24.2 Europe Faces24.2 Europe FacesRevolutionsRevolutionsLiberal and nationalist uprisingsLiberal and nationalist uprisingschallenge the old conservativechallenge the old conservativeorder of Europeorder of Europe
Clash of PhilosophiesClash of PhilosophiesThree Philosophies: In the early 1800s,Three Philosophies: In the early 1800s,three schools of political thought conflict inthree schools of political thought conflict inEuropeEuropeConservativeConservative—landowners and nobles want—landowners and nobles wanttraditional monarchiestraditional monarchiesLiberalLiberal—wealthy merchants and business—wealthy merchants and businessowners want limited democracyowners want limited democracyRadicalRadical—believe in liberty and equality.—believe in liberty and equality.They want everyone to have a vote.They want everyone to have a vote.
Nationalism DevelopsNationalism DevelopsNationalism and Nation-StatesNationalism and Nation-StatesNationalismNationalism—loyalty to a nation of people—loyalty to a nation of peoplewith common culture and historywith common culture and historyNation-StateNation-State—nation with its own—nation with its ownindependent governmentindependent governmentIn 1815 Europe, only France, England andIn 1815 Europe, only France, England andSpain are nation-statesSpain are nation-statesLiberals and radicals support nationalism, butLiberals and radicals support nationalism, butconservatives do not.conservatives do not.
Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative PowerGreeks Gain IndependenceGreeks Gain IndependenceBalkansBalkans—region of Europe controlled by the—region of Europe controlled by theOttomans in early 1800s.Ottomans in early 1800s.Greece gets European help to gainGreece gets European help to gainindependence from the Turks.independence from the Turks.
Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative Power1830s Uprisings Crushed1830s Uprisings CrushedBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals andBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals andnationalists launch revolts.nationalists launch revolts.By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back inBy the mid-1830s, conservatives are back incontrolcontrol
Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative Power1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite1848 Revolutions Fail to UniteEthnic uprisings in Europe, especially in theEthnic uprisings in Europe, especially in theAustrian empire.Austrian empire.Liberals hold power for short time, but lose toLiberals hold power for short time, but lose toconservatives by 1849conservatives by 1849
Radicals Change FranceRadicals Change FranceConservative DefeatConservative DefeatIn 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restoreIn 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restoreabsolute monarchyabsolute monarchyThe Third RepublicThe Third RepublicIn 1848, a Paris mob overthrows theIn 1848, a Paris mob overthrows themonarchy and sets up a republicmonarchy and sets up a republicRadicals split by infighting; moderates controlRadicals split by infighting; moderates controlthe new governmentthe new government1848 constitution calls for elected president1848 constitution calls for elected presidentand parliamentand parliament
Radicals Change FranceRadicals Change France France Accepts aFrance Accepts aStrong RulerStrong Ruler Louis-NapoleonLouis-Napoleon ——Napoleon Bonaparte’sNapoleon Bonaparte’snephew—is electednephew—is electedpresidentpresident Louis-Napoleon laterLouis-Napoleon latertakes the title emperor.takes the title emperor. He promotesHe promotesindustrialization.industrialization.
Reform in RussiaReform in RussiaSerfdom in RussiaSerfdom in RussiaCzars fail to free the serfs because they fearCzars fail to free the serfs because they fearlosing the support of landowners.losing the support of landowners.
Reform in RussiaReform in Russia Defeat Brings ChangeDefeat Brings Change Russia’s lack ofRussia’s lack ofindustrialization leadsindustrialization leadsto military defeat in theto military defeat in theCrimean War.Crimean War. Alexander IIAlexander II —czar—czarwho determines towho determines tomake social andmake social andeconomic changeseconomic changesAlexander II was also called“Alexander the Liberator.” In Finlandhe is known as “the Good Czar.”Why?
Photos and Portraits of Alexander IIPhotos and Portraits of Alexander II
Reform in RussiaReform in Russia Reform and ReactionReform and Reaction In 1861, Alexander IIIn 1861, Alexander IIfrees the serfs, butfrees the serfs, butdebt keeps them ondebt keeps them onthe same land.the same land. Reform halts whenReform halts whenAlexander isAlexander isassassinated byassassinated byterrorists in 1881.terrorists in 1881. Driven by nationalism,Driven by nationalism,Alexander IIIAlexander IIIencouragesencouragesindustrialization.industrialization.The Church of the Savior onBlood commemorates the placewhere Alexander II wasassassinated.