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The New Imperialism

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Introductory overview of imperialism; the new imperialism

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The New Imperialism

  1. 1. The New Imperialism, 1870s-1914 Fake propaganda poster from the 21st century that nevertheless embodies the spirit of imperialism.
  2. 2. Introduction to Imperialism • Imperialism = extension of a nation’s power over foreign peoples and lands • Age of Exploration (1492 AD)  first European overseas empires = control of key coastal trade ports and limited political and social influence
  3. 3. Introduction to Imperialism • 1860s-1914  “New Imperialism” = extended Europe and the United States' global influence and increased contact with non- European peoples. • Empires moved inland into continental interiors, subjugated indigenous peoples, imposed Western law and culture, and exploited resources.
  4. 4. Introduction to Imperialism By the early 1900s, Europe & former European colonies controlled 85% of Earth
  5. 5. Introduction to Imperialism Major reasons for New Imperialism: 1. Demands of industrial economies 2. Nationalism and militarism 3. Social Darwinism and the “White Man’s Burden” 60 million Indians under British rule starved to death in famines when they were forced to grow cash crops like cotton rather than food.
  6. 6. Industrial economies • Industrial Revolution  European economy  • Factory production  manufacturing exceeding demand  surplus of cheap goods  need for new consumers  new consumer markets in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  7. 7. Industrial economies • Need for raw materials to feed industrial factories (metals and minerals like copper and tin, tropical crops such as rubber and palm oil, diamonds, etc.) The population of Belgian Congo was enslaved to harvest rubber. Many were mutilated and up to 10 million died.
  8. 8. Industrial economies • Agricultural Revolution  excess population  urban crowding in Europe  European migration to Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia
  9. 9. Industrial economies • Industrial technologies were used to expand empires and increase imperial control.
  10. 10. Industrial technologies: Transportation • Steamships and railroads connected imperial capitals to colonies
  11. 11. Industrial technologies: Communication • Telegraph lines allowed global communication “The Colossus of Rhodes” – British imperialist Cecil Rhodes stretches a telegraph line “From Cape to Cairo”
  12. 12. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • Breech-loading rifles like the Prussian Dreyse needle gun (1841) allowed rapid rate of fire. • Claude-Étienne Minié's muzzle-loading high- velocity conical point bullet (1847) cut straight through bodies and shattered bone. "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN.” - Gen. Jacob H. Smith during the US occupation of the Philippine Islands
  13. 13. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • Henry Stanley took 600 rounds/minute Maxim machine gun to "darkest Africa" (1889). 5000 Matabele warriors were defeated by 50 British South African Police armed with four Maxims (1893).
  14. 14. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • British Indian Dum Dum arsenal made the expanding bullet (1896). It was ruled "too inhumane" at the Hague Convention (1899). A Soldier wounded in World War I by a Dum Dum round
  15. 15. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • German Krupp Big Bertha howitzer cannon (1900) fired an 1800-pound shell up to 9 miles.
  16. 16. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • British HMS Dreadnought (1906) was a revolutionary battleship. The American “Great White Fleet”, 1907
  17. 17. Industrial technologies: military weaponry • British Indians and French North Africans supplied military manpower. British soldiers from Panjab, India in France, 1917 French soldier from Senegal
  18. 18. Industrial technologies: tropical medicine • Medical advances defeated previously debilitating tropical disease: quinine was given as a prophylactic tonic to combat malaria (1850). • British Patrick Manson connected mosquitoes to disease (1877). American Walter Reed fought yellow fever (1900).
  19. 19. Nationalism and Militarism • After French Revolution, allegiance to monarch < allegiance to nation • Economic prosperity of middle and lower classes of Europe  increased political influence  greater interest in their nation- state’s success over neighboring nation-states  intense rivalries between European nations
  20. 20. Political caricature map of the countries of Europe, known as the Octopus Map from the brooding presence of the Russian Empire depicted as a massive octopus, whose tentacles stretch out towards Europe. China is shown in the grasp of Russia, as is Persia and Poland. France and Spain are attractive women, while Germany, Italy and England are military commanders.
  21. 21. Nationalism and Militarism • Colonies  To grow national prestige and gain advantage over rival imperial nations. • Wealth of colonies increased standard of living in Europe European diplomats partitioned Africa at the Berlin Conference, 1884-1885
  22. 22. Nationalism and militarism • Major improvements to weaponry  itch to flex new military might  Militarism • National Militarism: Wilhelm II's Weltpolitik foreign policy (1891) demanded Germany take its "place in the sun" through aggressive diplomacy, overseas colonies, and a powerful navy.
  23. 23. Nationalism and militarism • Military & naval bases & fuel depots for ocean steamships. Gunboat diplomacy won Indochina for France (1893) and Zanzibar for Britain (1896). • “Great Game” = whichever European nation had most imperial possessions would “win” Political cartoon of US President Theodore Roosevelt using “gunboat diplomacy” to keep European powers out of the Dominican Republic.
  24. 24. Nationalism and militarism Major Powers: • Britain • France • Germany • United States • Russia British Empire in 1914
  25. 25. Nationalism and militarism Major Powers: • Britain • France • Germany • United States • Russia French Empire in 1914
  26. 26. Nationalism and militarism Major Powers: • Britain • France • Germany • United States • Russia German Empire in 1914
  27. 27. Nationalism and militarism Major Powers: • Britain • France • Germany • United States • Russia
  28. 28. Nationalism and militarism Major Powers: • Britain • France • Germany • United States • Russia Russian Empire in 1914
  29. 29. Belgian Empire in 1914 Nationalism and militarism Minor Powers: • Belgium • Portugal • Spain • Netherlands (Dutch)
  30. 30. Nationalism and militarism Minor Powers: • Belgium • Portugal • Spain • Netherlands (Dutch) Portuguese Empire in the 20th century
  31. 31. Nationalism and militarism Minor Powers: • Belgium • Portugal • Spain • Netherlands (Dutch) Spanish Empire in 1898. By this time, the empire was a fraction of its greatest size.
  32. 32. Nationalism and militarism Minor Powers: • Belgium • Portugal • Spain • Netherlands (Dutch) Global areas controlled by the Netherlands at some point between 1598 and 1945.
  33. 33. White Man’s Burden • Social Darwinism = applied Darwin’s ideas to human societies • European nation- states were competing with one another and they believed the fittest nation-state would survive
  34. 34. White Man’s Burden • Europeans falsely believed technological superiority = proof of racial, social, intellectual, cultural, and spiritual superiority
  35. 35. White Man’s Burden • Believed European civilization = more evolved  ideal towards which all other peoples should aspire Paris, France, 1900
  36. 36. White Man’s Burden • Enlightenment views of progress believed civilizations evolve through stages to a superior capitalist, urban society. • "Backwards" people were incapable of this stage needed guidance or extermination.
  37. 37. White Man’s Burden • Native Americans, sub-Saharan Africans, Asian hunters, fishers, and nomadic herdsmen were considered "savage" societies living by laws of nature without higher law, learning, religion, or morals.
  38. 38. White Man’s Burden • British colonists exterminated Tasmanian aborigines in the Black War (1825–1832).
  39. 39. White Man’s Burden • Germans conducted genocide of Herero and Nama natives of Southwest Africa (1904-7).
  40. 40. White Man’s Burden • Orientalists studied Asian cultures. Persia, India, and China were seen as roughly on par with Europe in the 1600-1700s but were incapable of more progress.
  41. 41. White Man’s Burden • Europeans and Americans had a duty to “civilize” less evolved “primitive” peoples  save Africans, Asians, and Native Americans from “ignorance, paganism, poverty, filth, and general ‘backwardness’”
  42. 42. White Man’s Burden • British Rudyard Kipling (Jungle Book, 1894; Kim, 1901) wrote "White Man's Burden" (1899) cheering on the American civilizing mission in the Philippine Islands.
  43. 43. American Missionaries in China, 1905
  44. 44. Christian missionary zeal • European belief in superiority of Christianity to other religions  missionary call for Europeans to convert “heathens” • Especially true of Protestant Great Britain and United States
  45. 45. Christian missionary zeal • British missionary David Livingstone disappeared exploring southern Africa's interior. NY Herald reporter Henry Stanley greeted him (1873) with "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
  46. 46. Types of Colonies • Direct = ruled by officials from homeland  turn into province (France)
  47. 47. Types of Colonies • Indirect = use local rulers  educate elite children  transform to homeland’s style (Britain)
  48. 48. Types of Colonies • Protectorate = local rulers left to follow imperial advisors British soldiers in Egypt sent to protect the Suez Canal, 1882
  49. 49. Types of Colonies • Sphere of Influence = exclusive trading privileges for imperial power (Europeans in China, US in Latin America)

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