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Colonial america

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Colonial america

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Colonial america

  1. 1. Colonial America, 1492-1763 AD
  2. 2. Europe, c. 1450-1600 What were these events and how did they impact the European colonization of America? • Development of nation-states • The Renaissance • The Age of Exploration • The Reformation • The Scientific Revolution
  3. 3. Europe, c. 1450-1600 • New nation-states – modern warfare demands new revenue  alliance with merchants, national identity and purpose • Renaissance – new knowledge and rising standard of living • Age of Exploration – new knowledge, new products, profit from new trade routes and European conquest of foreign lands
  4. 4. Europe, c. 1450-1600 • The Reformation – defiance of traditional authority, self-reliance, religious fervor • Scientific Revolution – questioning traditional authority, curiosity, new philosophical approaches to life
  5. 5. Q: Why did Columbus sail? A: “Gold, glory, and God.”
  6. 6. Map of the World from an 1482 edition of Claudius Ptolemy's Cosmographia
  7. 7. 1) First use of America on map, after explorer Amerigo Vespucci. 2) The Pacific not confirmed until six years after map made. 3) Old World shown as the ancients saw it. 4) New eastern sea route to India. 5) The legendary island of Taprobane. 6) Reference to legendary king Prester John. Waldseemuller map of 1507
  8. 8. August 10, 1519 – September 6, 1521 1,121 days 26,928 hours
  9. 9. Voyages of European Exploration
  10. 10. Four Colonial Subcultures 1. Chesapeake (Virginia, Maryland) 2. New England (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine) 3. Middle Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware) 4. Southern Colonies (The Carolinas, Georgia)
  11. 11. The Northern (New England) Colonies : Geography: Cultural Adaptations : Rocky Soil Lots of harbors Shorter Growing Season Small farms (family) Cities Fishing/ Shipbuilding Churches Schools Businesses Town Mtgs
  12. 12. The Southern Colonies Geography: Cultural Adaptations Fertile Soil Few harbors Longer summers Large Farms/ Spread out on land Slavery Cash Crops Fewer Cities, Churches, & Schools
  13. 13. Early Colonial Tobacco 1618: VA produces 20,000 lbs. of tobacco 1622: 60,000 lbs. 1627: 500,000 lbs. 1629: 1,500,000 lbs.
  14. 14. Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710
  15. 15. Virginia House of Burgesses • First European legislative body in New World • Jamestown, VA, 1619 • Establishes tradition of colonial self-government • Later produced many leaders of Revolutionary era
  16. 16. Colonization of Maryland • Est. by George Calvert, Lord Baltimore in 1632 • Provided religious freedom for English Catholics
  17. 17. English Migration: 1610-1660
  18. 18. Reasons for European Migration in 1600s
  19. 19. The Atlantic Slave Trade, 1619-1760
  20. 20. Goods Traded with Africa
  21. 21. • 1600s – about 1000 Africans per year • 1700s - 5.5 million transported to the Americas • By 1860 - 11 million • Before 1831, more Africans than Europeans came to the Americas
  22. 22. Four Colonial Subcultures 1. Chesapeake  2. New England  3. Middle Colonies  4. Southern Colonies 
  23. 23. New England Colonies : Geography: Cultural Adaptations : Rocky Soil Lots of harbors Shorter Growing Season Small farms (family) Cities Fishing/ Shipbuilding Churches Schools Businesses Town Mtgs
  24. 24. Plymouth, MA, 1620 • Puritan Pilgrim Separatists on Mayflower • Mayflower Compact – William Bradford = first governing document
  25. 25. Boston: “A City on a Hill” • Puritan theocratic city-state = “beacon of righteousness” to the world • 1630-1640—16,000 immigrated, usually as families • Church attendance required but membership not automatic; all adult male church members could vote
  26. 26. New England Spreads Out 1636: Roger Williams and Anne Hutichinson  Rhode Island 1639: Thomas Hooker  Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  27. 27. New England Colonies, 1650
  28. 28. Vs. Native Americans 1636-1639: Pequot War 1675-78: King Philip’s War vs. Metacom
  29. 29. Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality  life expectancy about 70 Large, extended families; avg. 6 children per family. Avg. age at marriage:  Women – 22 years old  Men – 27 years old.
  30. 30. Population of the New England Colonies
  31. 31. Population Comparisons: New England v. Chesapeake
  32. 32. The Middle Colonies • New York • New Jersey • Pennsylvania • Delaware
  33. 33. Ethnically diverse: • English • Swedes • Dutch • Germans • Scots-Irish • French • Iroquois • African slaves
  34. 34. Iroquois Confederacy: • Western New York • Defense league • Mohawk • Oneida • Onondaga • Cayuga • Seneca
  35. 35. Religiously diverse: • Anglicans • Quakers • Mennonites • Lutherans • Calvinists and Presbyterians
  36. 36. “Breadbasket of the colonies”
  37. 37. New Netherland • Henry Hudson • New Amsterdam • Peter Stuyvesant • 1664 = New York
  38. 38. New York Manors & Land Grants Patroonships
  39. 39. Duke of York’s Original Charter
  40. 40. Pennsylvania • William Penn for English Quakers • Philadelphia = “City of Brotherly Love”
  41. 41. The Southern Colonies
  42. 42. Port of Charles Town, SC Busiest port in South Aristocratic feel Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants
  43. 43. Rice & Indigo Exports from SC & GA: 1698-1775
  44. 44. The Emergence of North Carolina • VA = aristocratic planters and Church of England • Dissenters moved south to Carolina  Poor farmers, little need for slaves  Religious dissenters • Early North Carolinians:  Strong resistance to authority, hospitable to pirates  Irreligious • 1712  NC officially separated from SC
  45. 45. Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony
  46. 46. Urban Population Growth 1650 - 1775
  47. 47. Provincial Cities • Only ~ 5% of pop! • Five largest cities: 1. Boston, MA 2. Newport, RI 3. New York, NY 4. Philadelphia, PA 5. Charles Town, SC • Economies = commerce, not manufacturing • English culture, fashion, and architecture
  48. 48. Distribution of Immigrants  1700-1750: colonial pop. from 250,000 to 2 m.+
  49. 49. North America in 1750
  50. 50. Seven Years’ War, 1756–1763
  51. 51. North America in 1763

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