24.2 europe faces revolutions

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24.2 europe faces revolutions

  1. 1. 24.2 Europe Faces24.2 Europe FacesRevolutionsRevolutionsLiberal and nationalist uprisingsLiberal and nationalist uprisingschallenge the old conservativechallenge the old conservativeorder of Europeorder of Europe
  2. 2. Clash of PhilosophiesClash of PhilosophiesThree Philosophies: In the early 1800s,Three Philosophies: In the early 1800s,three schools of political thought conflict inthree schools of political thought conflict inEuropeEuropeConservativeConservative—landowners and nobles want—landowners and nobles wanttraditional monarchiestraditional monarchiesLiberalLiberal—wealthy merchants and business—wealthy merchants and businessowners want limited democracyowners want limited democracyRadicalRadical—believe in liberty and equality.—believe in liberty and equality.They want everyone to have a vote.They want everyone to have a vote.
  3. 3. Nationalism DevelopsNationalism DevelopsNationalism and Nation-StatesNationalism and Nation-StatesNationalismNationalism—loyalty to a nation of people—loyalty to a nation of peoplewith common culture and historywith common culture and historyNation-StateNation-State—nation with its own—nation with its ownindependent governmentindependent governmentIn 1815 Europe, only France, England andIn 1815 Europe, only France, England andSpain are nation-statesSpain are nation-statesLiberals and radicals support nationalism, butLiberals and radicals support nationalism, butconservatives do not.conservatives do not.
  4. 4. Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative PowerGreeks Gain IndependenceGreeks Gain IndependenceBalkansBalkans—region of Europe controlled by the—region of Europe controlled by theOttomans in early 1800s.Ottomans in early 1800s.Greece gets European help to gainGreece gets European help to gainindependence from the Turks.independence from the Turks.
  5. 5. Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative Power1830s Uprisings Crushed1830s Uprisings CrushedBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals andBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals andnationalists launch revolts.nationalists launch revolts.By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back inBy the mid-1830s, conservatives are back incontrolcontrol
  6. 6. Nationalists Challenge Conservative PowerNationalists Challenge Conservative Power1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite1848 Revolutions Fail to UniteEthnic uprisings in Europe, especially in theEthnic uprisings in Europe, especially in theAustrian empire.Austrian empire.Liberals hold power for short time, but lose toLiberals hold power for short time, but lose toconservatives by 1849conservatives by 1849
  7. 7. Radicals Change FranceRadicals Change FranceConservative DefeatConservative DefeatIn 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restoreIn 1830, France’s Charles X fails to restoreabsolute monarchyabsolute monarchyThe Third RepublicThe Third RepublicIn 1848, a Paris mob overthrows theIn 1848, a Paris mob overthrows themonarchy and sets up a republicmonarchy and sets up a republicRadicals split by infighting; moderates controlRadicals split by infighting; moderates controlthe new governmentthe new government1848 constitution calls for elected president1848 constitution calls for elected presidentand parliamentand parliament
  8. 8. Radicals Change FranceRadicals Change France France Accepts aFrance Accepts aStrong RulerStrong Ruler Louis-NapoleonLouis-Napoleon ——Napoleon Bonaparte’sNapoleon Bonaparte’snephew—is electednephew—is electedpresidentpresident Louis-Napoleon laterLouis-Napoleon latertakes the title emperor.takes the title emperor. He promotesHe promotesindustrialization.industrialization.
  9. 9. Reform in RussiaReform in RussiaSerfdom in RussiaSerfdom in RussiaCzars fail to free the serfs because they fearCzars fail to free the serfs because they fearlosing the support of landowners.losing the support of landowners.
  10. 10. Reform in RussiaReform in Russia Defeat Brings ChangeDefeat Brings Change Russia’s lack ofRussia’s lack ofindustrialization leadsindustrialization leadsto military defeat in theto military defeat in theCrimean War.Crimean War. Alexander IIAlexander II —czar—czarwho determines towho determines tomake social andmake social andeconomic changeseconomic changesAlexander II was also called“Alexander the Liberator.” In Finlandhe is known as “the Good Czar.”Why?
  11. 11. Photos and Portraits of Alexander IIPhotos and Portraits of Alexander II
  12. 12. Reform in RussiaReform in Russia Reform and ReactionReform and Reaction In 1861, Alexander IIIn 1861, Alexander IIfrees the serfs, butfrees the serfs, butdebt keeps them ondebt keeps them onthe same land.the same land. Reform halts whenReform halts whenAlexander isAlexander isassassinated byassassinated byterrorists in 1881.terrorists in 1881. Driven by nationalism,Driven by nationalism,Alexander IIIAlexander IIIencouragesencouragesindustrialization.industrialization.The Church of the Savior onBlood commemorates the placewhere Alexander II wasassassinated.

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