All humans were naturally selfish andAll humans were naturally selfish andwicked, therefore governments mustwicked, therefore governments mustkeep order.keep order. People should hand over their rightsPeople should hand over their rightsto a strong ruler. This was whatto a strong ruler. This was whatHobbes called aHobbes called a social contractsocial contract.. Strong ruler should have total powerStrong ruler should have total power(an absolute monarchy).(an absolute monarchy). This powerful government withThis powerful government withawesome power is what he called aawesome power is what he called aleviathan (sea monster) therefore heleviathan (sea monster) therefore hetitled his booktitled his book LeviathanLeviathan (1651).(1651).Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes
John LockeJohn Locke People were reasonablePeople were reasonable(though still selfish) and had(though still selfish) and hadthe natural rights to life, liberty,the natural rights to life, liberty,and property.and property. Purpose of government is toPurpose of government is toprotect these natural rights.protect these natural rights. Government power comesGovernment power comesfrom the consent of thefrom the consent of thepeople.people.
VoltaireVoltaire Wrote more than 70 books ofWrote more than 70 books ofpolitical essays, philosophy,political essays, philosophy,and drama.and drama. Used satire against hisUsed satire against hisenemies, especially theenemies, especially theclergy.clergy. Beliefs:Beliefs: ToleranceTolerance ReasonReason Freedom of religious beliefFreedom of religious belief Freedom of speechFreedom of speech ““I do not agree with a word youI do not agree with a word yousay but will defend to the deathsay but will defend to the deathyour right to say it.”your right to say it.”
MontesqieuMontesqieu Believed Britain was theBelieved Britain was thebest-governed and mostbest-governed and mostpolitically balanced countrypolitically balanced countryof his own day.of his own day. Proposed the “separationProposed the “separationof powers” betweenof powers” betweenexecutive, legislative, andexecutive, legislative, andjudicial branches ofjudicial branches ofgovernment.government. Proposed “checks andProposed “checks andbalances.”balances.”
Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau PassionatelyPassionatelycommitted tocommitted toindividual freedom.individual freedom. Believed man wasBelieved man wasborn free and goodborn free and goodbut easily corrupted.but easily corrupted. Believed the onlyBelieved the onlygood government wasgood government wasthe “general will” orthe “general will” ordirect democracy.direct democracy.
Cesare Bonesana BeccariaCesare Bonesana Beccaria BeliefsBeliefs Laws existed to preserveLaws existed to preservesocial order, not avengesocial order, not avengecrime.crime. Accused should receiveAccused should receivespeedy trials.speedy trials. Torture should never be used.Torture should never be used. Degree of punishment shouldDegree of punishment shouldmatch seriousness of crime.match seriousness of crime. Capital punishment (deathCapital punishment (deathpenalty) should be abolished.penalty) should be abolished.
Mary WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft Women should be equallyWomen should be equallyeducated along with men.educated along with men. Women should enterWomen should enterprofessions traditionallyprofessions traditionallydominated by men likedominated by men likemedicine and politics.medicine and politics. WroteWrote A Vindication ofA Vindication ofthe Rights of Womanthe Rights of Woman
Mary ShelleyMary Shelley Daughter of MaryDaughter of MaryWollstonecraft.Wollstonecraft. Mistress and laterMistress and laterwife of poet Percywife of poet PercyBysshe Shelley.Bysshe Shelley. Author ofAuthor ofFrankensteinFrankenstein in thein thesummer of 1816,summer of 1816,Later published inLater published in1818.1818.
Frivolous But InterestingFrivolous But InterestingInformationInformation
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) The Shelley’s (MaryThe Shelley’s (MaryWollstonecraft GodwinWollstonecraft Godwincalling herself Mary Shelleycalling herself Mary Shelleythough she is not yet marriedthough she is not yet marriedto Percy) spend the summerto Percy) spend the summerwith Lord Byron at his villa bywith Lord Byron at his villa byLake Geneva in Switzerland.Lake Geneva in Switzerland. The weather being too coldThe weather being too coldto carry out normal summerto carry out normal summeractivities, the group resideactivities, the group resideindoors staying up all night inindoors staying up all night inintellectual discussions. Theyintellectual discussions. Theyoften sit around the fireoften sit around the firereading German ghostreading German ghoststories.stories.Illustration from the 1831 edition.
Climate and the writing ofClimate and the writing ofFrankensteinFrankenstein (continued)(continued) Lord Byron suggests thatLord Byron suggests thatto entertain themselvesto entertain themselvesindoors each of themindoors each of themwrite his or her ownwrite his or her ownsupernatural tale.supernatural tale. During this time MaryDuring this time MaryGodwin conceived of theGodwin conceived of theidea foridea for FrankensteinFrankenstein.. Therefore, being shut inTherefore, being shut indue to the weatherdue to the weathercaused by a volcaniccaused by a volcanicwinter brought about thewinter brought about theoccasion of the writing ofoccasion of the writing ofthis famous novel.this famous novel.Boris Karloff as the Monster in1931.