal was agrarian reform (e.g. Zapata)  Serranos – groups led to revolt due to threats to way of life, varied based on region. Main goals included autonomy, political control, cultural independence (e.g. Pancho Villa) – Both groups have common ground: they entered into revolution due to expansion under the Porfiriato
    92. 92. Radicals/Revolutionaries vs. Reformers (2)  What is a Reformer? – Working through governmental or legal institutions to bring about change – After the Armed Revolution, succession of Presidents who attempted to institutionalise the revolution through reforms – Types of reforms depended on the President – e.g. Obregon – political; Calles – cultural; Cardenas – socio-economic  Can a Reformer be a Radical? Are all Revolutionaries Radical?
    93. 93. Urban Labor  Where does the: – Casa del Obrero Mundial (1912)  House of the World Worker  Anarcho-Syndicalism/Red Battalions – CROM (1918)  Confederación Regional Obrera Mexicana  Government cooperation/Art. 123/Cristero War – CTM (1936)  Confederación de Trabajadores de México  Cardenas/PRI/elimination of independent labor  Did urban labor organization betray the promise of the Magonistas?
    94. 94. Map of Mexico - Regionalisation
    95. 95. Review: PHASES AND LEADERS
    96. 96. Armed Phase (1910-20)   ‘Revolutionary’ Leaders: – Francisco I. Madero – Pascual Orozco (?) – Emiliano Zapata – Pancho Villa – Venustiano Carranza – Alvaro Obregon Counter-Revolutionaries: – Victoriano Huerta – Felix Diaz – Bernardo Reyes – Pascual Orozco (?)  Timeline – 1908 – Publication of La Sucesion Presidencial and the Creelman Interview – 1910 – Madero arrested, publication of Plan de San Luis Potosi, armed revolution begins with uprisings in North – 1911 – Diaz resigns and flees to France, Madero elected, Plan de Ayala published – 1913 – Decena Tragica, Huertista coup – 1914 – Huerta overthrown, Convention of Aguascalientes – 1915 – Villa defeated at Celaya, Carranza sets up government from Vera Cruz – 1917 – Constitution published, Obregon resigns – 1919 – Obregon announces candidacy, Zapata killed in Morelos – 1920 – Obregon leads quick coup, Carranza flees but is found and killed
    97. 97. Francisco I. Madero     “The Mexican does not want  bread, he wants the liberty to  earn bread.”   From a wealthy hacendado family in Laguna (Coahuila) Wrote La Sucesion Presidencial en 1910 in 1908, arguing that the corruption of the government must be stopped by the election of a new VP Authored Plan de San Luis Potosi, which called for the overthrow of Diaz and very moderate land reform ‘Led’ armed revolution until signing of Treaty of Ciudad Juarez in 1911 Elected as president after the interim regime of de la Barra He was short, had a squeaky voice and believed in mysticism
    98. 98. Maderismo as a government   Lasted until Madero’s overthrow and murder in 1913… What did he do? – Oversaw the fairest election Mexico had ever seen – Allowed for the development of political parties (e.g. Partido Nacional Catolico) – Defended the freedom of press (to his own detriment – not even his wife was spared!) – Supported the labour movements with the establishment of the Department of Labour (abandonment of liberal laissez faire?)
    99. 99. Maderismo as a government (cont)  Why did it fail? – – – Continued influence of Porfirian elites/the Right Heavy political debt to the army Abandonment of Liberal ideology in favour of forced order – Disillusionment of revolutionaries – Miscalculation of the Right – loose alliance of landowners, ex-Porfirian intellectuals, officer corps of the federal army Verdict: Radical or Reformer?
    100. 100. Emiliano Zapata       “Where there were Zapatistas, there were guarantees.”  Began as the leader of the Defensive Commission of Anenecuilco Began a revolutionary movement in Morelos in 1910, with the main goal of land reform Published the Plan de Ayala in 1911 after Madero refused to initiate radical land reforms and after the actions of the federal army Became leader of a complex network of revolutionaries that helped to overthrow Huerta in 1913 Allied with Villa in 1914 and the Zapatista intellectuals became prominent in the Conventionalist government Continued fighting against the Carrancista government until death in 1919 Was renowned for his horse-training skills
    101. 101. Zapatismo   Existed as a separate revolutionary movement from 1911-20 What did it want? – Land Reform – it wanted to redistribute the lands that had been taken away from the campesinos of Morelos – Protection of Indian communities – wanted to prevent the expansion of centralised power and culture – Protection of rights based on the ideals of ‘Liberalism’ (see Constitution of 1857) – Did NOT want to rule the whole of Mexico – the Zapatistas felt out of place during their occupation of Mexico City
    102. 102. Zapatismo (cont)  What did it do? – Oversaw the expropriation of several haciendas, while attempting to maintain the hacienda model. Miguel Palafox (secretary until 1917) was the minister of agriculture in the Conventionalist government – Gave unifying ideology to the numerous revolutionary movements of Central and Southern Mexico (especially in Guerrero, Puebla, Morelos and Tlaxcala), which contributed to the downfall of Huerta – Continued a guerilla war that tore apart Morelos – Constructed alliance with Obregon and other revolutionaries in 1919/20 that led to the downfall of Carranza  Was a collective, social, agrarian movement influenced by the agrarian cycle Verdict: Radical or Reformer?
    103. 103. Alvaro Obregon           “I had so many brothers and sisters that   when we had Gruyere cheese, only the holes  were left for me!” Small ranchero from Sonora who eventually built up a chickpea empire Entered the revolution in 1913 after Huertista coup Fought as Constitutionalist under Carranza Attended 1914 Convention Defeated Pancho Villa at Celaya in 1915 Became Secretary of War in Carranza administration in 1915 Retired to farm in 1917 (though had his eye on the Presidency) Ran for President in 1919 Led quick military coup against Carranza in 1920 Elected President, 1920 Obsessed with death (acc. Krauze), invented a chickpea picking machine, lost arm in battle (was subsequently preserved like a pickle and displayed)
    104. 104. What can Obregon’s career tell us about the Constitutionalist and Sonoran Revolutions?     During the Armed Phase, Obregon gained much popularity and garnered support for the Constitutionalists (nominally led by Venustiano Carranza, as established by the Plan de Guadalupe) Worked under the government of Carranza until 1917 – due to legitimacy? Though he fought under someone else, he retained a great deal of independence (reflection of Sonoran independence?) Created a much more professional army – with regular wages, better training, and more discipline (reflection of Sonoran values?)
    105. 105. What can Obregon’s career tell us about the Constitutionalist and Sonoran Revolutions? (cont)   Was a key player in the Constitutional Congress in Querretaro in 1916/17. Used his political and military influence to push through several reforms (e.g. Articles 3 and 130 and Article 27) Was able to harness the power of the rising labour movements (e.g. Red Battalions), which was especially important in 1920 with the support of Luis Morones, and the indigenous populations (e.g. the Yaquis) – These groups would become essential to the presidencies of the 1920s and ‘30s  Established the Sonoran Dynasty in 1920 – culmination of what Jean Meyer calls an ‘invasion’ from the North” and emphasises the importance of institutions Verdict: Radical or Reformer?
    106. 106. So…What can we conclude?     Although Madero called for a revolution, he himself was more a reformer – preferred to wait until order was restored before attempting any major changes Zapatismo was a radical, proactive movement – in the sense of land reform – but also was largely a responsive, regional movement Obregonismo had a profound impact on the course of the revolution. It was radical in its support of certain clauses in the 1917 Constitution. But it was also moderate in its dependence on institutions… So, in the Armed Phase, both radicals and reformers played important roles. It can be argued however, that the radicals were more influential to this phase overall…
    107. 107. Reform phase (1920-40)
    108. 108. Mexican Revolution (1910-1940)  Reform Phase (192040)  Looking at three presidencies: – Obregon (1920-24) – Calles (1924-28) – Cardenas (1934-40)
    109. 109. Timeline  1920 – Obregon elected President – Jose Vasconcelos becomes Rector of National University      1923 – Signing of the Bucareli Agreements – de la Huerta uprising   1924 – Plutarco Elias Calles elected 1926 – Church boycott and suspension, the beginning of the Cristero Rebellion 1927 – US Intervention Crisis 1928 – Assassination of Obregon 1928 – Portes Gil president 1929 – Ceasefire between Cristeros and Federal Government – Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR) est.       1930 – Ortiz Rubio president 1932 – Abelardo Rodriguez president 1934 – Lazaro Cardenas elected 1936 – CTM est 1936 – Calles exiled 1938 – Oil expropriation – PNR reorganised into Partido de la Revolucion de Mexico
    110. 110. Just to make sure…  PNR: 1929 – – National Revolutionary Party Calles  PRM: 1938 – – Party of the Mexican Revolution Cardenas  PRI: 1946 – Institutional Revolutionary Party – Manuel Ávila Camacho
    111. 111. Regionalisation
    112. 112. Radical vs. Reformer  Review:  What is a Radical/Revolutionary? – – – Two groups in the MR Followed which leaders, respectively? Common ground for the two groups, which allowed them to join with Madero?  What is a reformer? – – How are reformers different from radicals? Can you be both a reformer and a radical? Why or why not—and how?
    113. 113. Obregon (1920-24, ’28)      Started as a Constitutionalist under Carranza (eventually became a general) Came to presidency with support of CROM, much of the military, Partido Laborista Mexicano (PLM), and great popularity Gained de jure recognition from the US in 1923 (why?) Survived military threat led by de la Huerta Re-elected in 1928, but was assassinated
    114. 114. Obregon’s Presidency (1920-24)  Very able populist leader – He had an interesting sense of humour – Was able to have good dialogue with the people – When he came to power, the revolutionary government was quite fragile – he had to cut deals with a variety of groups (e.g. Zapatistas)   Throughout his presidency, the economy continued to expand under the Sonoran ideal of ‘managed capitalism’ Depends on institutions – Banco de Mexico, labor arbitration courts, Bank of Ejidal credit – Military institutions - he professionalizes the army while reducing its dominance (budget decreases from 70% in 1917 to 30% in 1925)     Very moderate land reform – only 4 million hectares redistributed Abandons Sonoran ideal of state autonomy and pursues a policy of centralized intervention (reneges on promises of Plan de Agua Prieta) Maintains relations with both Left and Right factions, follows cautious policy towards the Church Relations with the US – Bucareli Treaty 1923 Verdict: Radical or Reformer?
    115. 115. Plutarco Elias Calles (1924-8)       “Mexico for the Mexicans“  Became a General in Constitutionalist Army Served as Governor of Sonora (1917-19) Helped to author the Plan de Agua Prieta in 1920, aligning himself with Obregon During Presidency, enforced Articles 3 and 130, leading to Cristero Rebellion (1926-9) Rejected Bucareli Treaty, upheld and reinforced Article 27 His administration almost brought Mexico and the US to war in 1927 over oil Was very well read, lacked the populist personality, and was interested in Fascist Italy
    116. 116. Calles: Church v State Conflict  Constitution of 1917 – – – –    Article 3 – no religious education Article 27 – land reform Article 123 – labor reform –Church despised this, tithing Article 130 – restricts the church: allows the state to control the clergy through registration and restrictions on numbers Calles and several state governors (esp. Garrido Canabal) began a radical enforcement of these laws The church hierarchy called for an economic boycott and a suspension of priest-led services in 1926 in retaliation By the end of 1926, Cristero rebels had taken up arms in several states: Michoacan, Jalisco (esp Los Altos), Colima, Guanajuato.
    117. 117. Calles: Church v State Conflict (cont)  The Cristiada was not primarily due to religion. It was a response to the continued expansion of the revolutionary institutions under Calles – These areas had not participated in the Armed Phase – The revolutionary government was attempting to impose its own ideals upon these communities – Those that did not participate: areas heavily involved in the revolution (best example: Morelos), areas where the church did not have a strong foothold, agrarista communities   The Cristiada rebellion offers an excellent example of the expanding scope of the revolutionary government under the Sonorans The armed conflict was resolved in 1929, with mediation from Ambassador Morrow (explains argument for 1911-1929 periodization) Verdict: Radical reformer?
    118. 118. The ‘Maximato’ (1928-34)   After Obregon’s assassination, Calles decided not to run again, but instead to place men on the presidential throne that he could easily control Mainly through the newly established Partido Nacional Revolucionario (est 1929) – Originally started out as an umbrella for a variety of different local/regional parties (as many as 8,000 in the 1920s)  Succession of Presidents: – – – Emilio Portes Gil (1928-30) Pascual Ortiz Rubio (1930-2) Abelardo Rodriguez (1932-4)
    119. 119. The ‘Maximato’ (1928-34) (cont)  Socio-economic reform, especially land reform, was halted during this period with a general movement towards conservatism – Partially due to economic stagnation and decline following 1927 (and, of course, the Global Depression of the 1930s) – Calles believed the solution to the economic crisis was not redistributing land, but encouraging production – Crack down on communist party and several unions  Abelardo Rodriguez had a greater extent of independence than is traditionally thought. During his presidency, several ‘Cardenismo’ reforms were started (e.g. the movement towards socialist education under Narciso Bossols).
    120. 120. Lazaro Cardenas (1934-40)     “I am convinced that the good intentions of a ruler are simply not enough...and that the collective factor represented by the workers is indispensable” From Michoacan (eventually would become governor) Entered the revolution in the Constitutionalist Army – his experiences influenced his later ideologies Elected President in 1934 Traditional periodisation of his presidency: – 1934-6: deconstructing the Maximato – 1936-8: radical reform – 1938-40: deceleration of revolutionary reform   Very austere lifestyle – did not like to drink Had wide-ranging influence
    121. 121. Cardenismo (1930-1940)   Brought the end to the Maximato (eventually exiled Calles in 1936) Was a populist government – he spent almost 18 months on gira (political tours of the country) – According the orthodox view, his policies were the culmination of the revolutionary promises  He continued the expansion of the revolutionary state
    122. 122. Cardenismo (1930-1940) (cont)  Had several major policies: – Land reform: over 18 million hectares redistributed. Collective programmes (e.g. Laguna). Also supported collectivisation of peasants under Confederacion Nacional Campesina. – Education: attempts to establish a socialist education programme were largely unsuccessful – Labour: supported the CTM (led by Toledano) and continued sympathetic policies seen under Obregon and Calles – Oil: expropriation in 1938 (considered height of Cardenismo). Issue began as labour conflict, but became a threat to Mexican sovereignty – Politics: reformed the PNR, creating the PRM. Employed the corporative structure. After 1938, Cardenas became much more conciliatory to the Right (e.g. Avila Camacho)   According to Nora Hamilton, Cardenas reached the “limits of state autonomy” in 1938. Due to the nature of his ‘progressive alliance’, he was eventually forced to slow down the revolutionary policies Supported Manuel Avila Camacho as his successor Verdict: Radical or Reformer?
    123. 123. Reminder: Cultural Revolution Beginning in the 1920s, especially with the encouragement of Vasconcelos, Mexican art, music, and literature experienced a cultural revitilisation. It emphasised the indigenismo ideals and glorified the revolutionary experience. Diego Rivera, Novelists: Jose Clemente Orozco, Martin Luis Guzman Frida Kahlo Mariano Azuela
    124. 124. So…Can we conclude?      Obregon was a radical during the Armed Phase, but was a moderate reformer during his presidency Calles was, in the cultural sense, a radical. In the socioeconomic sense, especially during the Maximato, he became a moderate reformer (if not a bit conservative) Cardenas expanded his radical policies until he reached the “limits of state autonomy.” After 1938, the revolution had succeeded in entrenching itself institutionally and ideologically. In the 1920s and 30s, through state encouragement, Mexico underwent a cultural revolution that further imprinted the revolution upon ‘Mexican’ culture Can a Reformer be a Radical? – Yes, in different spheres: Calles and Cardenas, traditional ‘reformers’ can also be considered ‘radicals’ – Yes, CCOT: Obregon began as a radical and evolved into a reformer (although some question how radical he ever was…)
    125. 125. But Can We Conclude? "This chapter tells how the supreme government was affected by the poverty of the Indigenous peoples of Chiapas and endowed the area with hotels, prisons, barracks, and a military airport. It also tells how the beast feeds on the blood of the people, as well as other miserable and unfortunate happenings...A handful of businesses, one of which is the Mexican State, takes all the wealth out of Chiapas and in exchange leave behind their mortal and pestilent mark."
    126. 126. Thinking IB  The Mexican Revolution can be used to answer questions on: – – – The Mexican Revolution (obviously) U.S. Foreign Policy Causes, Practices and Effects of War (P2)  Know how to break the revolution down, and make an individual argument
    127. 127. Common Topics  Art and muralism  Stages of the Revolution  US influence  Reform or Revolution?  Success? (Political, social, economic)?  Top-down v. bottom-up (Were the expectations rising or imposed?)
    128. 128. CAN YOU ANSWER…
    129. 129. Essential Questions 1      Who can be considered the father of the Mexican Revolution? Was the Mexican Revolution a true revolution? (S,P,E) How successful and lasting were the influences of Zapata and Villa on the revolution? Why did the Mexican Revolution last so long? (10, 20, 30 years?) Had the aims of the leaders of the revolution be achieved by 1940?
    130. 130. Essential Questions 2      How did greater geo-political developments and patronclient relationships define the policies of Latin American leaders? What are the causes and consequences of revolution? What were the major stages of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) and who were the relevant leaders and forces? What were the key policies of the Reconstruction Era (1920-1933)? What were the main elements of Cardenas reform program (1934-1940)?
    131. 131. Essential Questions 3     How did the Mexican Revolution shape Mexican politics and economic after 1940? When are a people justified to revolt? How were foreign nations implicit in creating the 20th Century inequities and conflicts of Latin America? Should local governments and leaders be held accountable for their collusion with interests outside Latin America?
    132. 132. CAN YOU COMPOSE AN ANALYTICAL RESPONSE TO…
    133. 133. Potential Essay Questions 1      Evaluate the extent to which the United States participated in the Mexican Revolution. To what extent were the goals of the revolution achieved by 1940? Analyze the causes of the Great Depression in one country in the Americas Analyze the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the arts in Mexico. Explain why conservative or moderate politicians such as Obregon and Calles supported such radical, leftist and anti-imperialist artists. Describe and analyze American policy toward the Mexican Revolution and its impact on the development of the revolution
    134. 134. Potential Essay Questions 2      Compare and contrast the reform movements of Villa and Zapata with special focus on the causes for the differences Analyze the causes for and impacts of Madero’s break with the other leaders of the Mexican Revolution Evaluate the political and economic significance of the Constitution of 1917 What conclusions does the Mexican experience with dependent capitalist development suggest concerning the program's viability as a solution for the problems of Latin American underdevelopment and poverty in general? Was the Mexican Revolution a revolution against the status quo or a civil war between irreconcilable factions in Mexican society?
    135. 135. CAN YOU IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE…
    136. 136. When instructed, write everything you know about the following items on your assigned whiteboards. Concentrated Review
    137. 137. Leaders 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Madero Cardenas Calles Obregon Zapata & Villa Diaz
    138. 138. Documents  Constitution of 1917 (in general)  Article 3 & 130  Article 27  Article 123  Plan of Ayala  Plan of San Luis Potosi
    139. 139. MR and USA  Bucareli Agreement  Pershing Expedition  Henry Lane Wilson  Oil Expropriation  Vera Cruz  Zimmerman Telegram
    140. 140. Interest Groups  Agraristas  Rancheros  Soldaderas  CROM  Cristeros  Zapatistas
    141. 141. Geography  Sonora  Chihuahua  Morelos  Yucatan and Chiapas  DF  Exiles in USA
    142. 142. A Cultural Revolution  Flores Magon Brothers  Jose Vasconcelos  Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo  Muralism and Muralists  José Clemente Orozco  David Alfaro Siqueiros  Bonus: Catrina
    143. 143. Mexican Revolution Online  http://runyon.lib.utexas.edu/conflict.html  http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mex-revolution.ht  http://ibhistory.wikidot.com/3-12  anthropology.ac.uk/era_resources/era/peasants/mexic  http://www.casahistoria.net/mexicorevolution.htm

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