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30 1 revolutions in-russia


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30 1 revolutions in-russia

  1. 1. Revolutions in RussiaRevolutions in Russia Chapter 30, Section 1Chapter 30, Section 1
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction  The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, yet the fuse had been burning for nearly a century. The cruel, oppressive rule of most 19th-century czars caused widespread social unrest for decades. Army officers revolted in 1825. Secret revolutionary groups plotted to overthrow the government.
  3. 3.  In 1881, revolutionaries angry over the slow pace of political change assassinated the reform-minded czar, Alexander II. Russia was heading toward a full-scale revolution.
  4. 4. Czars Resist ChangeCzars Resist Change
  5. 5. End to ReformEnd to Reform  In 1881,In 1881, AlexanderAlexander IIIIII becomes czar andbecomes czar and ends the reforms ofends the reforms of his father, Alexanderhis father, Alexander II.II.  Alexander III institutesAlexander III institutes autocraticautocratic rulerule,, suppressing allsuppressing all opposition andopposition and decent.decent.
  6. 6. Czars Continue Autocratic RuleCzars Continue Autocratic Rule  Government censors written criticism;Government censors written criticism; secret police monitor schoolssecret police monitor schools  Non-Russians living in Russia are treatedNon-Russians living in Russia are treated harshlyharshly
  7. 7. Anti-Jewish PogromsAnti-Jewish Pogroms  Jews become target of government backedJews become target of government backed pogroms (organized persecutions)pogroms (organized persecutions)  Alexander III encourages Jewish emigration toAlexander III encourages Jewish emigration to the United States during this time. The musicalthe United States during this time. The musical Fiddler on the RoofFiddler on the Roof is set in this set in this era.
  8. 8.  In 1894, Nicholas IIIn 1894, Nicholas II becomes czar andbecomes czar and continues autocraticcontinues autocratic waysways
  9. 9. Russia IndustrializesRussia Industrializes
  10. 10. Rapid IndustrializationRapid Industrialization  Number of factories doubles betweenNumber of factories doubles between 1863 and 1900, but Russia still lags1863 and 1900, but Russia still lags behind other European countries.behind other European countries.  In late 1800s, new plan boosts steelIn late 1800s, new plan boosts steel production and a major railway beginsproduction and a major railway begins
  11. 11. The Revolutionary Movement GrowsThe Revolutionary Movement Grows  Industrialization breeds discontent over workingIndustrialization breeds discontent over working conditions and wages.conditions and wages.  Growing popularity of Marxist idea thatGrowing popularity of Marxist idea that proletariat (workers) will ruleproletariat (workers) will rule  Bolsheviks—Marxists who favor revolution by aBolsheviks—Marxists who favor revolution by a small committed groupsmall committed group
  12. 12. LeninLenin  Lenin—BolshevikLenin—Bolshevik leader—an excellentleader—an excellent organizer andorganizer and inspiring leaderinspiring leader
  13. 13. Crisis at Home and AbroadCrisis at Home and Abroad
  14. 14. The Russo-Japanese WarThe Russo-Japanese War  Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in theDefeat in the Russo-Japanese War in the early 1900s causes unrest in Russia.early 1900s causes unrest in Russia.
  15. 15. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution ofBloody Sunday: The Revolution of 19051905  In 1905, 200,000In 1905, 200,000 workers march on theworkers march on the czar’s palace toczar’s palace to demand reformsdemand reforms  The army fires intoThe army fires into the crowd, killingthe crowd, killing manymany  Massacre leads toMassacre leads to widespread unrest;widespread unrest; Nicholas if forced toNicholas if forced to make reformsmake reforms
  16. 16. The short lived DumaThe short lived Duma  The Duma,The Duma, Russia’s firstRussia’s first parliament,parliament, meets in 1906meets in 1906  Czar isCzar is unwilling tounwilling to share power,share power, dissolves thedissolves the Duma afterDuma after only 10 weeksonly 10 weeks
  17. 17. World War I: The Final BlowWorld War I: The Final Blow  Heavy losses in World War I revealHeavy losses in World War I reveal government’s weaknessgovernment’s weakness  Nicholas goes to war front; CzarinaNicholas goes to war front; Czarina Alexandra runs government in hisAlexandra runs government in his absenceabsence
  18. 18.  Czarina falls under theCzarina falls under the influence of Rasputin—ainfluence of Rasputin—a mysterious “holy man”—mysterious “holy man”— who she believes has thewho she believes has the power to heal her son.power to heal her son.  Nobles fear Rasputin’sNobles fear Rasputin’s influence and murder himinfluence and murder him  Army losingArmy losing effectiveness; people ateffectiveness; people at home are hungry andhome are hungry and unhappyunhappy
  19. 19. The March RevolutionThe March Revolution
  20. 20. First StepsFirst Steps  In March 1917, strikes expand; soldiers refuse toIn March 1917, strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire on on workers.  Most of the tension is caused by Nicholas IIMost of the tension is caused by Nicholas II personally taking command of the military inpersonally taking command of the military in World War I, and the war going so badly.World War I, and the war going so badly.
  21. 21. The Czar Steps DownThe Czar Steps Down  March Revolution—protests becomeMarch Revolution—protests become uprising; Nicholas abdicates throneuprising; Nicholas abdicates throne  Duma establishes provisional, orDuma establishes provisional, or temporary governmenttemporary government  Soviets—committees of SocialistSoviets—committees of Socialist revolutionaries—control many citiesrevolutionaries—control many cities
  22. 22. Lenin Returns to RussiaLenin Returns to Russia  In April 1917,In April 1917, Germans aid Lenin inGermans aid Lenin in returning from exile toreturning from exile to Russia (pictured inRussia (pictured in disguise with hisdisguise with his goatee shaved andgoatee shaved and wearing a wig).wearing a wig).
  23. 23. The Bolshevik RevolutionThe Bolshevik Revolution
  24. 24. The Provisional Government TopplesThe Provisional Government Topples  In November 1917, workers take control ofIn November 1917, workers take control of the governmentthe government
  25. 25. Bolsheviks in PowerBolsheviks in Power  Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workersLenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factoriesin control of factories  Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany;Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia pulls out of World War IRussia pulls out of World War I
  26. 26. Civil War Rages in RussiaCivil War Rages in Russia  Civil War between Bolsheviks’ Red ArmyCivil War between Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Armyand loosely allied White Army  Red Army wins three-year war that leavesRed Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead14 million dead
  27. 27. Comparing World RevolutionsComparing World Revolutions  Russian and French Revolutions areRussian and French Revolutions are similar—both attempt to remake societysimilar—both attempt to remake society and use violence against citizens whoand use violence against citizens who resist these changes.resist these changes.
  28. 28. Lenin Restores OrderLenin Restores Order
  29. 29. New Economic PolicyNew Economic Policy  In March 1921, Lenin launches NewIn March 1921, Lenin launches New Economic Policy; has some capitalismEconomic Policy; has some capitalism  NEP and peace restore economyNEP and peace restore economy shattered by war and revolutionshattered by war and revolution  By 1928, Russia’s farms and factories areBy 1928, Russia’s farms and factories are producing againproducing again
  30. 30. Political ReformsPolitical Reforms  Lenin creates self-governing republicsLenin creates self-governing republics under national governmentunder national government  In 1922, country renamed Union of SovietIn 1922, country renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)  Communist Party—new name taken byCommunist Party—new name taken by Bolsheviks from the writings of MarxBolsheviks from the writings of Marx
  31. 31. Stalin Becomes DictatorStalin Becomes Dictator
  32. 32. A New LeaderA New Leader  Trotsky and StalinTrotsky and Stalin compete to replacecompete to replace Lenin after Lenin’sLenin after Lenin’s deathdeath  Joseph Stalin—Joseph Stalin— cold, hardcold, hard Communist PartyCommunist Party general secretarygeneral secretary in 1922in 1922 Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin
  33. 33.  Stalin gains powerStalin gains power from 1922 to 1927from 1922 to 1927  Lenin dies in 1924Lenin dies in 1924  Stalin gains completeStalin gains complete power in 1928;power in 1928; Trotsky is forced intoTrotsky is forced into exile.exile.  Trotsky is murderedTrotsky is murdered in Mexico City in 1940in Mexico City in 1940 by an NKVD an NKVD agent. Room where Trotsky was murdered (above); Trotsky’s murderer, NKVD agent, Romón Mercader (right).