Info processing lesson 1


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Info processing lesson 1

  1. 1. Information Processing Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  2. 2. Key Concept Each individual has their own capacity to learn via their information processing systems. Many factors affect how people learn, their capacity to learn and ultimately their potential for performance. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  3. 3. Humans as information processors In order for an athlete to perform a skilled movement, they must accept information from the environment and attempt to analyse it. Following that analysis, the brain can decide on the correct course of action. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  4. 4. Example When Lleyton Hewitt is forces wide on the forehand side, he must analyse the flight and spin on the incoming ball, as well as his opponent’s court position, prior to formulating a motor program that will allow him to hit a cross-court forehand back to his opponent. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  5. 5. The four mechanisms Regardless of which stage of learning an athlete is in, there are four recognised mechanisms involved in processing and learning a physical skill. Each mechanism involves analysis and interpretation of information in an effort to produce a skilled performance. 1. Input - received via the senses 2. Information processing 3. Output - produced by the muscles 4. Feedback Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  6. 6. Humans as information processors There is a lot of information to process and individual ability to learn can depend on: Physical maturation Physical fitness capability Attention and motivation while learning Feedback Memory Amount and type of practice Perceptual ability Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  7. 7. Humans as information processors Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  8. 8. Physical maturation As children grow physically and develop, their bodies are capable of more coordinated and refined movements. Therefore, performance will improve with the appropriate level of physical maturity. Coaches and parents need to allow for physical differences Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  9. 9. Physical fitness capability Development of fitness increases the learner’s ability to perform and therefore to learn. Increased muscular power in the shoulder region for example, will enable the learner to practice and perform a jump shot in basketball more effectively. Greater fitness and endurance will also enable the learner to practice for longer, leading to more effective practice and skill learning. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  10. 10. Attention and motivation while learning The more attentive and motivated the learner is, the greater his or her ability to learn skills will be. Younger children have a shorter attention span than older children, resulting in reduced ability to concentrate. This obviously affects what and how much the beginner can learn. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  11. 11. Feedback Information concerning performance, especially while learning, is vital for improvement. Feedback gives specific information about wrong judgement or incorrect technique. It also offers solutions and new approaches, reinforcing learning and providing motivation for the performer. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  12. 12. Amount and type of practice A learner must physically an mentally practice skills. Practice provides an improved understanding of the skill, as well as improving performance. Studies conducted by the AIS found that world-class team-sport athletes who had early exposure to a wide range of sports prior to specialising in their chosen sport required fewer hours of practice to achieve national selection in their chosen sport. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  13. 13. Perceptual Ability Information from your senses allows your body to construct a program to enable performance of a skill. The ability to interpret or perceive the sensory information is vital to learning and successfully performing that skill. Example; a tennis player must observe the speed and direction of a tennis ball to move appropriately to return the ball. The player’s ability to anticipate opposition or team mates’ movements during a game is heightened with experience. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  14. 14. Test your understanding Name the four main components that comprise the human information processing system. List the seven individual factors that determine the rate of human learning. Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  15. 15. Apply your understanding Examine the usual order of the four main components that comprise the human information processing system. Why is this the best order? Why is feedback given as the last of the four components? Could it be second or third? Under what circumstances could it be anywhere but fourth? Tuesday, 3 September 2013
  16. 16. Extend your understanding Choose a learning situation from a sport of your choice, eg; the first time you tried to jump the high jump or complete a golf shot, go surfing or skateboarding or skiing. etc.. List the physical steps you followed to learn the skill. What types of practice did you complete to learn the skill? Did you learn the skill quickly? Why? Tuesday, 3 September 2013