Latin America

A glimpse into the work of God and the people from
16th Century to Present
The Tupac Line

TupacAmaru (1545 – 1572): The Peruvian Inca
state’s last native ruler

TupacAmaru II (born José Gabriel Co...
TupacAmaru II

Born José Gabriel Condorcanqui in 1742

Direct descendent of Incan ruler TupacAmaru

Attended Jesuit school...
Castas
Definition: lineage/breed/race from Latin castus,
or ―chaste,‖ pointing to lineage ―purity‖

A Spanish colonial con...
Casta Paintings:
PinturadeCastas
Showed ―exoctic‖ racial combination in Spanish
territories

16 paintings showing 16 combi...
Small Pox in Latin America,
16th-17th Centuries
What is small pox?

How did it get to Latin America?

• Airborne virus * t...
Evaluating Small Pox Then  Now
Why was the New World susceptible? What were the health and political
• People coming to th...
Brief Case Study of the Guarani
First Established Jesuit Community
in Argentina
1609-1750s
Reducciones of 1609
―In the World But Not of It‖

Hospitals

Church

Bow  Arrow

Literacy

Handicraft

Music  Dance
Community Life
Political Strife and War
1750s

King Ferdinand VI of Spain

Portugal
Present-Day ―Idios‖ Guarani Community
Politics and Church during Independence in
Latin American Countries
Liberal or Conservative governments
Roman Catholic Chu...
Liberation Theology
Vatican II  Pastoral Constitution of the Church in the Modern World

(1962-65)
Latin American theologi...
Liberation Theology in Action
Theology crucial adversary to right-wing
governments during 1970s and 1980s

• Archbishop Os...
In Depth Glimpse into Guatemala

Important Historical  Religious
Moments in Guatemala
History of religion in Guatemala
16thcentury to Present
• Spain begins expeditions in 1519
• Bartolome De Las Casas in 153...
Frederick Crowe
• British Protestant missionaries
from Belize

• Arrives in 1843 and begins a
school

• Lorenzo Montufer

...
Justo Rufino Barrios elected President in 1873
• Declaration of Liberty of Worship
• Escorted in Presbyterian missionary J...
1960 – Guatemala entered a Civil War that lasted until 1996
1970s  1980s – Civil War continued. Thousands lost their lives...
Current Religious Condition
14 million live in Guatemala
50%-60%
Catholic
40%
Protestant
1%
Indigenous faith

Present obst...
Major Movements in the
Guatemalan Church
Early Missionary Work
✟Early Spaniards entered Latin America
destroying pagan temples, idols, public rites
in the name of ...
Catholicism in Spanish America
Nineteenth Century brought multiple attempts to restore Church hierarchy
in Spanish America...
Protestant Efforts

Catholicism enjoyed relatively short lived dominance in
Guatemala as liberalism grew

 Rufino Barrios ...
Protestantism
Formally Reintroduced

1884: President Barrios invited missionary John C. Hill to
Guatemala from Presbyteria...
Church and State
20th Century brought further debate between church and state
1945: Guatemalan Constitution banned Church ...
Civil War
1954: Liberalism overthrown by military coup, in part supported by US government
50 years of civil war, tens of ...
Poverty, Culture
 Social Evangelism
Bringing hope to a broken and unforgotten
Guatemala
•
•
•
•
•

THE PEOPLE
Culture a combination of Mayan and Spanish colonial heritage.
Vast diversity of ethnicities 21 diffe...
THE SITUATION
• In 1996, emerged from a 36-year-long civil
war.

• The ―dry corridor,‖ 54,000 go hungry daily.
• Chronic h...
Bibliography
 Guatemala Slides: Early Missionary Work, Catholicism, Protestant Efforts  Reintroduced, Church and

State, C...
Bibliography
Slides about TupacAmaru II, Independence, Liberation Theology (Created by Sarah Merchant)
• Charlip, Julie A....
Liberation Theology

Nativity mural at Batahola Norte Community Center in Managua, Nicaragua.
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Latin America: History of People and Religion from 16th Century to Present

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Latin America: History of People and Religion from 16th Century to Present

  1. 1. Latin America A glimpse into the work of God and the people from 16th Century to Present
  2. 2. The Tupac Line TupacAmaru (1545 – 1572): The Peruvian Inca state’s last native ruler TupacAmaru II (born José Gabriel Condorcanqui, 1742 – 1781): Peruvian leader of Indians in a revolt against the Spanish TupacKatari (born JuliánApasa Nina, c. 1750 – 1781): Leader in Bolivian struggles against the Spanish TupacAmaru I
  3. 3. TupacAmaru II Born José Gabriel Condorcanqui in 1742 Direct descendent of Incan ruler TupacAmaru Attended Jesuit school, held political position with influence Dissatisfied with rights of natives • Native Indians in forced labor • Inequitable trading and taxes imposed on Indians • Blamed the church as much as the government anti-colonial uprising in 1780 Led •Arriaga, Governor of Tintan executed • Indian rebels gain numbers, lose control TupacAmaru II beheaded 1781, revolt continued
  4. 4. Castas Definition: lineage/breed/race from Latin castus, or ―chaste,‖ pointing to lineage ―purity‖ A Spanish colonial concept, used of postConquest mixed races for social control People of mixed race were called ―castas‖ collectively De negro eindia, sale lobo ―From an African man and a native woman, a lobo is born.‖ Term based on the idea that character is related to Several categories existed: espanole* peninsular * criollo * indio* negro mestizo * mulatto * zambo birth Spanish state and Church exacted more taxes/tribute from people of ―lower‖ categories
  5. 5. Casta Paintings: PinturadeCastas Showed ―exoctic‖ racial combination in Spanish territories 16 paintings showing 16 combination Displayed the racial thought among the Spanish officials Spanish supremacy is the main theme Biased against Africans For officials socio-economic status depended on skin color and limpieza de sangre (purity of blood)
  6. 6. Small Pox in Latin America, 16th-17th Centuries What is small pox? How did it get to Latin America? • Airborne virus * thrives in dense communities * presents as pustules, which release infectious smallpox DNA into the air nearby surfaces when punctured * 12-day incubation period, by which point host’s either died or survived * others can become infected during incubation • Eurasian domestic animal infections crossed over humans * Europeans increasingly immune * smallpox thought to have arrived in the Americas in 1520 and spread via Incan roads * 60-94% of Incans wiped out from the time of smallpox’s arrival until 1618, with epidemics like typhus, influenza, diphtheria and measles
  7. 7. Evaluating Small Pox Then Now Why was the New World susceptible? What were the health and political • People coming to the New World had not domesticated their animals * viral animal infections had not yet had a chance to crossover to humans consequences? • European smallpox had devastated Incas before Pizarro’s arrival in 1526, killing the Incan emperor Huayna Capac and unleashing a civil war that distracted and weakened his successor, Atahuallpa.
  8. 8. Brief Case Study of the Guarani First Established Jesuit Community in Argentina 1609-1750s
  9. 9. Reducciones of 1609
  10. 10. ―In the World But Not of It‖ Hospitals Church Bow Arrow Literacy Handicraft Music Dance
  11. 11. Community Life
  12. 12. Political Strife and War 1750s King Ferdinand VI of Spain Portugal
  13. 13. Present-Day ―Idios‖ Guarani Community
  14. 14. Politics and Church during Independence in Latin American Countries Liberal or Conservative governments Roman Catholic Church • Colonial institution survived independence • Power: wealth, education, access • • • • Countries by date of independence Owned 80% of land in some provinces of New Spain Real wealth came from mortgages and interest collected Prestige from education and involvement in politics Masses had more contact with Church than officials Conflict between Catholic Church and Latin American Chiefs
  15. 15. Liberation Theology Vatican II Pastoral Constitution of the Church in the Modern World (1962-65) Latin American theologians developed a doctrine base on Luke 4:18-21 • ―We wish to personify the Christ of a poor and hungry people.‖ Pope Paul Bishops prioritized social justice, inform masses Christian Base Communities Priests joined the government • Sandinista government in Nicaragua improve quality of life due to religious influence
  16. 16. Liberation Theology in Action Theology crucial adversary to right-wing governments during 1970s and 1980s • Archbishop Oscar Romero: El Salvador • Brazil: (1968-1978) 120 bishops, priests, and nuns arrested, 300 Catholic lay workers, too Not all leaders in Catholic church approved Archbishop Oscar Romero
  17. 17. In Depth Glimpse into Guatemala Important Historical Religious Moments in Guatemala
  18. 18. History of religion in Guatemala 16thcentury to Present • Spain begins expeditions in 1519 • Bartolome De Las Casas in 1537 • Dominican Friar • Personal transformation in 1514 • Success largely do to 1. Non coercive evangelism 2. Catholicism as an extension of other indigenous beliefs Guatemala gained her independence from Spain on Sept. 15, 1821
  19. 19. Frederick Crowe • British Protestant missionaries from Belize • Arrives in 1843 and begins a school • Lorenzo Montufer • Expelled in 1846 • Uphill battle for Protestants
  20. 20. Justo Rufino Barrios elected President in 1873 • Declaration of Liberty of Worship • Escorted in Presbyterian missionary John Carl Hill and encourages Protestant growth • 1937 Protestants made up 2% of Guatemala population While this opened the door Protestants still struggled in a predominantly Catholic nation.
  21. 21. 1960 – Guatemala entered a Civil War that lasted until 1996 1970s 1980s – Civil War continued. Thousands lost their lives due to a massive earthquake in 1976 Reasons for Protestant growth 1. Growing suspicion of government toward possible Catholic ties to guerilla Protestants seen as a more safe tradition. 2. Missionaries sent to give aid to those suffering from the violence of the civial war and earthquake. 1990s – Civil war ended in 1996 and brought a more stable government.
  22. 22. Current Religious Condition 14 million live in Guatemala 50%-60% Catholic 40% Protestant 1% Indigenous faith Present obstacles to Protestant Evangelism 1. Rural Indian populations 2. Syncretism – combining Christianity with Indigenous faith 3. Drug, Alcohol, and Violence 4. Lack of Biblical teaching
  23. 23. Major Movements in the Guatemalan Church
  24. 24. Early Missionary Work ✟Early Spaniards entered Latin America destroying pagan temples, idols, public rites in the name of Christ ✟Indians embraced a mixed religiosity— Christianity mixed with native traditions as reflected in sacred art, feasts, and processions ✟Led to Mayan resistance to Christianity and desire for Independence Guatemala Procession 1978 © Betty LaDuke
  25. 25. Catholicism in Spanish America Nineteenth Century brought multiple attempts to restore Church hierarchy in Spanish America Catholic Church assumed a privileged status, prohibited all other faiths 1852: Concordat signed by Cardinal-Secretary Antonelli and de Lorenzana and ratified by president Carrera recognizing Roman Catholicism as State religion of Guatemala, first in Latin America Vatican I: Efforts made to better connect Latin American Church to Rome, local power granted in making church appointments
  26. 26. Protestant Efforts Catholicism enjoyed relatively short lived dominance in Guatemala as liberalism grew Rufino Barrios became Guatemalan President in 1873 Justo Anti-clerical and liberal agenda: expelled religious orders, closed convents, secularized cemeteries and established civil marriage, Churches not allowed to own property, promoted public education, encouraged immigration Thought Protestants would bring liberal ideas to Guatemala and help to weaken Catholicism in country 1879: New constitution formally incorporated Barrios’ anticlerical reform Santiago Atitlan
  27. 27. Protestantism Formally Reintroduced 1884: President Barrios invited missionary John C. Hill to Guatemala from Presbyterian Board of Missions in NYC, organized first Presbyterian church in Guatemala, ironically President Barrios made land adjacent to presidential palace available 1899: Central American Mission entered Guatemala, known as a radical dispensationalist movement based out of Texas, gave Central America a radical dispensationalist image
  28. 28. Church and State 20th Century brought further debate between church and state 1945: Guatemalan Constitution banned Church involvement in labor organizations 1955: Ban lifted but most of Latin America under conservative military rule fearing that Liberation Theologians too much like Communists Pentecostalism rose, in 1982 leader Efrain Rios Montt overthrew the Guatemalan government and ruled with an emphasis on individual responsibility and ―Christian ideals‖
  29. 29. Civil War 1954: Liberalism overthrown by military coup, in part supported by US government 50 years of civil war, tens of thousands killed including Indian towns and villages, Indian genocide 1980’s Catholic priests and others working for social justice in Guatemala were violently forced out of country during the era of President Montt(a Pentecostalist) which coincided with American televangelist movement Traditional Mayan culture and Catholic influence were all but eliminated in an effort to replace with religious culture of the televangelists in the American Bible Belt Guatemala today continues to pick up the pieces but is nearly split down the middle of Protestants and Catholics
  30. 30. Poverty, Culture Social Evangelism Bringing hope to a broken and unforgotten Guatemala
  31. 31. • • • • • THE PEOPLE Culture a combination of Mayan and Spanish colonial heritage. Vast diversity of ethnicities 21 different languages. Indigenous traditional, religious and social customs. Industry rich tradition of textiles and handcrafts. 52 percent of the population is engaged in agricultural work
  32. 32. THE SITUATION • In 1996, emerged from a 36-year-long civil war. • The ―dry corridor,‖ 54,000 go hungry daily. • Chronic hunger for children (49.8%) highest in the region and the fourth highest in the world. • 75 %fall below poverty line. • Illiteracy, infant maternal mortality and starvation are the highest in this region. • Infectious diseases complicate the problem.
  33. 33. Bibliography Guatemala Slides: Early Missionary Work, Catholicism, Protestant Efforts Reintroduced, Church and State, Civil War (Created by Eileen Gathman) • Cook, Guillermo, ed. New Face of the Church in Latin America.Orbis Books: NY, 1994. • Gonzales, Justo L. and Ondina E. Gonzales. Christianity in Latin America. Cambridge: NY, 2008. • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity.Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, 1999. • Koschorke, Klaus, Frieder Ludwig, Mariano Delgado, ed. A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1450• 1990.Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, 2007. Norma, Edward. Christianity in the Southern Hemisphere. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1981. Guatemala Slides: History of Religion, Crowe, Barrios, 20th Century events, current statistics (Created by Aaron Strietzel) • Cook, Guatemala Slides: Poverty, Culture and Social Evangelism (Created by Oscar Merlo) • Vargas, Carlos. Dreams are Cheap: Paying the Price and Leading with Passion.PuntoCreativo: Zacapa, Guatemala 2013 • www.unicef.org • www.hopeoflifeintl.org
  34. 34. Bibliography Slides about TupacAmaru II, Independence, Liberation Theology (Created by Sarah Merchant) • Charlip, Julie A. and E. Bradford Burns. Latin America And Interpretive History 9th Ed. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2011. • Holloway, Thomas H. A Companion to Latin American History. Edited by TH Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. • Koschorke, Klaus, Frieder Ludwig and Mariano Delgado. A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1450-1990: • A Documentary Sourcebook. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007. Lamothe, Matthew R. While the English colonies fought for independence, TupacAmaru waged a people's war in Peru. Military History 19, no. 4 (October 2002): 74. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 1, 2013). Slides about Tupac Lineage, Small Pox,Castas (Researched by Maggie Sullivan, created by Sarah Merchant) • Enter Here Slides about Guarani(Created by Mike Basile) • Enter here
  35. 35. Liberation Theology Nativity mural at Batahola Norte Community Center in Managua, Nicaragua.

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