The Spanidards With the collapse of Roman Empire, the next superpower to take the helm was Spain. Spanish embraced Catholicism and fought a religious war among Muslims and Jews Christopher Columbus and his expedition of Spaniards sail across the Atlantic Oceans eventually land at Mexico where the Aztec occupied the land.
The Amerindians The first people who occupied the civilization was know to be found lowland of Southern Vera Cruz and Tabasco. Their civilizations was based on agriculture consist of crops such as beans, squash, tomatoes, pumpkins, avocados, and potatoes Slaves from other tribe provided the labor to grow these crops for survivals
The Conquest of Mexico Herman Cortes and Tlaxcalan warriors by Xicotencat the Younger were victorious against the Aztec Empires in August 13, 1521. The joint forces battle strategies were cutting off food supplies and the city was ravaged from smallpox. Cortes ordered to take down the Aztecs God and replaced with the icon of Christianity. The take over brought the new and old Mexico together which also encouraged in unifying and mating of Natives and Spaniards which fuse to become Spanish.
Spanish Exploration The Spanish began to settle an adventure throughout the New World. The culture are beginning to fuse as they are encouraged to marry the Natives to form Mestizas. The incentive of the Exploration was search for gold, silvers, passage to the Old World, and pushing Christianity. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca first set foot on the southern western land of future United States.
Settlement A small colonization of settlements settle near rivers or Indian Pueblos Many settlers move in to settle California as fresh rich soil was enticing and the search for gold was probable. In 1781, California was beginning to grow and increased little by little by the Spanish.
Major Trends American Manifest Destiny began to influence the Spanish to explore the Northern part of the region in California. California exploration was the end of Spanish expansion of the North. The interest of expanding was based on trading and the people are having hard time adjusting to frontier way of life.
The Collapse of SpanishEmpire Financial deficits, military loss, and technological changes was the downfall of the Spanish Empire. Mexico rich resources was not used properly and American traders was revolting Governor of New Mexico In 1848, after hard fought battle, Mexico won its independence from Spain.
Independence States The Texas revolt in the Alamo in 1836 against Mexico. California did not participate in the revolt against Spain and remain independence from Mexico. In the Mexico-America war of 1847, American claimed and occupied much of Arizona.
Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War of 1847 Texas won its independence and was known as a Lone Star state as they were the focal point of America and Mexico battles. American forces invaded New Mexico, American Navy blockade Alta California, took control rich resources along the coast of Baja California. USA was victorious as Mexico loss California, Texas, and New Mexico.
Chapter 4: The American Southwest(1848 – 1900)
Gringos and Greasers Anti Mexican was known during the latter part of the 19th century. Mexicanos and Anglo were fusing as a whole. Mexicans and Americans was not well liked and increased conflicts over property. The Greaser Act was passed in California on 1855 which is anti among Greasers and who had both Spanish and Indian blood allowing people to harassed them legally.
New Mexico The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 ceded New Mexico to the United States. During 1840’s, the rich social class and the poor social class was unstable as they were continuous clash one and another. The tribe of the states consist mostly Navajo and Pueblo people and consisted of high amount of Hispanics.
Arizona Arizona was acquired by the United States from The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Gila River in 1853 was recaptured by Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. The Economic power of Hispanic Elite began to wane as the Anglos and the railroads entered Arizona.
Motives for MexicanImmigration Mexicans is the highest group among foreign countries that migrated to the United States. Labors was in desperate needed in United States as there was an economic boom in US. Their works entailed like the railroad and seasonal agricultural labors. The immigration laws was less enforced as to Eastern European migration which are very restrictive.
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution was among the main factor of 300,000 Mexicans migrated to the United States in searching for better opportunities and safer environments. After the Mexican Revolution, the central government was corrupted as they was put power to the central government It was led by Francisco I. Madero against the longtime dictator Porfrio Diaz.
Immigration Mexican were driven in the search for political, economic, and social class freedom in the Southwest part of the United States. Mexicans lived in secluded rural areas and was not treated equally among the Natives living at the time. Labor abuses and series of harassment face the immigrants when living in the US.
The Great Depression The Great Depression happen at New York City which affect the United States and the world in 1929 leaving Mexicanos in a very bad shape to survive. Immigrants feared that they’ll be left out because of competition among European immigrations. American was ignoring and harassing the Mexicanos at the times.
Urbanization The depression started up the flow to urbanization in the Southwest. Mexican barrios began to form and form a community in order to protect each other. Groups such as Ku Klux Klan provided enough threat that Mexicans were forced to live in cities to protect their well-being.
Labors American employer willing to hire the Mexicans because they came in for cheap. As they move to urbanization, the labor movement began. Mexicans and Mexican American become a constant scapegoat for the downfall of the economy.
Chapter 7: The Second World War and ItsAftermath(1940 – 1965)
Mexicans in the Military Many Mexicans served for the military as a social economic issues. It’s a way to show pride and gain economic advantage when serving for the US. Veteran were benefits by education opportunities, job openings, and the rights to own properties.
Workers back at Home While majority of the citizens went at war, immigrants who stay home worked in factories in producing weaponry, railroads, metal and steels, and etc. The Bracero Program were form in order to protect the labor rights for Mexican immigrants. Most workers were men, however women play big parts in the factories.
Urbanization Panchuco gangs were formed as the result of revolt between traditional parent and the younger generation. They rebelled and created their own kind of society. Gang violence and the hatred of Spanish and Native blood “Greasers” developed among various communities.
Chicano Movement Consisted of hundreds of organization focusing among various issues like equality and Union Farm Workers emerged as the result of the movement. The movement was dominated by young generation of high school and college students and was little more violence. Many legal victories were won like in 1947 Mendez vs. Westminster Supreme Court which declare the segregating children with “Mexican and Latin “ descent was proven unconstitutional.
Chicano Student Movement andthe Delano Strike The formation of United Farm Workers was created as the result of the grape strike led by Caesar Chavez and many various leaders. By 1970, the student movement was made out of young people looking equal rights and fixed the problems among public institutions. In Los Angeles in 1970’s walkout occurs and in Denver as well in fighting for a better education systems and proper learning status.
The Decline of Chicanismo It was proven difficult to rally a group or organizations in fighting for common welfare. Welfare rights, child care, sexual discriminations in employment, abortion and birth control were among the hot topics that was issued to fight for. When immigrants began to focus more on their self survivals and personal advancements, the movement decline as a result, very few demostrations.
Demographics An enormous increase among Hispanics to about 61% between 1970’s and 1980’s in the United States. Mexicans communities are becoming more spiritual as a result of everyone changing to different religions. Most Mexicans Americans live in urban area.
Rise among Women Rights Women began to find their voice in culture and politics as more women become more educated. Movement among Latinas as it began to emerge to Hispanics roots. Mexican women were becoming head househeld in 1990’s.
The Chicano Renaissance Chicanos were becoming more educated as they gather influence from music and arts. There was a growth in interest among literature, poetry, drama, and music. Famous people who came from Chicano Renaissance was Ricardo Valenzuela, Selena, and Arnoldo Carlos Vento.
Chapter 10: The Hispanic Challenges(1994 – Present)
Socioeconomics A stronger middle class among Mexican communities are forming as they are becoming more educated and finding better jobs and involved in politics. Mexicans are shifting toward the Republican party which is usually big focal point during elections. Latino populations is 47 millions, however their social status progress has remain unstable and continue to live in poverty.
Immigration In mid 1990’s with the strength of economics at its highest, more Mexicans crowded in the United States looking for better job prospect and better life. Discrimination and anger toward Mexican Immigration continue to be the focal point as a result of economic downturn and recessions. 11.3 millions immigrations living in United States are illegal.
Popular Culture In the last decade, the Mexican culture had made a huge impact among Hollywood and mainstream culture. Many Mexicans people are becoming more famous in Hollywood as actors or actress, musicians, and athletes. In Southern western part of the US, Spanish language media are broadcast and they even have their own newspapers. The revolution of soccer, baseball, and football enhance the quality of the sports making it more competitive.