Information Processing


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A Recap of Open and Closed Loop Information Processing for AS Level Students

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Information Processing

  1. 1. A-Level Revision sessions<br />Mondays 3.15 – 4.15pm<br />LS10<br />Miss Bowe<br />
  2. 2. Last week<br /><ul><li>Concluded Anatomy and Physiology topics
  3. 3. Looked at different ways to revise
  4. 4. Designed own revision games
  5. 5. Looked at Acquisition of Skill topics</li></li></ul><li>This week<br />Aim:<br />To learn about the way in which information is processed within the brain and reacted toTopic:<br />Information Processing<br />
  6. 6. Information processing <br />When performing a skill, <br />many decisions must be made. <br />e.g. an overhead clear in badminton, we must decide … <br /><ul><li>where to aim the shot
  7. 7. how hard to hit it
  8. 8. where to position ourselves afterwards </li></li></ul><li>Information processing <br />The decision making process is as shown below<br />
  9. 9. The theories<br />There are two theories for information processing/motor control<br /><ul><li>The Open Loop Theory
  10. 10. The Closed Loop Theory</li></ul>TASK (8 minutes)<br />Using flipchart paper see what you can remember?<br />
  11. 11. Open loop theory<br /><ul><li>Decisions are made in the brain
  12. 12. All information for one movement is sent in a single message
  13. 13. The muscle receive the message and perform the movement
  14. 14. Feedback doesn't control or effect the action
  15. 15. Examples are …
  16. 16. fast continuous movements (e.g. a golf swing)</li></li></ul><li>Closed loop theory<br /><ul><li>Decisions are made in the brain
  17. 17. Not all of the information is sent together
  18. 18. Information is received by the muscles to initiate the movement
  19. 19. Feedback is always available and is vital to correct movement patterns and adjust to changing needs
  20. 20. Examples are … slow movements but not fast movements</li></li></ul><li>Closed loop theory<br />
  21. 21. Response time<br />What is your definition of response time?<br />A persons ability to <br />take in<br />process information<br />make a decision<br />put this into action<br />
  22. 22. Sporting examples<br />TASK (60 seconds)describe an example from your sport<br />The first presentation <br />e.g. an unexpected shot in football<br />To the end of your reaction movement <br />e.g. the goalkeeper diving to save it<br />
  23. 23. Hick’s law<br />The more choices, the longer it takes make one and to respond<br />
  24. 24. Other factors<br />TASK (5seconds)what other factors affect response time?<br />Choose a card and let the others guess your factor<br /><ul><li>Act it out
  25. 25. Charades
  26. 26. Mime
  27. 27. Medium of dance</li></li></ul><li>Age<br />Reaction time speeds up as we develop through childhood and into adulthood, to an optimal point where it then deteriorates again<br />
  28. 28. gender<br />Males tend to have a faster response time than females, although this deteriorates more rapidly in old age.<br />
  29. 29. Presentation and intensity of stimulus<br />The stronger the stimulus the faster the reaction <br />Easier to focus and select an action if the stimuli stands out<br />from the irrelevant information<br />
  30. 30. EXpertise<br />The ability to use past experiences to select the correct reaction speeds up the response time<br />
  31. 31. Familiar stimuli<br />If the stimulus is expected then the reaction is quicker<br />than if it is unexpected. <br />e.g. a goalkeepers reaction to a penalty will be faster than their reaction to an unexpected shot<br />
  32. 32. anticipation<br />When movements required for the reaction are prepared and<br />began before the stimulus occurs. <br />This is known as spatial anticipation.<br />e.g. false start by a sprinterthey were anticipating the gun andthe motor programme began too early!<br />
  33. 33. Psychological refractory period<br />Adelay in response to a second stimuli which comes<br />in close succession to the last. <br />e.g.<br />a dummy or fake movement like a spin<br />works to put the defender<br />off as they initiate a response which they <br />must stop and correct<br />